: 2. GeneralVarious Topics
A Short History of Cryptography
Cryptography is one of the oldest fields of technical study we can find records of, going back at least 4,000 years. It is quite noteworthy that of all the cryptosystems developed in those 4,000 years of effort, only 3 systems in widespread serious use remain hard enough to break to be of real value. One of them takes too much space for most practical uses, another is too slow for most practical uses, and the third is widely believed to contain serious weaknesses.
We begin with a classification scheme for ciphers given by Gary Knight in the first of a series of articles which posed ciphers to the reader, and after a given period of time demonstrated reader solutions along with explanations of how they solved the ciphers. Versions of the solutions attained by the author were also given along with many mathematical techniques for "attacking the unknown cipher".
A Taste of the Ancient World: Greco-Roman eating, drinking,
and farming. An exhibit about Greco-Roman eating and drinking, farming and starving presented by undergraduates in Classical Civilization 452: Food in the Ancient World. The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology
A Tour of Ancient Olympia
There are three versions of the tour of Olympia. For those with fast connections to the Internet, the tour is available with Quicktime or with Shockwave movies. For others, including everyone with a dial-up connection, a tour with pictures is available. [Perseus Project].
Administrative Justice in Ancient Athens
Popular sovereignty has never been as completely in practice as in ancient Athens. The people didn't merely exercise their power at intervals, they wielded it at all times. The Assembly, which was composed of all citizens, decided and debated all questions of public policy. The legislation, executive, and judicial functions of government were exercised by commissions drawn from the citizen body by lot. This made it so the people actually administrated justice, interpreting and applying the law as they saw fit. A jurist on the bench would never balk the popular will by giving inconvenient precedents. Theoretically, a judicial decision rendered today could be reversed in a similar case tomorrow. [Ancient Greece]
Alexander the Great, John J. Popovic
Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon,
Alexander III of Macedon (356-323 B.C.)
Alexander the Great, Synopsys
Invasion of Persia
The Battle of Issus
Invasion of India
End of Expedition
Alexander the Great: the marriages at Susa
In February 324, Alexander forced many Macedonian officers to marry to native women. If it was intended as an attempt to unite the European and Asian elites, it was a sad failure: nearly all marriages ended in divorce. The Greek author Arrian of Nicomedia describes this event in section 7.4.4-5.6 of his Anabasis. The translation was made by M.M. Austen. [Ancient Greece]
Ancient Athenian Women
Once a woman was married her husband controlled all property. Any property that she might have inherited would go directly to her husband. She had no rights to wander about the town, without a just cause. Any respectable woman would not be seen in public. Greek women had virtually no political rights of any kind and were controlled by men at all stages of their lives. Since men spent most of their time away from their houses, women dominated Greek home life. The wife was in charge of raising the children and making the families clothes. She supervised the daily running of the household.
Comprehensive to basic links about ancient Greece. A Brief Comparison of Greek and Roman Sculpture by Teacher Oz: When comparing Greek and Roman sculpture you need to know about the three distinct periods of Greek sculpture. The Greek Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic styles each represent different ideals. Archaic, best represented by the Kouros, evolved from Egyptian sculpture. Kouros characteristics were: rigidity, one foot forward stance, formal hair treatment, bilateral symmetry (same on left and right), and its frontality (block like). It differed from the Egyptian in that the sculpture was nude, there was no webbing between the arms and body, and there was attention to anatomical detail. The Archaic Kouros was the composite of the athletic ideal through mathematical formula(1:8). It was not realistic, but idealistic.
Ancient Greece Coloring Pages
Print Your Own Coloring Page
Ancient Greece Glossary
Brief. Ancient Greece
Art & Architecture - Geography - History -
Mythology - Olympics - People -
Wars - Other Resources
Ancient Greece: Greek Festivals
Greek Fashion Show and Feast.
Ancient Greece: The Archaic period, 800-500 BC
Article. During the Greek Dark Ages, the Greeks lived in small tribal units; some of these small tribes were sedentary and agricultural and some were certainly nomadic. They had abandoned their cities between 1200 and 1100 BC for reasons that remain shrouded in mystery; the Greeks believed that a cataclysmic and ferocious invasion of northern Greek barbarians, the Dorians, had wiped out the Mycenean civilization. In reality, the decline and abandonment of urbanization in Greece was probably due to a combination of economic collapse and pressure from northern migrations. Greek life during the "Dark Ages" wasn`t dark; it was, in fact, a culturally creative period. This period gave the Greeks the religion their religion, mythology, and foundational history in their final forms; the close of the Dark Ages would also gave the Greeks the rudiments of their greatest political achievement: the polis , or "city-state."
Ancient Greek Artifacts - British Museum
The Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum has one of the most comprehensive collections of antiquities from the Classical world, with over 100,000 objects. These mostly range in date from the beginning of the Greek Bronze Age (about 3200BC) to the reign of the Roman emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD, with some pagan survivals.
Ancient Greek Civilizations
History of Aegean Civilization, Cultures of Greece, The Cities of Greece, Aspects of Culture and People in Ancient Greece, Other Resources... [Ancient Greece] [Lots of Images] [Minnesota State University].
Ancient Greek Culture and Daily Life
The Greek culture began before the Roman. The Iliad, one of the earliest of the great written Greek works, appeared roughly 700 years before the Aeneid , an early Roman work. The Iliad in turn was based on a good 300 years of verbal story telling. Greek civilization was mostly conducted from small city states. The Greeks loved life and lived it with zest. They had little interest in the afterlife which, even for the greatest of men, was believed to be an eternal unpleasantness.
Ancient Greek Education
The Greek Gods were much more down-to-earth and much less awesome than the remote gods of the East. Because they were endowed with human qualities and often represented aspects of the physical world--such as the sun, the moon, and the sea--they were closer to man and to the world he lived in. The Greeks, therefore, could find spiritual satisfaction in the ordinary, everyday world. They could develop a secular life free from the domination of a priesthood that exacted homage to gods remote from everyday life. The goal of education in the Greek city-states was to prepare the child for adult activities as a citizen. [Ancient Greece]
Ancient Greek Infantry Table of Contents
I. Tactical Warfare: Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. II. Armor and Weapons: Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. III. Military Hierarchy: Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". IV. Military Pay: Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. V. Military Duty: Duty to the state and to the gods.
Ancient Greek Olympics in the Classroom!
Ancient Greek Rulers
The following abridged list of rulers for the ancient Greek world is primarily for the rulers of the Hellenistic age (323""31 B.C.), after the time of Alexander the Great. In the preceding centuries, the dominant geopolitical unit was the polis or city-state. Greek city-states were governed by a variety of entities, including kings, oligarchies, tyrants, and, as in the case of Athens, a democracy.
Ancient Greek Trade
Trade and Barter in Ancient Greece. Commerce, Trade, & Economy. The period of the transition from monarchy to oligarchy (7th century. B.C.) is the period in which commerce begins to develop, and traderoutes to be organised. Greece had been the centre of an active trade in the Minoan and Mycenaean epochs. The products of Crete and of the Peloponnese had found their way to Egypt and Asia Minor. The overthrow of the older civilization put an end to commerce. The seas became insecure and intercourse with the East was interrupted. Our earliest glimpses of the Aegean after the period of the migrations disclose the raids of the pirate and the activity of the Phoenician trader. It is not till the 8th century has dawned that trade begins to thrive, and the Phoenician has to retire before his Greek competitor
Ancient Greek warfare
After the Dark Ages in ancient Greece, a new system of warfare evolved; weaponry, tactics, ideas and formations changed. Modified by Philip II and mainly by Alexander the Great after the Macedonians conquered Greece, this new age of warfare lasted until the rise of the Roman Empire, when new tactics and the legion formation became the general methods of battle.
Ancient Olympics FAQ
Frequently Asked Questions about the Ancient Olympic Games
Where did the Olympic games come from?
Why were they held at Olympia?
Were there other contests like the Olympics?
Who could compete in the Olympics?
Were women allowed at the Olympics?
How were the athletes trained?
What prizes did Olympic victors get?
Who were the Olympic judges?
What was the penalty for cheating?
Where did the marathon come from? [the Perseus Project database]
Ancient Roman and Greek Coins
This site is mostly for beginners, but has some advanced material too: FAQ
Lots of categorized links concerning: Art & Architecture - Geography - History - Mythology - Olympics - People - Wars - Other Resources
Archimedes Home Page
Architecture of Ancient Greece
Lots of Images. Architecture | Athens | Epidauros | Mycenae | Delphi | Olympia | Crete | Sculpture | Female Figure in Greek | Sculpture | Reliefs | Archaic | Classical | Late Classical | Hellenistic
Art of Ancient Greece and Rome at Getty
This gallery installation examines the influence of Greek and Roman art on the art of later centuries. The Enduring Influence of Greek and Roman Art. Artsednet's exclusive presentation of selected works from the J. Paul Getty Museum. This virtual exhibition draws from art objects that appear in Beyond Beauty: Antiquities as Evidence, on display at the museum at the new Getty Center during its opening year. J. Paul Getty Trust
The Athens of 350 BC was in many ways like our own society: bursting at the seams with idiots, drunkards and rabble ready to sue over anything. Like nearly every nation in the modern world, Athens had courts to try criminals and sue individuals for damages, both usually filled to capacity. In her magnificent work, The Murder of Herodes, Kathleen Freeman digs up old court transcripts and translates them for our enjoyment. Before we delve into our favorite testimonial, we will indulge ourselves with a little etymology. It turns out the word testimonial is derived from the same Greek root as testicle. Why? Only men were allowed to sue and testify in court, and so to prove their manhood and by extension their honor, they swore their testimony by grabbing their, well, manhood. More convenient than casting about for a Bible! It is interesting that this gesture is now interpreted as agressive or dismissive, when it was once the sacred symbol of one of our most ancient and important legal rights. But we digress. [Ancient Greece]
Battle of Marathon
After gaining control of the rebellious Ionian Greeks in 495 BC, Darius I of Persia realized that they would be a perpetual bother as long as they could gain help and encouragement from the Greek mainland so he determined to conquer Greece proper, secure his western frontier and lay the groundwork for Persia's expansion into Europe. He was also outraged that during the Ionian rebellion an obscure city-state (Athens) from mainland Greece had assisted in the expulsion of the Persians from Sardes, the capitol of the Ionian Greek city-states. His anger was such that he vowed to punish them and every night at dinner he had a servan repeat to him "Lord, don't forget the Athenians"
Battle of Thermopylae
The Battle of Thermopylae took place during the Greece-Persia war in roughly the 5th century BC. Some 30 city-states of central and southern Greece met in Corinth to devise a common defense (others, including the oracle at Delphi, sided with the Persians). They agreed on a combined army and navy under Spartan command, with the Athenian leader Themistokles providing the strategy. The Spartan king Leonidas led the army to the pass at Thermopylae, near present-day Lamia, the main passage from northern into central Greece.
Bulfinch`s Mythology, The Trojan War
MINERVA (Athena) was the goddess of wisdom, but on one occasion she did a very foolish thing; she entered into competition with Juno (Hera) and Venus (Aphrodite) for the prize of beauty. FURTHER BROWSING AND SEARCHING; Browse THE OLYMPIAN GODS; Search ENCYLOPEDIA MYTHICA; Browse MYTHOLOGY IN WESTERN ART; Search PERSEUS; Browse HOMER`S ILIAD (Butler translation); Browse IMAGES OF THE TROJAN WAR; Ask THE ORACLE OF LOXIAS; Search LOOK IT UP.
Chronology of Greek History After the Peloponnesian War
405 - 146 BC.
405 -- Annihilation of Athenian fleet at the battle of Aegospotami by Lysander; over 3,000 Athenians were executed. Athens was besieged by Sparta with the blockading of Piraeus. Dionysius I became tyrant of Syracuse.
146 -- Achaean War: Corinth was destroyed by Rome. Achaean Confederacy was dissolved.
Clash Between Greeks and Persians
Classical and Hellenistic Greece
This portion of the web points to images and information about ancient Greece. Each subpage contains pointers to relevant websites, as well as student-authored descriptions of them. Archaeology, Art and Architecture, History, Literature,
Mythology and Religion, Philosophy [Ancient Greece]
Classical Atlas Project -- Home Page
CLASSICAL GREEK SCULPTURE
Classical Greek Sculpture for Kids - Polykleitos, Phidias, and more.
CLICKABLE CULTURAL MAP OF HELLAS
Great map interactive.
Coming of Age in Ancient Greece
Getty Kouros and Elgin Kore. Looking at Art of Ancient Greece and Rome:
An Online Exhibition
Crete Island : Herakleion Prefecture : Knossos
Knossos is, of course, Crete's most famous monument: the largest, strongest and most impressive of the island's Minoan palaces, a true must for every visitor. In Knossos, as Kazantzakis put it, one's mind is flooded with questions and one's heart beats with a different rhythm. [Greek Hotel]
Daily Life Ancient Greece
We don't have a lot of information about everyday life in ancient Greece, because the routines and activities of ordinary people weren't written down. However, the objects that people used everday and representations of people in art, especially paintings on vases, give us a glimpse into what life was like in the ancient Greek world. Where did the Greeks live? What did they like to do? What foods did they eat? What did they wear? [Michael C. Carlos Museum of Emory University]
Dance in Ancient and Modern Greece
Prylis: Cretan funeral dance performed by men wearing armor
Circle dances: very sacred and mystic; performed by men and women around altars, trees, pillars, sacred objects, or even people. Circles were believed magical and had purifying powers. Dancers would often stop during the dance in certain poses they believed communicated praises to the gods.
Mazes: Danced in weaving, labyrinthine patterns
Wedding dances: most famous was the now forgotten "geranos" or crane dance.
Didaskalia: Introduction to Greek Stagecraft
Didaskalia: Ancient Theater Today / University of Warwick /edited by Sallie Goetsch and C.W. Marshall. The tragedies and comedies of the fifth and fourth centuries BC which remain to us today were all written for performance in the Theater of Dionysus at Athens. The TDA was first dug out of the slope beneath the south side of the Acropolis in the late 6th century BC, possibly while Athens was still under Peisistratid rule. It was rebuilt and expanded many times, and so it is difficult to tell exactly what its original shape was. The illustrations here are reconstructions based on existing evidence and the opinions of the editors.
Dogs in Ancient Greece and Rome
Of the canine breeds mentioned by classical authors, the best known were the small, swift Laconian (Spartan) and the heavier Molossian, both of which were native to Greece and used by the Romans for hunting (canis venaticus) and to watch over the house and livestock (canis pastoralis). "Never, with them on guard," says Virgil, "need you fear for your stalls a midnight thief, or onslaught of wolves, or Iberian brigands at your back."
Party-goers sing and dance. [Ancient Greece]
EAWC: Ancient Greece
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (ca. 284-ca. 192 BC)
Eratosthenes was born in Cyrene which is now in Libya in North Africa. His teachers included the scholar Lysanias of Cyrene and the philosopher Ariston of Chios who had studied under Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. Eratosthenes also studied under the poet and scholar Callimachus who had also been born in Cyrene. Eratosthenes then spent some years studying in Athens. University of St Andrews, Scotland
European Cuisines: Greece
Recipes. Greece is a country of magnificent natural beauty, archeological treasures, warm, friendly people, and incredibly delicious food. As Europe`s oldest civilization, the Greek people began their culinary history 1,000 years b.c., and Greek recipes have since come to influence many other of the world`s cuisines. The ancient Romans called upon Greek cooks to prepare their famous banquets. The first cookbook in the world was created by Archestratus, a Greek so infamous that he was called the leader of the Epicureans. The high white hat called a toque that is worn by master chefs throughout the world was invented by Greek cooks. They wore these hats to distinguish themselves from the monks in the European monasteries where the Greeks had taken refuge to escape slavery during the Middle Ages.
Exploring Ancient World Cultures
Furniture and the Greek House
General information about the rooms is rather clear, but the furniture in the house made each room unique. The Greeks used practicality to furnish their houses and they also borrowed some Egyptian techniques to build the furniture. Their home furnishings consisted of countless stools and chairs, some of which borrowed the folding X-frame from the Egyptians; a bed was made out of a thick board on four legs with a blanket, or by weaving string across of wooden frame, and chests were used in place of cupboards. Mattresses were made of sacks filled with leaves, which was actually comfortable to the people at the time. By today's standards, many would say this method is unbearable, compared to the spring mattress.
Government in Greece: Pages Through the Ages
Ancient Greek Government. Ancient Greece was divided into areas called city-states. There were many city-states and each one had it's own government. Athens and Sparta were two of the most powerful city-states. Sparta was ruled by the military. In earliest times, Athens was governed by a monarchy. A monarchy is a Greek work meaning "ruled by one." Soldiers hand-picked their new leader and put him into power. Monarchy did not last long in Athens. In 800 B.C., the Athenians build a new government called an oligarchy, which means "ruled by the few." In 600 and 500 B.C., some leaders were known as tyrants. A tyranny is an unjust government led by someone who has taken power. By 508 B.C. democracy started in Athens. Greece had one of the first democracies ever!
Greece and Rome - Art and Archaeology
Sites for the Study of Ancient History [Ancient Greece]
Greek & Roman Cities of Western Turkey
Greek Alphabet Table
Tables are based on material from Pocket Ref, 2nd ed. compiled by T. J. Glover (Sequoia Publishing, 1999) and the MathType help pages.
Introduction to Greek Architecture. The Greek Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
Greek Art and Architecture
Art and Architecture in Ancient Greece.
Greek Culture to 500 BC
Crete, Mycenae and Dorians, Iliad, Odyssey, Hesiod and Homeric Hymns, Aristocrats, Tyrants, and Poets, Spartan Military Laws, Athenian Political Laws, Aesop`s Fables, Pythagoras and Early Philosophy. Sanderson Beck
Most Greeks, like most other people throughout history, lived in families with a mother and a father and their children. Usually men got married when they were about twenty-five or thirty years old (as they do today), but women got married much younger, between twelve and sixteen years old.
Greek Mathematics and its Modern Heirs
For over a thousand years--from the fifth century B.C. to the fifth century A.D.--Greek mathematicians maintained a splendid tradition of work in the exact sciences: mathematics, astronomy, and related fields. Though the early synthesis of Euclid and some of the supremely brilliant works of Archimedes were known in the medieval west, this tradition really survived elsewhere. In Byzantium, the capital of the Greek-speaking Eastern empire, the original Greek texts were copied and preserved. In the Islamic world, in locales that ranged from Spain to Persia, the texts were studied in Arabic translations and fundamental new work was done. The Vatican Library has one of the richest collections in the world of the products of this tradition, in all its languages and forms. Both the manuscripts that the Vatican collected and the work done on them in Rome proved vital to the recovery of ancient science--which, in turn, laid the foundation for the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. In the Roman Renaissance, science and humanistic scholarship were not only not enemies; they were natural allies. [Ancient Greece]
Greek Olympic Games
Once every four years, men from all over Greece came to compete in a great athletic festival in Elis, in western Greece (Women were not allowed to compete). This was called the Olympic games because the place was called Olympia. It was a religious festival to honor the Greek gods Zeus and Hera. We don't know when men first began celebrating the Olympic Games, but they were certainly already doing it in the time of Homer, by 776 BC.
Greek Pottery - The Origins of Greek Pottery
When it comes to Greek pottery and vases, there is no disputing about tastes. The Greek was no less a man of taste than the American, though he preferred to drink wine at feasts from the pottery of a black earthen kylix decorated in red, or a red cup with paintings in black. He had glass, and plenty of thin and beautiful glass, in cups and goblets of varied form. He had wine equal to the best of the Cote d'Or or the Rhine banks. At his feasts poets, soldiers, statesmen gathered; jewels adorned their arms and fingers, rich garments made the assemblies gorgeous, flowers filled the balls with perfume; statues of snowy marble, the works of artists whose fame is enduring, paintings by Zeuxis and Apelles, looked down on the scene.
Greek Vase Styles
The Greeks had around 20 different vase styles, each with its own function; each perfectly formed for its purpose, and with most of them exquisitely decorated. On its own, each and every kitchen, storage, funerary, cosmetic or wine vase was a unique work of art that must have embellished the everyday lives of the ordinary people of ancient Greece. [nice illustrations]
Wars were very common in ancient Greece. The Greeks lived in little city-states, each one like a small town in the United States today, with no more than about 100,000 people in each city-state. These city-states - Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes - were always fighting each other over their borders. Often they would get together in leagues, a lot of city-states together, to fight as allies. [Ancient Greece]
Greeks on the Black Sea: Ancient Art from the Hermitage
Exhibition at the Getty Villa from the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg of objects from ancient Greek civilization on the northern Black Sea. [J. Paul Getty Museum]
Greeks versus Persians
The organization of the mainland Greeks into cities inaugurated a period of stability, wealth, further population expansion, and social and economic experimentation which made of Greece a great force in the Mediterranean. Greek traders and colonists ranged over the entire Mediterranean basin in the late seventh century BC, spreading westward to Sicily, southern Italy, France and Spain; eastward to Asia Minor; southward to North Africa in the areas not already claimed by the Phoenicians; and northward to the Black Sea. Trade with the colonies allowed many of the cities in Hellas to transform themselves into manufacturing centers or to concentrate on the development of specialized crops such as the grape and the olive, products that could be traded for grain, minerals, and furs with the colonial frontiersmen. [Ancient Greece]
Hellas Net: The History of Hellas
Excellent resource from the bronze age to the Roman era. Martijn Moerbeek [Ancient Greece]
Hellenistic Greece: Alexander
History and Chronology of Greece
Balkan Wars, 1st Greece,
Balkan Wars, 2nd Greece,
Byzantine War Greece,
Civil War Greece,
Duchy of Athens Greece,
Government Spain Greece,
Greco Turkish War Greece,
Greek Independence Greece,
Greek War of Independence Greece,
Holy Crusades, The 4th Greece,
House of Battenburg Greece,
House of Bavaria Greece,
House of Denmark Greece,
North African Wars Greece,
Turkey War Greece,
Turkey War Cyprus Greece
History House: Stories: Philip of Macedon (and Pausanias)
Philip of Macedon was good at what he did. The father of Alexander the Great, he managed to turn the backwater province of Macedon into a swelling power and conquered all of Greece to boot. This garnered him quite a hefty reputation in the ancient world, and as a result the Persian empire was forever trying to get him down. His son Alexander, not to be outdone, managed to conquer the entire known world by 324 BC. Unfortunately for him, Philip met his maker at the hands of a disgruntled homosexual lover in the middle of a grand wedding celebration.
History of Naval Warfare
Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. Mankind has fought battles on the sea for more than 3,000 years. The many sea battles through history also provide a reliable source for shipwrecks and underwater archaeology. A major example, albeit not very commonly known, is the exploration of the wrecks of various ships in the Pacific Ocean, namely Japanese warships that sank during the Battle of Midway.
Hypatia - Great Woman Mathematician
Hypatia of Alexandria
Mathematician, Astronomer, and Platonic Philosopher (d. 415 AD).
Images of Gods and Heroes
Internet Resources: Ancient Greece
Cretan and Aegean Palace Civilizations
Mycenae and Pre-Homeric Greece
Greek Science and Mathematics
On-line Courses with Resources
Search the Web
Washington State University
Introduction to Greek Tragedy
The first "tragedies" were myths which were danced and sung by a "chorus" at festivals in honour of Dionysius (God of Wine). At first these festivals were of a "satyric" nature (gaiety, drinking, burlesque, etc). [Early History, The Tragic Situation, The Nature of Tragedy]
Kings of Ancient Macedonia
Learning in Ancient Greece
Legal Status in the Greek World
Despite such a non-descriptive name, Linear B has proved to be the oldest surviving record of the Greek dialect known as Mycenaean, named after the great site of Mycenae where the legendary Agamemnon ruled. The script's usage spanned the time period between approximately 1500 BC and 1200 BC, and geographically covered the island of Crete, as well as the southern part of the Greek Mainland.
List of ancient Greeks
From Wikipedia. This an alphabetical list of ancient Greeks. These include ethnic Greeks and Greek language speakers from Greece and the Mediterranean world up to about 200 AD.
List of the Kings of Sparta
Macedonia FAQ: Bucephalus
Contains Bronze statue of Alexander on Bucephalus Museo Nazionale di Villa Guilia, Rome, Italy. The legend begins with Philoneicus, a Thessalian, bringing a wild horse to Philip II for him to buy (Plutarch, Alexander 6.1.). Plutarch gives us the rest of the story as well. Nobody could tame down the gorgeous horse, and Philip grew upset at Philoneicus for bringing such an unstable horse to him. Alexander, however, publicly defied his father and claimed that he could handle the horse. Alexander's reaction was viewed by his father to be immature, in addition to being disrespectful to all the people that failed to tame down Bucephalus. For that reason, Philip proposed, and Alexander agreed instantly, that if Alexander could ride the the "wild" horse, Philip would buy it; on the other hand, if not Alexander failed at taming down Bucephalus, he would have to pay the price of the horse, which was 13 talents, an enormous sum for a boy of Alexander's age to have. (The 1994 World Almanac says that 1 talent was about 60 pounds. Sixty pounds of anything is a lot of money.)
Map of Athenian League and Peloponnesian War, 453 BC
Map of Hellenistic World, Cities & Empires, 240 B.C.E.
Map of Hellenistic World, Major & Minor States, 90 B.C.E.
Map of Major Greek Temples and Sanctuaries
Map: Alexander in the East
Maps of Ancient Greece
List of maps from EmbassyWorld
Duty to the state and to the gods. Military duty in ancient Greece was perceived and practiced by citizens as an important component of civic duty as well as piety to the gods. The causes of war were usually political , naturally imbued with pious issues, and were also instigated by breaches in good faith between city-states. The citizen of ancient Greece was also a soldier, allowing him to engage in war and to become involved in civic duties. The predominant duty of the citizen was his participation in war, through which he was partaking in the act of defence of the values and honor of his city-state, regardless of whether the war was defensive or offensive. [Ancient Greece]
Minoan Art on Crete and Thera
The Aegean Bronze Age
Since we have only ruins and remains from Minoan culture, we can only guess at their religious practices. We have no scriptures, no prayers, no books of ritual; all we have are objects and fragments all of which only hint at a rich and complex religious life and symbolic system behind their broken exteriors. The most apparent characteristic of Minoan religion was that it was polytheistic and matriarchal, that is, a goddess religion; the gods were all female, not a single male god has been identified until later periods.
Minoans: Minoan Visual Culture
Minoans: Women in Minoan Culture
Mr. Dowling's Ancient Greece Page
The civilization of ancient Greece flowered more than 2500 years ago but it influences the way we live today. Greece is a peninsula in southeastern Europe. The people of the region attempted to explain the world through the laws of nature. They made important discoveries in science. They developed democracy, where people govern themselves rather than being ruled by a king. The Greeks also valued beauty and imagination. They wrote many stories and plays that continue to be performed today. The ancient Greeks developed a great deal of what we take for granted. This is why Greece is often known as the Cradle of Western Civilization.
Major Resource Site [Emory University]
PALACE OF KNOSSOS IN MINOAN CRETE
Perseus Greek and Roman Materials
Use this tool to browse or search the contents of the Perseus Digital Library.
Plato: The Allegory of the Cave, from The Republic
Plato, the most creative and influential of Socrates` disciples, wrote dialogues, in which he frequently used the figure of Socrates to espouse his own (Plato`s) full-fledged philosophy. In "The Republic," Plato sums up his views in an image of ignorant humanity, trapped in the depths and not even aware of its own limited perspective.
Religion and Death
The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They worshipped many gods whom they believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with superhuman strength and ageless beauty. The Iliad and the Odyssey, our earliest surviving examples of Greek literature, record men's interactions with various gods and goddesses whose characters and appearances underwent little change in the centuries that followed.
Education in schools in ancient Athens was at first limited to aristocratic boys. By the 4th century b.c. all 18-year-old males spent two years in a gymnasion, a state school devoted to the overall physical and intellectual development of a young man. More advanced education in philosophy, mathematics, logic and rhetoric was available to the aristocracy in highly select gymnasia like the Academy of Plato and the Lycaeum of Aristotle.
Sexuality in Fifth Century Athens
Brian Arkins. University College Dublin, Ireland
Sfakian People and the Dorians
In actual fact, the origins of the Dorians, a pastoral people, are necessarily obscure, but it appears they originated in northern and northwestern Greece, i.e. Macedonia and Epirus. From there they apparently swept southward into central Greece and then into the southern Aegean area in successive migrations beginning about 1100 BC, at the end of the Bronze Age. This new people brought with it a new material, iron, which was of Balkan origin. World2C TM Multimedia.
Slavery In Ancient Greece
Slavery played a major role in ancient Greek civilization. Without it, the citizens wouldn`t have been able to devote so much time to other activities such as the government, art and thought.
TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE
The Age of Pericles: The Athenian Empire
The Amazing Ancient World of Western Civilization
What is the Ancient World? Greece, Rome, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Babylon, Sumer, Nubia, Persia, Byzantium, Turkey? Or is it Assyrians, Chaldeans, Hebrews, Hittites, Akkadians, Etruscans, Minoans? Is it Alexander, Plato, Virgil, Socrates, Hammurabi, Aristotle, Nefertiti, the Pharaohs, Emperors, Caesar, Cleopatra, Sargon, Akhenaton, the Black Athena, Homer?
The Ancient City of Athens
Photographic archive of the archaeological and architectural remains of ancient Athens (Greece). It is intended primarily as a resource for students and teachers of classical art & archaeology, civilization, languages, and history as a supplement to their class lectures and reading assignments and as a source of images for use in term papers, projects, and presentations. We also hope that this site will be useful to all who have an interest in archaeological exploration and the recovery, interpretation, and preservation of the past. [Ancient Greece]
The Ancient Greek House
The typical ancient Greek house was a place where the man of the family was proud to live. Within the walls of the house, no one could treat him with any form of disrespect at any possible time. The house was the heart of the man, in which he had no choice but to protect it and its living and non-living contents.
The Ancient Greek Olympics
The Ancient Greek World - Daily Life Index
The house, men's and women's lives. [Ancient Greece]
The Ancient Greek World - Economy
The Ancient Greek World - Greek Burial
The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They worshipped many gods whom they believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with superhuman strength and ageless beauty. The Iliad and the Odyssey, our earliest surviving examples of Greek literature, record men's interactions with various gods and goddesses whose characters and appearances underwent little change in the centuries that followed.
The Ancient Greek World - Greek Cemeteries
The Ancient Greek World - Land and Time Index
Greece is the southeasternmost region on the European continent. It is defined by a series of mountains, surrounded on all sides except the north by water, and endowed with countless large and small islands. The Ionian and Aegean seas and the many deep bays and natural harbors along the coastlines allowed the Greeks to prosper in maritime commerce and to develop a culture which drew inspiration from many sources, both foreign and indigenous.
The Ancient Greek World - University of Pennsylvania
The Ancient Greek World Index
University of Pennsylvania Museum [Images] [Ancient Greece]
The Ancient Greek World.
Virtual gallery at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Also explore the other classical galleries in the Worlds Intertwined exhibit.
[University of Pennsylvania]
The Ancient Olympic Games Virtual Museum
The Olympic idea was born in ancient Greece nearly 3,000 years ago. Sporting contests took place during the great festivals that the Greeks held in honour of their gods. The most important of these contests was the Olympic Games, dedicated to Zeus, the Father of the Gods. Every four years, free men from all over the Greek world gathered at the Games to demonstrate their sporting spirit in the sacred their sporting spirit in the sacred surroundings of Olympia, situated in the state of Elis.The first recorded Olympic Games took place in 776 BC. There was just one event, a race over a distance called a stade. A stade was about 180 metres, nearly the length of the stadium at Olympia. The race was won by a young cook, Coroebus, from Elis.
The Ancient Olympics
Ancient and Modern Olympic Sports, A Tour of Ancient Olympia, The Context of the Games and the Olympic Spirit, Athletes` Stories,
Frequently Asked Questions About the Ancient Olympics, Related Sites About the Olympics, Further Reading. [Perseus Project Classics Department]
The Athenian Constitution by Aristotle
The Internet Classics Archive | [Ancient Greece]
The Atrium: For Devotees of Ancient Greece & Rome
The Atrium :: Portal to the Worlds of Ancient Greece and Rome
The Carlos Museums Collection - Classical Art
The Dark Ages
The Delian League
Legends which survived among the Dorians and which have come down to us through Pindar, Herodotus and other ancient writers, say that the earliest ancestors of the Dorians were Makednoi (that is, Macedonians), who migrated to Doris from Pindos, more precisely from the Lakmos region.
The Early Minoan Period:The Settlements
EARLY MINOAN I (ca. 3100/3000-2700/2650 B.C.)
EARLY MINOAN II (ca. 2700/2650-2150 B.C.)
Internal and External Relations
EARLY MINOAN III (ca. 2150-2050/2000 B.C.)
Problems of Definition
The Ecole Initiative: The Eleusinian Mysteries
The Eleusinian Mysteries, held annually in honor of Demeter and Persephone, were the most sacred and revered of all the ritual celebrations of ancient Greece. They were instituted in the city of Eleusis, some twenty-two kilometers west of Athens, possibly as far back as the early Mycenaean period, and continued for almost two thousand years. Large crowds of worshippers from all over Greece (and later, from throughout the Roman empire) would gather to make the holy pilgrimage between the two cities and and participate in the secret ceremonies, generally regarded as the high point of Greek religion. As Christianity began to spread, the Mysteries were condemned by the early Church fathers; yet the rites continued for hundreds of years more and exercised considerable influence on the formation of early Christian teachings and practices.
The Geography of Ancient Greece
Greece is located in the Mediterranean Sea. It is a peninsula, with water on three sides. There are also many Greek islands. Rhodes and Crete were two of the larger islands. Sparta and Athens were the major cities of ancient Greece. Central Greece is broken up by hills and mountains. It was hard for the ancient Greeks to travel through these areas. They depended on the sea for trade and it also helped the spread of ideas. [kids]
The Geography of Ancient Greece
Greece is located on a peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. As you can see in the map above, Greece is almost completely surrounded by water. Many islands can be found around the peninsula. The large island at the bottom of the map is Crete.
The Great Homepage of Alexander, or Something Like That
The Greek Alphabet
The Greek alphabet came from the Phonecians around the year 900 B.C. When the Phonecians invented the alphabet there were 600 symbols. Those symbols took up too much room on the papyrus, so they narrowed it down to 22 symbols. The Greeks borrowed some of the symbols and then they made up some of their own. But the Phonecians, like other cultures, used their symbols to represent consonants and vowel sounds together. The Greeks were the first people to have separate symbols (or letters) to represent vowel sounds. Even the name "alphabet" comes from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet -- "alpha" and "beta." All later alphabets came from the Greek alphabet.
The Greek House
Greek city houses of the 6th and 5th century b.c. were usually modest in scale and built of relatively inexpensive materials. They varied from two or three rooms clustered around a small court to a dozen or so rooms. City house exteriors presented a plain facade to the street, broken only by the door and a few small windows set high. In larger houses the main rooms included a kitchen, a small room for bathing, several bedrooms which usually occupied a second floor, the men's andron for dining, and perhaps a separate suite of rooms known as the gynaikonitis for the use of women.
The Greek World of MARY RENAULT
Tour of the Greek World
THE GREEK, INDIAN, & CHINESE ELEMENTS
The four classical elements were independently proposed by early Presocratic philosophers: water (Thales), air (Anaximenes), earth (Xenophanes), and fire (Heraclitus).
The Hippocratic Oath
OATH AND LAW OF HIPPOCRATES
The History of Animals by Aristotle
A 698k text-only version is available for download.
The History of Plumbing - Greece
Until Philip of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, rampaged through and destroyed the city in 432 B.C., Olynthus was a rich and flourishing metropolis, its people enjoying the luxury of the latest plumbing innovation-bathtubs. Excavations at Olynthus, in northern Greece, attest to tiled bathrooms and self-draining tubs. Several of the tubs have survived intact, shaped like present-day models though with one sloping end cut off. It is assumed that underground piping was made of since deteriorated clay, as there was no lead piping found.
The History of the Oracle of Delphi
Delphi owed its international prominence to the famous oracle of the god Apollo, who foretold the future through his priestess, known as the Pythia. She responded to the questions of visitors while in a trance; her inarticulate cries were interpreted and written down by an official interpreter, in earlier times in hexameter verse, then later in prose. These oracular responses were notoriously ambiguous, and their interpretation was often only 'deduced' after the event to which they referred. This, however, did not deter visitors from journeying to Delphi from all over the Mediterranean
The Horse in Ancient Greece
Examines the horse's role in Ancient Greek mythology, society and art. On this web site, you will find various examinations and summaries of works from Classical and contemporary sources, as well as several examples and interpretations of Ancient Greek art depicting the horse.
The Last Days of Socrates
The Major Cities in Ancient Greece
The Myceneans: Mycenean Religion
The Myths Surrounding the Olympic Games
The real story of the ancient Olympic Games. Were the ancient games better than ours? More fair and square? More about sports and less about money? Are modern games more sexist? More political? Have we strayed from the ancient Olympic ideal? [Ancient Olympics at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology]
The New, Consolidated DRJCLASSICS.COM website
The Survey of Audio-Visual Resources for Classics: Roman, Latin, Greek history, mythology, art, archaeology, philosophy, religion, culture, language and literature on cd video slides maps posters more.
The Odyssey and Antecedent Tales
The Historical Setting of the Odyssey and more. Homer's Odyssey:
A Guide to Understanding the Voyage of
Odysseus Through a Study of
The Olympic Games in the Ancient Hellenic World
When work began on the Parthenon in 447 BC, the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. Work on the temple continued until 432; the Parthenon, then, represents the tangible and visible efflorescence of Athenian imperial power, unencumbered by the depradations of the Peloponnesian War. Likewise, it symbolizes the power and influence of the Athenian politician, Perikles, who championed its construction.
The Peloponnesian War
Ancient sources | Thucydides | The war in general | Particular points | Inscriptions | Reviews | Bibliographies | Discussions [Ancient Greece]
The Peloponnesian War
The Persian War in ancient Greece
There can be no doubt that the Persian Wars form an essential part of Ancient Greek history. Had certain key battles gone in favour of the opposing side, it is highly likely that subsequently, the culture and status of the country would have reflected greatly the conquering nation, Persia. The Persians already controlled much of the known world at that time, so it would have been very difficult for any other nations to regain control of Greece.
The Persian Wars
Like the Trojan War, the Persian Wars were a defining moment in Greek history. The Athenians, who would dominate Greece culturally and politically through the fifth century BC and through part of the fourth, regarded the wars against Persia as their greatest and most characteristic moment. For all their importance, though, the Persian Wars began inauspiciously. In the middle of the sixth century BC, the Greek city-states along the coast of Asia Minor came under the control of the Lydians and their king, Croesus (560-546 BC). However, when the Persians conquered the Lydians in 546 BC, all the states subject to the Lydians became subject to the Persians. The Persians controlled their new subject-states very closely; they appointed individuals to rule the states as tyrants.
The Persian Wars
The Plague in Athens During the Peloponnesian War
The Real Story of the Ancient Olympic Games
The first Olympic Games were held in 776 BC. They began as a religious festival, were held every four years and continued for a thousand years. They were held in a sacred, fertile valley of Ancient Greece at a place called Olympia. Australian Sports Commission [The University of Pennsylvania Museum]
The Second Athenian Empire: 362-338 BC
The Spartan Hegemony: 404-371 BC
The Theban Hegemony: 371-362 BC
Thucydides and Herodotus
Thucydides: Pericles' Funeral Oration
Trojan War: IMAGES
The Trojan War is the main issue of the Iliad by Homer, and its later sequence is described in the Aeneid by Virgil.
The war took place between Achaeans and Trojans, and raged for ten years.
Use of Chariots
If you have just arrived in town, I suggest visiting the archaeological museum before you walk to the remains of the acropolis. As Thucydides mentioned, there is not an overwhelming amount of architectural remains on the site, but some of the finest pieces are now on display at the museum, and you will probably have a better idea of the local Spartan uniqueness if you spend an hour or so at the museum first. [Ancient Greece]
WebAcropol : Acropolis : Guided Tour
The Acropolis has been in continuous use by the inhabitants of Athens, as a religious center, from the Mycenaean era until the end of the Byzantine period . Athenians still refer to the Acropolis as the ``holy rock'. The buildings which one brings to mind when talking about the Acropolis, are the most recent and most majestic in a succession of buildings. Having these edifices constructed was conceived by Perikles, the leader of the democratic faction and a friend of Sophocles and Anaxagoras. He dreamt of Athens as the leader of a panhellenic confederacy, as an ideal democracy, and above all as a city with magnificent edifices, temples and public buildings, theatres and odeia.
WINNING AT OLYMPIA
New studies challenge traditional notions
about Greek Athletes and why they competed.
BY DONALD G. KYLE
Women's Dress and Toilet Articles
Women´s clothes underwent relatively few changes in style in the course of antiquity. Clothes were normally made at home from locally available wool or flax (used to make linen). The two most commonly worn garments were the chiton or tunic and the himation or cloak.
Greek women had virtually no political rights of any kind and were controlled by men at nearly every stage of their lives. The most important duties for a city-dwelling woman were to bear children--preferably male--and to run the household. Duties of a rural woman included some of the agricultural work: the harvesting of olives and fruit was their responsibility, as may have been the gathering of vegetables.
World Cultures Atlas: Ancient Greece