Juno in Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The name of Juno is probably of the same root as Jupiter,
and differs from it only in its termination. As Jupiter is
the king of heaven and of the gods, so Juno is the queen of
heaven, or the female Jupiter. The Romans identified at an
early time their Juno with Hera, with whom she has indeed
many resemblances, but we shall endeavour here to treat of
the Roman Juno exclusively, and to separate the Greek
notions [HERA] entertained by the Romans, from those which
are of a purely Italian or Roman nature. Juno, as the queen
of heaven, bore the surname of Regina, under which she was
worshipped at Rome from early times, and at a later period
her worship was solemnly transferred from Veii to Rome,
where a sanctuary was dedicated to her on the Aventine.
(Liv. 5.21, 22, 22.1, 27.37; Varr. de L. L. 5.67.) She is
rarely described as hurling the thunderbolt, and the main
feature of her character is, that she was to the female sex
all that Jupiter was to the male, and that she was regarded
as the protectress of every thing connected with marriage.
She was, however, not only the protecting genius of the
female sex in general, but accompanied every individual
woman through life, from the moment of her birth to the end
of her life. Hence she bore the special surnames of
Virginalis and Matrona, as well as the general ones of
Opigena and Sospita (Ov. Fast. 6.33; Hor. Carm. 3.4, 59;
Serv. ad Aen. 8.84; August. de Civ. Dei, 4.11; Festus, p.
343, ed. Müller), under which she was worshipped both at
Lanuvium and at Rome. (Liv. 24.10, 27.3, 32.30; Ov. Fast.
2.56; Cic. de Div. 1.2.) On their birthday women offered
sacrifices to Juno surnamed natalis, just as men sacrificed
to their genius natalis (Tib. 4.6. 13. 15); but the general
festival, which was celebrated by all the women, in honour
of Juno, was called Matronalia (Dict. of Ant. s. v.), and
took place on the 1st of March. Her protection of women, and
especially her power of making them fruitful, is further
alluded to in the festival Populifugia (Dict. of Ant. s.v.)
as well as in the surname of Februarius, Februata, Februta,
or Februalis. (Fest. s.v. Februarius, p. 85, ed. Müller;
comp. Ov. Fast. 2.441.) Juno was further, like Saturn, the
guardian of the finances, and under the name of Moneta she
had a temple on the Capitoline hill, which contained the
mint. (Liv. 6.20.) Some Romans considered Juno Moneta as
identical with Μνημοσύνη, but this identification
undoubtedly arose from the desire of finding the name Moneta
a deeper meaning than it really contains. [MONETA.] The most
important period in a woman's life is that of her marriage,
and, as we have already remarked, she was believed
especially to preside over marriage. Hence she was called
Juga or Jugalis [JUGA], and had a variety of other names,
alluding to the various occasions on which she was invoked
by newly-married people, such as, Domiduca, Iterduca,
Pronuba, Cinxia, Prema, Pertunda, Fluonia, and Lucina.
(Verg. A. 4.166, 457, with Serv. note; Ov. Ep. 6.43; August.
de Civ. Dei, 6.7, 11, 7.3; Arnob. 3.7, 25, 6.7, 25; Fest. s.
vv. The month of June, which is said to have originally been
called Junonius, was considered to be the most favourable
period for marrying. (Macr. 1.12; Ov. Fast. 6.56.) Juno,
however, not only presided over the fertility of marriage,
but also over its inviolable sanctity, and unchastity and
inordinate love of sexual pleasures were hated by the
goddess. Hence a law of Numa ordained that a prostitute
should not touch the altar of Juno, and that if she had done
so, she should with dishevelled hair offer a female lamb to
Juno. (Gel. 4.3.) Women in childbed invoked Juno Lucina to
help them (Plaut. Aulul. 4.7, 11; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 77;
Propert. v 1, 95; Arnob. 3.9, 21, 23), and after the
delivery of the child, a table was laid out for her in the
house for a whole week (Tertull. de Anim. 39), for newly-
born children were likewise under her protection, whence she
was sometimes confounded with the Greek Artemis or
Eileithyia. (Catull. 34.13; Dionys. A. R. 4.15; comp.
As Juno has all the characteristics of her husband, in so
far as they refer to the female sex, she presides over all
human affairs, which are based upon justice and
faithfulness, and more especially over the domestic affairs,
in which women are more particularly concerned, though
public affairs were not beyond her sphere, as we may infer
from her surnames of Curiatia and Populonia. [Comp.
EMPANDA.] In Etruria, where the worship of Juno was very
general, she bore the surname of Cupra, which is said to
have been derived from the name of a town, but it may be
connected with the Sabine word cyprus, which, according to
Varro (de L. L. 5.159), signified good, and also occurs in
the name of vicus Cyprius. At Falerii, too, her worship was
of great importance (Dionys. A. R. 1.21), and so also at
Lanuvium, Aricia, Tibur, Praeneste, and other places. (Ov.
Fast. 6.49, 59; Liv. 5.21, 10.2; Serv. ad Aen. 7.739; Strab.
v. p.241.) In the representations of the Roman Juno that
have come down to us, the type of the Greek Hera is commonly
adopted. - A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and
mythology, William Smith, Ed.
Juno in Wikipedia
Juno (Latin pronunciation: /juːnoː/) was an ancient Roman
goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. She
is a daughter of Saturn and sister (but also the wife) of the
chief god Jupiter and the mother of Mars, Minerva and Vulcan.
Her Greek equivalent is Hera.
As the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman empire she was
called Regina ("queen") and, together with Jupiter and
Minerva, was worshipped as a triad on the Capitol (Juno
Capitolina) in Rome...