Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online

Bible History Online

Sub Categories

Back to Categories

January 23    Scripture

More Bible History
Ancient Greece: Military History
Weapons, Warfare , and Wars

A Beginner`s Guide to Roman Arms and Armour Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom A `virtual book` that provides an illustrated introduction to the arms and armour of Roman soldiers. [ancient weapons] [Weapons and Warfare]

Ancient Greek Infantry I. Tactical Warfare: Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. II. Armor and Weapons: Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. III. Military Hierarchy: Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". IV. Military Pay: Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. V. Military Duty: Duty to the state and to the gods. VI. Bibliography:

Ancient Greek Infantry Divisions Wikipedia: Ekdromoi, Hoplite, Peltast, Pezhetairoi, Prodromoi, Thorakites, Thureophoroi. [Weapons and Warfare]

Ancient Spartan Infantry Weapons Infantry was the dominant military arm in ancient Greece, and the Spartan infantry eclipsed all others. A Spartan hoplite (footsoldier) wielded a pike of seven and a half to nine feet in length, which he handled more skillfully than his opponent did his own weapon of lesser stature. He donned a helmet, breastplate, and greaves and carried a short sword at his waist. He held so large a shield that it could be used as a stretcher to carry wounded from the field. This shield protected its bearer's left side and front, and extended far leftward to protect his neighbor's right side. Dependence upon a neighbor's shield encouraged each hoplite to keep rank. These trained hoplites maneuvered in a formation, called a phalanx, of at least eight ranks deep. The Spartan phalanx was the most formidable sight on battlefields in the fifth century B.C .

Ancient Swords (Greece) The Greeks known for big achievements in politics, mathematics, sculpture, literature and philosophy, were fearsome warriors as well. The Greek swords were dual-purpose weapons with leaf-shaped blades. These blades were designed for both cutting and thrusting.

Battle of Syme, 411 B.C Peloponnesian War. In January 411 an unspecified number of Spartan ships defeated a squadron of Athenian vessels off the island of Syme in the south-eastern Aegean. Thucydides is the only source for this battle, apart from two possible allusions in Aristophanes. [Greece Ancient War Links]

Bronze ´Corinthian´ Helmet ca. 600 BC Italy MS 1608 The most common type of helmet in use during the Archaic period. Beaten out of a single sheet of bronze, it provided good protection to the forehead, nose and cheek areas. The two cheek pieces are separated to leave a gap exposing the mouth. Its shape only approximates the contours of the human skull, necessitating a fur or felt lining. Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.

Bronze ´Piceno-Corinthian´ Helmet ca. 550 BC Ascoli Piceno (ancient Asculum), Italy, Tomb of the Warrior MS 1534 This helmet originally carried a detachable horsehair crest. In perhaps a local modification by the Piceni, a tribe of central Italic people on the Adriatic coast northeast of Rome, the protective cheek and lower jaw pieces are formed from a single sheet of bronze. The nose piece has been restored from another helmet. Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.

East Greek Hoplite Aryballos ca. 600&endash;570 BC 31-9-1 This little container, intended to hold perfume or scented unguents, gives a naturalistic impression of a warrior´s face staring out from behind his protective helmet. Compare this Ionian helmet type, with its separately attached cheek pieces, with the bronze examples (MS 1608, MS 1534). H. 6.5; L. 6.0; W. 5.5 cm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum

East Greek Hoplite Aryballos ca. 600&endash;570 BC 31-9-1 This little container, intended to hold perfume or scented unguents, gives a naturalistic impression of a warrior´s face staring out from behind his protective helmet. Compare this Ionian helmet type, with its separately attached cheek pieces, with the bronze examples (MS 1608, MS 1534). H. 6.5; L. 6.0; W. 5.5 cm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum

Good Ancient Warfare Book The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare. Book. Greek and Roman warfare. Essays. Texts. Pictures [Weapons and Warfare]

Hellas Net : Warfare in Hellas Wars and History of Warfare to the era of the Diadochs.

History of the hoplite phalanx Men wear their helmets and their breastplates for their own needs, but they carry shields for the men of the entire line. --Plutarch, Moralia The hoplite phalanx was the perfect manifestation of classical Greek society on the battlefield. Made up of middle-class men who had day jobs, the phalanx was made to decide a war in a single bloody struggle. Hellenistic warfare.

Military Hierarchy The military hierarchy of ancient Greece could in retrospect be viewed as running parallel to its social hierarchy. The aristocratic class were the wealthiest and most politically powerful individuals of the populace. Their social position gave them an identical stature in the military hierarchy, for they assumed complete authority as trierarchs of both land and sea forces. Not only did they instigate wars but they also led them on the battle fields. Cavalry members were quite wealthy but were subordinates to the first census class. They supplied chariots and horses and equipped themselves handsomely with armaments; often they were commanders of small units. The hoplite soldiers who formed the phalanx were composed of third class members, and were capable of attaining the necessary skills and equipment to become heavy-infantry soldiers. The lowest class was conscripted into the light-infantry in which they were massed together under the leadership of the generals and commanders. Although the military hierachy was imbued with the same social hierarchy as in their city states the military was much more than an obligatory service. It was a unifying patriotic force that was shared between all social classes on the battle field where each citizen saw himself as a soldier equal to any other [Ancient Greece]

Nicias By Plutarch (legendary, died 413 B.C.) [Greece Ancient War Links]

Overview of archaic and classical Greek history An Overview of Classical Greek History from Mycenae to Alexander. Thomas R. Martin [Greece Ancient War Links]

Pelopennesian War (431-404 B.C.) The war was a catastrophe for Athens. She lost her empire so thoroughly that she never regained it. Sparta won the war, but scarcely knew what to do with the fruits of victory. Her attempts to lead the Greeks were heavy-handed and soon called forth new champions of liberty. Wars and Military History

Peloponnesian War Links [Greece Ancient War Links]

Peloponnesian War and History Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]

Peloponnesian War By Thucydides The History of the Peloponnesian War By Thucydides Written 431 B.C.E Translated by Richard Crawley. [Greece Ancient War Links]

Peloponnesian Wars The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. The war was documented by Thucydides, an Athenian general and historian, in his work History of the Peloponnesian War. Most of the extant comedies of Aristophanes were written during this war, and poke fun at the generals and events. The war lasted 27 years, with a 6-year truce in the middle, and ended with Athens' surrender in 404 BC. [Greece Ancient War Links]

Perseus Architecture: Athens, Parthenon

Plague in Athens during the Peloponnesian War Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]

Revolution at Corcyra: Thucydides The History of the Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]

Silver Decadrachm ca. 400&endash;375 BC Syracuse 29-126-41 "Racing four-horse chariot with a flying Nike personifying Victory crowning the driver. The space below is filled with captured Punic arms. This spectacular coin may commemorate the victory of Dionysius I over the Carthaginian general Himilcon and the deliverance of Syracuse from its Punic siege in 396 BC The reverse of the coin is signed by Euaenetus, one of the most renowned coin designers of antiquity. Commemorative types became especially popular in the Hellenistic period after Alexander´s death in 323 BC" Dia. 34.0 mm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum

Syracusan expedition: Background Information The Syracusan Expedition was launched against the Spartan colony of Syracuse on the island of Sicily about 415 BC. This was the second and much larger Athenian attempt to force Sparta and her colonies (known as the Peloponnesian League) to its knees. A successful attack and capture of the colony of Syracuse would have certainly meant the eventual loss of the Spartan colonies on Sicily as well as much of the military capability of Sparta. The following is a summary of the events of the battle which changed the coarse of the Peloponnesian Wars, the power struggle between Athens and Sparta and history as well. [Greece Ancient War Links]

The Ancient Greek World - Weapons and Armor Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. [Ancient Greece]

The History of the Peloponnesian War By Thucydides Written 431 B.C. Translated by Richard Crawley [Greece Ancient War Links]

The Peloponnesian War The war between Athens and the Athenian empire versus Sparta, Thebes, Corinth, and other members of the Peloponnesian Confederacy 431 - 404 B.C.E. Large scale campaigns and heavy fighting took place from Sicily to the coast of Asia Minor and from the Hellespont and Thrace to Rhodes. It was the first war in history to be recorded by an eyewitness historian of the highest caliber. It has come down through history as the archetypal war between a commercial democracy and an agricultural aristocracy and a war between a maritime superpower and a continental military machine. Thycidides' history is itself a classic, which for generations was considered a foundation of a proper education. The war began on 4 April 431 B.C. with a Theban attempt to surprise Plataea, Athens' ally and outpost on the northern base of Cithaeron. It ended on 25 April 404 B.C., when Athens capitulated. The cities of the Boetian Confederacy under Theban leadership were Sparta's allies from the first. Syracuse and other Sicilian cities gave active help in the last part of the war. Argos, her hand tied by a treaty with Sparta, remained neutral during the first ten years, but as a democracy, was benevolently inclined towards Athens. Persia at first held aloof, waiting for an opportunity to regain her dominion over the Greek cities of the Asiatic seaboard, which Athens had liberated, but finally provided the crucial financial and logistic support required by Sparta to conduct a maritime offensive. Athens, was unpopular with many members of her own empire, but held most under control by her maritime supremacy. The war may be divided into three major periods or five phases: The Archidamian war: phase 1 431-427; phase 2 426-421 The Sicilian war: 421-413 The Ionian or Decelean War: phase 1 412-404; phase 2 407-404 [Greece Ancient War Links]

The Peloponnesian War Ancient sources | Thucydides | The war in general | Particular points | Inscriptions | Reviews | Bibliographies | Discussions [Weapons and Warfare]

Thucydides` The Peloponnesian War The History of the Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]

Use of Chariots Coins and vases. The Ancient Greek World

Vase-Paintings and Hoplite Equipment Arms and Armour: Representations of Warfare. UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE; THE SHEFTON MUSEUM OF GREEK ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY

War Ships of the Greeks Ancient Greece: Ships of Antiquity [Weapons and Warfare]

Warfare in Ancient Greece As the economic resources of Greek city-states and individuals increased during the seventh century B.C., armies of foot soldiers were formed within the wealthier city-states. Known as hoplites, these soldiers were characteristically equipped with about seventy pounds of armor, most of which was made of bronze. The typical panoply included an eight- to ten-foot thrusting spear with an iron tip and butt, and bronze armor consisting of a helmet, cuirass (chest armor), greaves (shin guards), and a large shield about thirty inches in diameter. The heavy bronze shield, which was secured on the left arm and hand by a metal band on its inner rim, was the most important part of a hoplite's panoply, as it was his chief defense. Greek and Roman warfare. Essays. Texts. Pictures [Weapons and Warfare]

Weapons and Armor Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.

If you notice a broken link or any error PLEASE report it by clicking HERE
© 1995-2019 Bible History Online

Bible Maps