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    September 30    Scripture

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    Butter Butter. It is generally agreed among Bible scholars, that in most of the cases where the word "butter" appears in our generally used translation, it does not mean the kind of butter known by the Westerner, but rather curdled milk or "leben." There are two passages that do refer to butter, but even that is in a different form from that used by those people who live outside the Orient. The first passage mentions "butter of kine" (Deuteronomy 32:14), and the second refers to the process of making butter, "the churning of milk bringeth forth butter" (Proverbs 30:33). The Bible-time method of making butter was doubtless the same as used by the Arab Bedouins of today. Thomson describes the process and the resulting butter thus: What are those women kneading and shaking so zealously in that large black bag suspended from that tripod? That is a bottle not a bag, made by stripping off the skin of a young buffalo. It is full of milk and that is their method of churning. When the butter has come they take it out, and boil it, and then put it in bottles made of goatskins. In winter it resembles candied honey, in summer it is like oil. That is the only kind of butter they have in this country. Concerning the passage in Proverbs (30:33), "Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter, and the wringing of the nose bringeth forth blood," Thomson calls attention to the fact, that the word churning, and the word for wringing are the same word in the Hebrew. He says: It is the wringing of milk that bringeth forth butter, just as these women are squeezing and wringing the milk in that skin bottle. There is no analogy between our mode of churning, and pulling a man's nose until the blood comes, but in this native operation the comparison is quite natural and emphatic. Buttermilk is not itself mentioned in the Bible, but it was without doubt used, because the process of churning, as has already been referred to, is mentioned. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Butter in Easton's Bible Dictionary (Heb. hemah), curdled milk (Gen. 18:8; Judg. 5:25; 2 Sam. 17:29), or butter in the form of the skim of hot milk or cream, called by the Arabs kaimak, a semi-fluid (Job 20:17; 29:6; Deut. 32:14). The words of Prov. 30:33 have been rendered by some "the pressure [not churning] of milk bringeth forth cheese."

    Butter in Fausset's Bible Dictionary cheme'ah, from an Arabic root meaning "coagulated." Curdled milk, curds, butter, and cheese (Judges 5:25; 2 Samuel 17:29). But the butter in the East is more fluid and less solid than ours. The milk is put in a whole goatskin bag, sewed up, and hung on a frame so as to swing to and fro. The fluidity explains Job 20:17, "brooks of honey and butter"; Job 29:6, "I washed my steps with butter." Isaiah 7:15; Isaiah 7:22, "butter and honey shall he eat": besides these being the usual food for children, and so in the case of the prophetess' child typifying the reality of Christ's humanity, which stooped to the ordinary food of infants, a state of distress over the land is implied, when through the invaders milk and honey, things produced spontaneously, should be the only abundant food. In Psalm 55:21 the present reading is properly "smooth are the butter-masses (i.e. sweetness) of his mouth." The Chaldee version translated as KJV Gesenius explains Proverbs 30:33, "the pressure (not 'churning') of milk bringeth forth cheese."

    Butter in Naves Topical Bible General scriptures concerning Ge 18:8; De 32:14; Jud 5:25; 2Sa 17:29; Job 20:17; Isa 7:15,22 -Made by churning Pr 30:33

    Butter in Smiths Bible Dictionary Curdled milk. Ge 18:8; De 32:14; Jud 5:25; Job 20:17 Milk is generally offered to travellers in Israel in a curdled or sour state, leben, thick, almost like butter. Hasselquist describes the method of making butter employed by the Arab women: "they made butter in a leather bag, hung on three poles erected for the purpose, in the form of a cone, and drawn to and fro by two women."

    Butter Scripture - 2 Samuel 17:29 And honey, and butter, and sheep, and cheese of kine, for David, and for the people that [were] with him, to eat: for they said, The people [is] hungry, and weary, and thirsty, in the wilderness.

    Butter Scripture - Deuteronomy 32:14 Butter of kine, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and thou didst drink the pure blood of the grape.

    Butter Scripture - Genesis 18:8 And he took butter, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set [it] before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat.

    Butter Scripture - Isaiah 7:15 Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good.

    Butter Scripture - Isaiah 7:22 And it shall come to pass, for the abundance of milk [that] they shall give he shall eat butter: for butter and honey shall every one eat that is left in the land.

    Butter Scripture - Job 20:17 He shall not see the rivers, the floods, the brooks of honey and butter.

    Butter Scripture - Job 29:6 When I washed my steps with butter, and the rock poured me out rivers of oil;

    Butter Scripture - Judges 5:25 He asked water, [and] she gave [him] milk; she brought forth butter in a lordly dish.

    Butter Scripture - Proverbs 30:33 Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter, and the wringing of the nose bringeth forth blood: so the forcing of wrath bringeth forth strife.

    Butter Scripture - Psalms 55:21 [The words] of his mouth were smoother than butter, but war [was] in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet [were] they drawn swords.

    Camel Products Various camel products. The Arab of today makes use of camel meat and camel milk. The Mosaic law forbade the Jews to use camel meat "because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you" (Leviticus 11:4). It is possible that they did use the milk, at least in patriarchal times (cf. Genesis 32:15). Camel's hair serves many purposes in the Orient. At the right season of the year it is removed in tufts and the women spin it into strong thread. Various coarse fabrics are made from this thread. The Bedouin tents are sometimes made of camel's hair, as are also carpets, rugs, "abayas" or the outer garments, and other items. Matthew says of John the Baptist that he "had his raiment of camel's hair" (Matthew 3:4). The camel's skin is made into leather and from this material are made sandals, leggings, and water bottles. Even the dung of camels is commonly used for fuel. .[Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Cheese Cheese. In Israel the Arabs are fond of cheese. It is convenient for them to take cheese along with them. Their cheese is somewhat like Western slices, only larger and thicker. They are about as thick as a man's hand. They are found stacked up in the markets. David's father gave him ten cheeses to take to the army captain (I Samuel 17:18). Also Barzillai brought cheese to King David (II Samuel 17:29). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Cheese in Easton's Bible Dictionary (A.S. cese). This word occurs three times in the Authorized Version as the translation of three different Hebrew words: (1.) 1 Sam. 17:18, "ten cheeses;" i.e., ten sections of curd. (2.) 2 Sam. 17:29, "cheese of kine" = perhaps curdled milk of kine. The Vulgate version reads "fat calves." (3.) Job 10:10, curdled milk is meant by the word.

    Cheese in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Job 10:10; 1 Samuel 17:18; 2 Samuel 17:29. The modern Arabs use either butter, or coagulated buttermilk dried so as to be hard. Our "butter" means in derivation "cheese of kine." In ancient Israel probably by "cheese" is meant milk compressed in cakes, salted, soft when new, but soon becoming hard and dry.

    Cheese in Naves Topical Bible General scriptures concerning 1Sa 17:18; 2Sa 17:29; Job 10:10

    Cheese in Smiths Bible Dictionary is mentioned only three times in the Bible, and on each occasion under a different name in the Hebrew. 1Sa 17:18; 2Sa 17:29; Job 10:10 It is difficult to decide how far these terms correspond with our notion of cheese, for they simply express various degrees of coagulation. Cheese is not at the present day common among the Bedouin Arabs, butter being decidedly preferred; but there is a substance closely corresponding to those mentioned in 1Sam 17, 2Sam 17, consisting of coagulated buttermilk, which is dried until it become quite hard, and is then ground; the Arabs eat it mixed with butter.

    Cheese Scripture - 2 Samuel 17:29 And honey, and butter, and sheep, and cheese of kine, for David, and for the people that [were] with him, to eat: for they said, The people [is] hungry, and weary, and thirsty, in the wilderness.

    Cheese Scripture - Job 10:10 Hast thou not poured me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese?

    Cows Milk-giving cows, sometimes called "milch kine," were in common use (I Samuel 6:7; Deuteronomy 32:14). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Egg in Easton's Bible Dictionary (Heb. beytsah, "whiteness"). Eggs deserted (Isa. 10:14), of a bird (Deut. 22:6), an ostrich (Job 39:14), the cockatrice (Isa. 59:5). In Luke 11:12, an egg is contrasted with a scorpion, which is said to be very like an egg in its appearance, so much so as to be with difficulty at times distinguished from it. In Job 6:6 ("the white of an egg") the word for egg (hallamuth') occurs nowhere else. It has been translated "purslain" (R.V. marg.), and the whole phrase "purslain-broth", i.e., broth made of that herb, proverbial for its insipidity; and hence an insipid discourse. Job applies this expression to the speech of Eliphaz as being insipid and dull. But the common rendering, "the white of an egg", may be satisfactorily maintained.

    Eggs EGGS Sometime between the days of Elijah and the time of CHRIST the domestic fowl and the everyday use of eggs was introduced into Israel.30 There would seem to be one early Old Testament reference to what might be the egg of a hen. It is Job 6:6: "Is there any taste in the white of an egg?" We know that the use of eggs, among the Galileans around the lake, was common in CHRIST's time, for JESUS speaks of a son asking for an egg from his father (Luke 11:12). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Eggs in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (betsah; oon; Latin ovum): An oval or spheroid body produced by birds, fishes and reptiles, from which their young emerge when incubated or naturally developed. The fertile egg of a bird consists of the yolk, a small disk from which the embryo develops, the albuminous white, and a calcareous shell. The most ancient records prove that eggs have been used as an article of diet ever since the use of the flesh of fowl began. Chickens were unknown in Israel in the days of Job, so that his query concerning the taste of the white of an egg might have referred to those of pigeons, ducks, eggs taken from the nests of geese or swans, game birds or ostriches. "Can that which hath no savor be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg?" (Job 6:6, the Revised Version, margin "the juice of purslain"). In Lk 11:12 there is every possibility that the egg of our common domestic fowl is referred to as "chickens" (which see) had been imported and were numerous in Israel at that time. "Or if he shall ask an egg, will he give him a scorpion?" The reference in Isa 59:5 is to the egg of a serpent, and is figurative of the schemes of evil men: "They hatch adders' eggs, and weave the spider's web: he that eateth of their eggs dieth; and that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper."

    Goat's Milk Use of goat's milk. The milk derived from goats is especially excellent and rich. Most of the "leben" used today and in Bible times is made from goat's milk. Buttermilk and cheese are also utilized as milk products. The book of Proverbs speaks of the importance of goat's milk to the Hebrew people: "Thou shalt have goat's milk enough for thy food, for the food of thy household, and for the maintenance of thy maidens" (Proverbs 27:27). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Milk DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk. Milk in Bible times was considered, not simply as something that was added to their food in cooking, but was regarded as a substantial food for all ages. Babies were fed mother's milk (Isaiah 28:9). The Hebrews not only used cow's milk, but also sheep's milk (Deuteronomy 32:14), goat's milk (Proverbs 27:27), and, no doubt, camel's milk (Genesis 32:15). The Promised Land was often called "a land flowing with milk and honey" (Exodus 3:8; 13:5; Joshua 5:6; Jeremiah 11:5). This would indicate that Israel's broad pasture lands would produce an abundance of milk. A form of milk that is in common use among the Arabs today is called by them "leben," which means, "white." It is like our sour milk curds. In order to make it, they pour milk in a dish and then put yeast in it, which starts it to working. They cover it over with a warm cloth, and after it sets for about a day it is ready to serve. The Arabs are very fond of it. They say of it, "It makes a sick man well." If they have money for only one dish, they would usually ask for leben. It was probably this "leben" that Abraham gave to his guests (Genesis 18:8), and also that Jael gave to Sisera (Judges 4:19; 5:25). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Milk and Cheese Milk. Milk from the sheep is especially rich, and in the Orient is considered to be of more value than that of the cattle. Milk is seldom drunk in its fresh condition, but rather is to made into "leben," or into cheese. Buttermilk is also much use. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Milk in Easton's Bible Dictionary (1.) Hebrew halabh, "new milk", milk in its fresh state (Judg. 4:19). It is frequently mentioned in connection with honey (Ex. 3:8; 13:5; Josh. 5:6; Isa. 7:15, 22; Jer. 11:5). Sheep (Deut. 32:14) and goats (Prov. 27:27) and camels (Gen. 32:15), as well as cows, are made to give their milk for the use of man. Milk is used figuratively as a sign of abundance (Gen. 49:12; Ezek. 25:4; Joel 3:18). It is also a symbol of the rudiments of doctrine (1 Cor. 3:2; Heb. 5:12, 13), and of the unadulterated word of God (1 Pet. 2:2). (2.) Heb. hem'ah, always rendered "butter" in the Authorized Version. It means "butter," but also more frequently "cream," or perhaps, as some think, "curdled milk," such as that which Abraham set before the angels (Gen. 18:8), and which Jael gave to Sisera (Judg. 5:25). In this state milk was used by travellers (2 Sam. 17:29). If kept long enough, it acquired a slightly intoxicating or soporific power. This Hebrew word is also sometimes used for milk in general (Deut. 32:14; Job 20:17).

    Milk in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Children's food everywhere (1 Peter 2:2; 1 Corinthians 3:2; Hebrews 5:12). In the East a leading element in men's diet also. "A land flowing with milk" symbolizes abundance (Exodus 3:8; Deuteronomy 6:3). Chalab, "milk," means "fairness, fresh milk"; chemah is "milk coagulated", and is translated in KJV "butter"; rather leben, an Eastern preparation of milk (Judges 4:19; Judges 5:25). Emblem of gospel blessings (Isaiah 55:1). In Job 21:24 translated for "breasts" "his milk vessels (Lee: Umbreit, his watering places for his herds) are full of milk." Also Job 20:17; Job 29:6, "I washed my steps with butter," i.e. wherever I stepped the richest plenty flowed for me. Isaiah 60:16, "thou shalt suck the milk of the Gentiles," i.e. draw to thyself all their riches, or have them completely subject (Ezekiel 25:4). The milk of sheep, camels, goats, and cows was used (Deuteronomy 32:14; Genesis 32:15; Proverbs 27:27); "butter" in our sense occurs Proverbs 30:33. The leben; keeps for a considerable time, and so was suited to David's weary followers (2 Samuel 17:29). When the abundance of milk was due to the absence of tillage and of men to cultivate the lands, it was predicted as a scourge consequent on hostile invasion (Isaiah 7:22). Still offered in hospitality to the passing stranger, as by Abraham, Genesis 18:8.

    Milk in Naves Topical Bible Used for food Ge 18:8; Jud 4:19; So 5:1; Eze 25:4; 1Co 9:7 -Of goats Pr 27:27 -Of sheep De 32:14; Isa 7:21,22 -Of camels Ge 32:15 -Of cows De 32:14; 1Sa 6:7,10 -Churned Pr 30:33 -Kid (a baby goat) not to be seethed (boiled) in its own mother's Ex 23:19; De 14:21 -FIGURATITE Ex 3:8,17; 13:5; 33:3; Nu 13:27; De 26:9,15; Isa 55:1; 60:16; Jer 11:5; 32:22; Eze 20:6; Joe 3:18; 1Co 3:2; Heb 5:12,13; 1Pe 2:2

    Milk in Smiths Bible Dictionary As an article of diet, milk holds a more important position in eastern countries than with us. It is not a mere adjunct in cookery, or restricted to the use of the young, although it is naturally the characteristic food of childhood, both from its simple and nutritive qualities. 1Pe 2:2 and particularly as contrasted with meat, 1Co 3:2; Heb 5:12 but beyond this it is regarded as substantial food adapted alike to all ages and classes. Not only the milk of cows, but of sheep, De 32:14 of camels, Ge 32:15 and of goats, Pr 27:27 was used; that latter appears to have been most highly prized.

    Milk in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE milk (chalabh; gala; Latin lac (2 Esdras 2:19; 8:10)): The fluid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. The word is used in the Bible of that of human beings (Isa 28:9) as well as of that of the lower animals (Ex 23:19). As a food it ranked next in importance to bread (Ecclesiasticus 39:26). Israel is frequently described as a land "flowing with milk and honey" (Ex 3:8,17; Nu 13:27; Dt 6:3; Josh 5:6; Jer 11:5; Ezek 20:6,15). Milk was among the first things set before the weary traveler (Gen 18:8). In fact, it was considered a luxury (Jdg 5:25; Song 5:1). The people used the milk of kine and also that of sheep (Dt 32:14), and especially that of goats (Prov 27:27). It was received in pails ('atinim, Job 21:24), and kept in leather bottles (no'dh, Jdg 4:19), where it turned sour quickly in the warm climate of Israel before being poured out thickly like a melting substance (nathakh; compare Job 10:10). Cheese of various kinds was made from it (gebhinah and charitse he-chalabh, literally, "cuts of milk"); or the curds (chem'ah) were eaten with bread, and possibly also made into butter by churning (Prov 30:33). See FOOD, II. It is possible that milk was used for seething other substances; at least the Israelites were strictly forbidden to seethe a kid in its mother's milk (Ex 23:19; 34:26; Dt 14:21), and by a very general interpretation of these passages Jews have come to abstain from the use of mixtures of meat and milk of all kinds. Figuratively the word is used (1) of abundance (Gen 49:12); (2) of a loved one's charms (Song 4:11); (3) of blessings (Isa 55:1; Joel 3:18); (4) of the (spiritual) food of immature people (1 Cor 3:2; Heb 5:12,13); (5) of purity (1 Pet 2:2).

    Milk Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:21 Ye shall not eat [of] any thing that dieth of itself: thou shalt give it unto the stranger that [is] in thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto an alien: for thou [art] an holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.

    Milk Scripture - Deuteronomy 26:15 Look down from thy holy habitation, from heaven, and bless thy people Israel, and the land which thou hast given us, as thou swarest unto our fathers, a land that floweth with milk and honey.

    Milk Scripture - Deuteronomy 26:9 And he hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, [even] a land that floweth with milk and honey.

    Milk Scripture - Deuteronomy 27:3 And thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over, that thou mayest go in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, a land that floweth with milk and honey; as the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee.

    Milk Scripture - Exodus 13:5 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month.

    Milk Scripture - Exodus 23:19 The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.

    Milk Scripture - Exodus 34:26 The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.

    Milk Scripture - Exodus 3:8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

    Milk Scripture - Isaiah 60:16 Thou shalt also suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt suck the breast of kings: and thou shalt know that I the LORD [am] thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob.

    Milk Scripture - Joshua 5:6 For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, till all the people [that were] men of war, which came out of Egypt, were consumed, because they obeyed not the voice of the LORD: unto whom the LORD sware that he would not shew them the land, which the LORD sware unto their fathers that he would give us, a land that floweth with milk and honey.