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July 28    Scripture

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Manners & Customs : Musical Instruments

David and Music David the boy musician. Through the centuries Israel shepherd boys have played their simple dual-piped flutes made of reed, in the presence of their flocks. The strains of the music are minor, but it appeals to both the shepherd and the sheep. No doubt David's musical experience began with this instrument, when he cared for the family flock. But in addition to playing on this shepherd's instrument, young David became famed for his ability to use what our Bible versions have called "a harp." Now the instrument was not large enough to be like what Westerners today would call a harp. It would be more appropriate to call it "a lyre." Such an instrument is actually a modified form of harp, being portable. The sound-chest forms the base of it. "From the end of this arise two rods curved or straight connected above by a crosspiece, and the strings are stretched upward from the base to the crosspiece." When Saul's servants were asked to look for someone who could play on this instrument with ability, one of their number said: "I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, that is cunning in playing" (I Samuel 16:18). And thus David came to play for King Saul when he had one of his fits of sadness, in order to refresh him. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

David Inventor of Musical Instruments David the originator of certain musical instruments. The chronicler of the Hebrew kings says of David, "Four thousand praised the LORD with the instruments which I made, said David, to praise therewith" (I Chronicles 23:5). And again, "And the Levites stood with the instruments of David" (II Chronicles 29:26). Either King David was himself the inventor of these instruments for worship, or at least he was responsible for their invention, for they were called his instruments. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Flute in Easton's Bible Dictionary a musical instrument, probably composed of a number of pipes, mentioned Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15. In Matt. 9:23, 24, notice is taken of players on the flute, here called "minstrels" (but in R.V. "flute-players"). Flutes were in common use among the ancient Egyptians.

Flute in Naves Topical Bible General scriptures concerning Da 3:5,7,10,15

Harp in Easton's Bible Dictionary (Heb. kinnor), the national instrument of the Hebrews. It was invented by Jubal (Gen. 4:21). Some think the word _kinnor_ denotes the whole class of stringed instruments. It was used as an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise to God (Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 16:23; 2 Chr. 20:28; Ps. 33:2; 137:2). In Solomon's time harps were made of almug-trees (1 Kings 10:11, 12). In 1 Chr. 15:21 mention is made of "harps on the Sheminith;" Revised Version, "harps set to the Sheminith;" better perhaps "harps of eight strings." The soothing effect of the music of the harp is referred to 1 Sam. 16:16, 23; 18:10; 19:9. The church in heaven is represented as celebrating the triumphs of the Redeemer "harping with their harps" (Rev. 14:2).

Harp in Fausset's Bible Dictionary kinnor With ten strings, played on with a plectrum (quill), according to Josephus; but also with the hand by David (1 Samuel 16:23; 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Samuel 19:9). Jubal invented it, the simplest kind of stringed instrument, and the" organ" (ugab), rather the "pipe," the simplest kind of wind instrument; his brother Jabal was" father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle." The brotherhood accords with the fact that the leisure of a nomad life was well suited to the production and appreciation of music (Genesis 4:20-21). The harp was the earliest of all musical instruments, and the national instrument of the Hebrew. They used it, not as the Greeks, for expressing sorrow, but on occasions of joy and praise (Genesis 31:27; 2 Chronicles 20:28; Psalm 33:2); therefore, it was hung on the willows in the Babylonian captivity (Psalm 137:2; Job 30:31). The words "My bowels shall sound like an harp" (Isaiah 16:11) do not allude to the sound as lugubrious, but to the strings vibrating when struck. There was a smaller harp played with the hand, as by the walking prophets (1 Samuel 10:5), besides the larger, with more strings, played with the plectrum. Its music, as that of other instruments, was raised to its highest perfection under David (Amos 6:5). It was an important adjunct to the "schools of the prophets."

Harp in Naves Topical Bible A stringed instrument of music Isa 38:20; Eze 33:32; Hab 3:19 -With three strings (margin) 1Sa 18:6 -Ten strings Ps 33:2; 92:3; 144:9; 150:4 -Originated with Jubal Ge 4:21 -Made of almug wood 1Ki 10:12 -David skillful in manipulating 1Sa 16:16,23 -Used in worship 1Sa 10:5; 1Ch 16:5; 25:1-7; 2Ch 5:12,13; 29:25; Ps 33:2; 43:4; 49:4; 57:8; 71:22; 81:2; 92:3; 98:5; 108:2; 147:7; 149:3; 150:3 -Used, in national jubilees, after the triumph over Goliath, (margin) 1Sa 18:6 -Over the armies of Ammon and Moab 2Ch 20:28; with 20:20-29 -When the new walls of Jerusalem were dedicated Ne 12:27,36 -Used in festivities Ge 31:27; Job 21:11,12; Isa 5:12; 23:16; 24:8; 30:32; Eze 26:13; Re 18:22 -In mourning Job 30:31 -Discordant 1Co 14:7 -Hung on the willows by the captive Jews Ps 137:2 -Heard in heaven, in John's apocalyptic vision Re 5:8; 14:2; 15:2 -The symbol used in the psalmody to indicate when the harp was to be introduced in the music was "Neginoth." See titles of Ps 4; 6; 54; 55; 61; 67; 76

Harp in Smiths Bible Dictionary The harp was the national instrument of the Hebrews, and was well known throughout Asia. Moses assigns its invention to Jubal during the antediluvian period. Ge 4:21 Josephus records that the harp had ten strings, and that it was played on with the plectrum. Sometimes it was smaller having only eight strings, and was usually played with the fingers.

Harp Scripture - 1 Samuel 10:5 After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where [is] the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them; and they shall prophesy:

Harp Scripture - 1 Samuel 16:23 And it came to pass, when the [evil] spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.

Harp Scripture - Psalms 57:8 Awake up, my glory; awake, psaltery and harp: I [myself] will awake early.

Jesus Spoke of Minstrels When JESUS came into the home where the ruler's daughter had died, Matthew says: "He saw the minstrels" (Matthew 9:23). The minstrels were flute-players. In the Orient even today, professional mourners are called in to express sorrow for the loss of the deceased one. And if the family can afford to do so, as would be true of the ruler, flute-players are also brought in to express mourning through these instruments. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Jesus Spoke of Music and Dancing A third reference to music is in CHRIST's famous story of the Prodigal Son. When the wayward boy returned home, his father celebrated with a banquet. And when the elder brother came in from the field it is said "he heard music and dancing" (Luke 15:25). It was customary at banquets to have singers and players on instruments, especially flute-players, along with dancers. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Jesus spoke of the Pipe JESUS spoke of the children playing in the market place. "We piped unto you, but ye have not danced. We have mourned to you, and ye have not wept" (Luke 7:32). There are two groups of children represented here. One of them has a pipe, perhaps a shepherd's flute, and plays upon it as is done at a wedding procession all the way to the feast, saying: "Let's play wedding." But the other group refuses to join in the play. Then the one group begins to sing and wail as is done in a funeral procession, suggesting, "Let's play funeral," but the other group continues obstinately to refuse to co-operate. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Jubal the First Musician ORIGIN OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS - JUBAL, THE PIONEER MUSICIAN. Concerning him Scripture says: "He was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ [pipe]" (Genesis 4:21). Doubtless this means he was the inventor of these musical instruments, and as he was not many generations removed from Adam, we may infer that music has always played an important role in the history of mankind. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Music in Ancient Babylon and Ur Babylonian musical instruments preceding Abraham. Since Abraham spent his early life in Ur of the Chaldees, it is more than likely that some of the musical instruments used by the patriarchs had their origin in that land. Woolley's excavations at Ur brought to light from one of the death pits in connection with a royal tomb, four harps or lyres, one of which was a magnificent specimen. The artistic beauty of these gold and mosaic musical instruments emphasizes the fact that the musical art was at a high level in those ancient days. A cylinder-seal of a queen of the land of Abraham's birth, who reigned about a thousand years before his time, reveals the fact that timbrels were being used at banquets and at religious gatherings. Jacob's father-in-law Laban, lived in Babylonian territory, and when Jacob left him in haste, he said to him: "Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly . . . that I might have sent thee away with mirth, and with songs, with tabret, and with harp?" (Genesis 31:27). This suggests the possibility that some of these musical instruments as used in Babylonia found their way into the life of the early Hebrews. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Music in Ancient Egypt Egyptian musical instruments influencing Moses and Israel. Moses received a thorough education at the hands of the Egyptians, and music was an important part of his training. Music was greatly emphasized in Egyptian religious services. The following instruments were used by them: the harp, the lyre, the flute, the tambourine, and cymbals. Dancing was commonly connected with the use of musical instruments. Some phases of Egyptian musical customs most probably followed the Israelites from Egypt into the land of Canaan. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Musical Celebrations SPECIAL OCCASIONS FOR THE USE OF MUSIC Among the Hebrews, vocal and instrumental music together with dancing were employed on most occasions of great joy. Victories in battle were thus celebrated. In this way the women of Israel ce1ebrated the victory of young David and the army of Saul over the Philistines. "And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistines, that the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet King Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick" (I Samuel 18:6). At the coronation of the boy King Joash, music was prominent. "And all the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise" (II Chronicles 23:13). Music was also part of the entertainment at banquets. "And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts." Thus wrote Isaiah about the feasts of his day (Isaiah 5:12). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Musical Instruments in Easton's Bible Dictionary Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place is given to stringed instruments. These were, (1.) The kinnor, the "harp." (2.) The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered "psaltery." (3.) The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre. (4.) The gittith, occurring in the title of Ps. 8; 8; 84. (5.) Minnim (Ps. 150:4), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Ps. 45:8, in the form _minni_, probably the apocopated (i.e., shortened) plural, rendered, Authorized Version, "whereby," and in the Revised Version "stringed instruments." (6.) Machalath, in the titles of Ps. 53 and 88; supposed to be a kind of lute or guitar. Of wind instruments mention is made of, (1.) The 'ugab (Gen. 4:21; Job 21:12; 30:31), probably the so-called Pan's pipes or syrinx. (2.) The qeren or "horn" (Josh. 6:5; 1 Chr. 25:5). (3.) The shophar, rendered "trumpet" (Josh. 6:4, 6, 8). The word means "bright," and may have been so called from the clear, shrill sound it emitted. It was often used (Ex. 19:13; Num. 10:10; Judg. 7:16, 18; 1 Sam. 13:3). (4.) The hatsotserah, or straight trumpet (Ps. 98:6; Num. 10:1-10). This name is supposed by some to be an onomatopoetic word, intended to imitate the pulse-like sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara. Some have identified it with the modern trombone. (5.) The halil, i.e, "bored through," a flute or pipe (1 Sam. 10:5; 1 Kings 1:40; Isa. 5:12; Jer. 48:36) which is still used in Israel. (6.) The sumponyah, rendered "dulcimer" (Dan. 3:5), probably a sort of bagpipe. (7.) The maskrokith'a (Dan. 3:5), rendered "flute," but its precise nature is unknown. Of instruments of percussion mention is made of, (1.) The toph, an instrument of the drum kind, rendered "timbrel" (Ex. 15:20; Job 21:12; Ps. 68:25); also "tabret" (Gen. 31:27; Isa. 24:8; 1 Sam. 10:5). (2.) The paamon, the "bells" on the robe of the high priest (Ex. 28:33; 39:25). (3.) The tseltselim, "cymbals" (2 Sam. 6:5; Ps. 150:5), which are struck together and produce a loud, clanging sound. Metsilloth, "bells" on horses and camels for ornament, and metsiltayim, "cymbals" (1 Chr. 13:8; Ezra 3:10, etc.). These words are all derived from the same root, tsalal, meaning "to tinkle." (4.) The menaan'im, used only in 2 Sam. 6:5, rendered "cornets" (R.V., "castanets"); in the Vulgate, "sistra," an instrument of agitation. (5.) The shalishim, mentioned only in 1 Sam. 18:6, rendered "instruments of music" (marg. of R.V., "triangles or three- stringed instruments"). The words in Eccl. 2:8, "musical instruments, and that of all sorts," Authorized Version, are in the Revised Version "concubines very many."

Musical Instruments in Smiths Bible Dictionary (There has been great obscurity as to the instruments of music in use among the Hebrews, but the discoveries on the monuments of Egypt and Assyria have thrown much light upon the form and nature of these instruments. I. STRINGED INSTRUMENTS.-- 1. The harp or lyre. [See illustration] 2. The psaltery, the name of various large instruments of the harp kind. 3. The sackbut, a harp-like instrument of four strings and of triangular form. 4. A kind of lute or guitar (mahalath), in titles to Ps 53:1 and Psal 88:1 with a long, flat neck, and a hollow body of wood whose surface was perforated with holes. There were three strings, end the whole instrument was three or four feet long. 5. The gittith, in titles to Ps 8:1, 81:1, 84:1 a stringed instrument, probably found by David st Gath, whence its name. II. INSTRUMENTS OF PERCUSSION. 1. The timbrel, a form of tambourine, a narrow hoop covered with a tightened skin, and struck with the hand on the Egyptian monuments are three kinds --the circular, the square, and another formed by two squares separated by a bar. 2. The drum (toph). Of this there were many varieties, some of them resembling modern drums. The Egyptians had along drum, of wood or copper, 2 1/2 feet long, resembling the tom-tom of India, and beaten by the hand. Another form was shaped like a cask with bulging centre, and was made of copper. It was of the same length as the other, but larger around, and was beaten with sticks. Another drum was more like our kettledrum; and one of these, the rabbins say, was placed in the temple court to the priests to prayer, and could be heard from Jerusalem to Jericho. 3. Bells (paanton), attached to the high priest's dress, and rung by striking against the knobs, shaped like pomegranates, which were hung near them. 4. Cymbals. The earliest cymbals were probably finger cymbals -small plates of metal fastened to the thumb and middle finger, and struck together. Afterward there were the large cymbals, played with both hands. 5. Systra (menaanim), 2Sa 6:5 there translated comets. The systrum was a carved bronze or copper frame, with a handle, in all from 8 to 18 inches long, with movable rings and bars. It was shaken with the hand, and the rings and bars made a piercing metallic sound by striking against the bronze frame. 6. The triangle (shalishim), 1Sa 18:6 a musical instrument (machol) used for accompanying the dance, and several times translated dancing. Ps 150:3,45 It was a metallic rim or frame sometimes with a handle and had small bells attached to it, or bars across on which were strung metallic rings or plates. It was held in the hand, and was played by the women at weddings and merry-makings. III. WIND INSTRUMENTS. -- 1. The syrinx, pandean pipe or bagpipe (ugab); translated "organ" in Ge 4:21 Either like the bagpipe, or a series of pipes from 5 to 23 in number, though usually only 7. 2. The horn,in the form of an animal's horn even when made of metal but originating in the use of the horns of cattle. 3. The trumpet (shophar) same as horn, 2. 4. The straight trumpet. 5. The flute (halil, meaning "bored through "), a pipe perforated with holes, originally made from reeds, but afterward of wood bone, horn or ivory. It was chiefly consecrated to joy or pleasure. 6. The flute, alluded to in Da 3:6 probably a kind of double flageolet. 7. The dulcimer, Da 3:5 a kind of bagpipe with two shrill reeds. The modern dulcimer is a triangular instrument strung with about 60 brass wires, and played upon with little sticks or metallic rods. It more resembles the ancient psaltery than the dulcimer of Da 3:5 --ED.)

Musical Instruments in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE mu'-zi-kal in'-stroo-ments (shiddah we-shiddoth): "I gat me .... musical instruments, and that of all sorts" (Eccl 2:8). Thus the King James Version and the American Standard Revised Version; the English Revised Version and the American Revised Version margin "concubines very many." The word occurs only here; the meaning is not certain, but it has nothing to do with music.

Musical Instruments Scripture - Daniel 3:15 Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made; [well]: but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who [is] that God that shall deliver you out of my hands?

Old Testament Musical Instruments CHARACTER OF SOME OLD TESTAMENT MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS It has already been indicated that the Old Testament word "harp" describes a "lyre." The word "organ" is the "pipe," and is more like our flute than any other instrument. The "psaltery" and "viol" are stringed instruments, there being much uncertainty concerning their exact nature. "The cymbal consisted of two large and broad plates of brass, of a convex form; which being struck against each other, made a hollow ringing sound. They form in our days, a part of every military band." The "dulcimer" (Daniel 3:5) is rendered is the same as the "bagpipe." [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Pipe in Easton's Bible Dictionary (1 Sam. 10:5; 1 Kings 1:40; Isa. 5:12; 30:29). The Hebrew word halil, so rendered, means "bored through," and is the name given to various kinds of wind instruments, as the fife, flute, Pan-pipes, etc. In Amos 6:5 this word is rendered "instrument of music." This instrument is mentioned also in the New Testament (Matt. 11:17; 1 Cor. 14:7). It is still used in Israel, and is, as in ancient times, made of different materials, as reed, copper, bronze, etc.

Pipe in Fausset's Bible Dictionary chaliyl, "to bore." Representing wind instruments, as the harp represents "stringed instruments". The pipe single or double, the flute; one of the simplest and oldest of musical instruments, the accompaniment of festivity (1 Kings 1:40; Luke 7:32; Isaiah 5:12), religious services (1 Samuel 10:5), and processions (Isaiah 30:29). Also suited by its plaintive softness to mourning (Matthew 9:23; Jeremiah 48:36). The "shawm" of which the clarionet is an improvement, may be from chaliyl through the French chalumeau, German schalmeie.

Pipe in Naves Topical Bible (A wind instrument of music) -Used in religious services 1Sa 10:5; Isa 30:29

Pipe in Smiths Bible Dictionary (Heb. chalil). The Hebrew word so rendered is derived from a root signifying "to bore, perforate" and is represented with sufficient correctness by the English "pipe" or "flute," as in the margin of 1Ki 1:40 The pipe was the type of perforated wind instruments, as the harp was of stringed instruments. It was made of reed, bronze or copper. It is one of the simplest, and therefore probably one of the oldest, of musical Instruments. It is associated with the tabret as an instrument of a peaceful and social character. The pipe and tabret were used at the banquets of the Hebrews, Isa 5:12 and accompanied the simpler religious services when the young prophets, returning from the high place, caught their inspiration from the harmony, 1Sa 10:5 or the pilgrims, on their way to the great festivals of their ritual, beguiled the weariness of the march with psalms sung to the simple music of the pipe. Isa 30:29 The sound of the pipe was apparently a soft wailing note, which made it appropriate to be used in mourning and at funerals Mt 9:23 and in the lament of the prophet over the destruction of Moab. Jer 48:36 It was even used in the temple choir, as appears from Ps 87:7 In later times the funeral and death-bed were never without the professional pipers or flute-players, Mt 9:23 a custom which still exists. In the social and festive life of the Egyptians the pipe played as prominent a part as among the Hebrews.

Pipe Scripture - 1 Corinthians 14:7 And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped?

Pipe Scripture - 1 Samuel 10:5 After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where [is] the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them; and they shall prophesy:

Pipe Scripture - Isaiah 30:29 Ye shall have a song, as in the night [when] a holy solemnity is kept; and gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the LORD, to the mighty One of Israel.

Pipe Scripture - Isaiah 5:12 And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands.

Shepherd's Flute The shepherd's flute. A dual-piped flute of reed is generally carried by the Arab shepherd. It is true that minor strains of music come from this flute, but the heart of the shepherd is stirred, and the sheep of the flock are refreshed by the invigorating music that comes from this simple instrument. There can be little question but that David used such an instrument when he was with his flock, in the same way the shepherd lads have done for centuries around Bethlehem. It is of interest to know that the word in the Arabic language which is the equivalent of the Hebrew word for "psalm" is mazmoor, which means "played on a pipe or flute." [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Song of Miriam After Crossing the Red Sea MUSICAL CELEBRATION OF RED SEA VICTORY After the miraculous crossing of Israel through the Red Sea, the victory over the Egyptians was fittingly celebrated with music. "And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances" (Exodus 15:20). There was the singing of a song, the words of which Moses gives us. This was accompanied by the use of the timbrel, and along with it was dancing. This timbrel was a circular hoop, made of either wood or brass, and covered with skin tightly drawn, and with small bells hung around it. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

Trumpet in Easton's Bible Dictionary were of a great variety of forms, and were made of divers materials. Some were made of silver (Num. 10:2), and were used only by the priests in announcing the approach of festivals and in giving signals of war. Some were also made of rams' horns (Josh. 6:8). They were blown at special festivals, and to herald the arrival of special seasons (Lev. 23:24; 25:9; 1 Chr. 15:24; 2 Chr. 29:27; Ps. 81:3; 98:6). "Trumpets" are among the symbols used in the Book of Revelation (Rev. 1:10; 8:2). (See HORN -T0001821.)

Trumpet in Naves Topical Bible Made of ram's horn Jos 6:4-6,8,13 -Made of silver Nu 10:2 -Uses of, prescribed by Moses Nu 10:1-10 -Used in war Job 39:24,25; Jer 4:19; 6:1,17; 42:14; 51:27; Eze 7:14; Am 2:2; 3:6; Zep 1:16; 1Co 14:8 -To summon soldiers By Phinehas Nu 31:6 By Ehud Jud 3:27 By Gideon Jud 6:34 By Saul 1Sa 13:3 By Joab 2Sa 2:28; 18:16; 20:22 By Absalom 2Sa 15:10 By Sheba 2Sa 20:1 By Nehemiah Ne 4:18,20 -By Gideon's soldiers Jud 7:8-22 -In war, of Abijah 2Ch 13:12,14 -In the siege of Jericho Jos 6:4-20 -Sounded in time of danger Eze 33:3-6; Joe 2:1 -Used at Mount Sinai Ex 19:13-19; 20:18; Heb 12:19 -On the great day of atonement Isa 27:13 -At the jubilee Le 25:9 -At the bringing up of the ark of the covenant from the household of Obed-edom 2Sa 6:5,15; 1Ch 13:8; 15:28 -At the anointing of kings 1Ki 1:34,39; 2Ki 9:13; 11:14 -At the dedication of Solomon's temple 2Ch 5:12,13; 7:6 -In worship 1Ch 15:24; 16:42; 25:5; Ps 81:3,4 -At Jehoshaphat's triumph 2Ch 20:28 -At the foundation of the second temple Ezr 3:10,11 -At the dedication of the wall Ne 12:35,41 -FIGURATIVE Isa 27:13; Eze 33:3; Joe 2:1; Zec 9:14; Mt 6:2 -SYMBOLICAL Mt 24:31; 1Co 15:52; 1Th 4:16; Re 1:10; 4:1; 8; 9:1- 14; 10:7; 11:15 See MUSIC, INSTRUMENTS OF

Wedding Procession THE WEDDING PROCESSION The bridegroom set out with the bride from the house of her parents, and there followed a grand procession all the way to his house. The streets of Asiatic cities were dark, and it was necessary that anybody venturing forth at night should carry a lamp or torch (cf. Psalm 119:105). Those invited guests, who did not go to the bride's home were allowed to join the procession along the way, and go with the whole group to the marriage feast. Without a torch or lamp they couldn't join the procession, or enter the bridegroom's house. The Ten Virgins waited for the procession to arrive at the point where they were waiting; and five wise ones were able to proceed because they had a reserve supply of oil for their lamps; but the foolish virgins lacked that oil and so, not being ready, they were barred from the wedding feast (Matthew 25:1-13). The lamps carried by these virgins have been described by Dr. Edersheim: "The lamps consisted of a round receptacle for pitch or oil for the wick. This was placed in a hollow cup or deep saucer, . . . which was fastened by a pointed end into a long wooden pole, on which it was borne aloft. In going from the bride's house to the groom's house, the bride allowed her hair to be loose and flowing, and she had her face veiled. Some of her own relations preceded her in the procession, and scattered ears of parched grain to the children along the way. There were demonstrations of joy all along the road to the destination. Part of the procession included men who played on drums or other musical instruments. And there was dancing along the way. One of the punishments Jeremiah predicted for the Jews, because of their sins, was the taking away of wedding joys. "Then will I cause to cease from the cities of Judah, and from the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride" (Jeremiah 7:34). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]