Ancient Egypt: History
3D models of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt in 3D Models for Universities.
A History of Christianity in Egypt
Learn how the Land of the Pharaohs proved to be fertile ground for the young religion. "When writing about the history of any religion, regardless of time and place, I have found that it is often difficult to separate history from tradition. In some cases, the two are one and the same, while in others, one account can be radically different from another. It is my purpose in these articles neither to vilify nor praise any one system of belief, but merely to present the story of a fascinating aspect of our world's history."
A New Light On Ancient Art
ABZU Regional Index: Egypt
One of the UK's oldest Egyptology sites, including original photos from Egypt and various collections.
The City of Alexandria, Egypt -
The Building of Alexandria -
The second largest city in Egypt, Alexandria, known as "The Pearl of the Mediterranean", has an atmosphere that is more Mediterranean than Middle Eastern ; its ambience and cultural heritage distance it from the rest of the country although it is actually only 225 km. from Cairo.
Founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC, Alexandria became the capital of Graeco-Roman Egypt, its status as a beacon of culture symbolized by Pharos, the legendary lighthouse that was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The setting for the stormy relationship between Cleopatra and Mark Antony, Alexandria was also the center of learning in the ancient world. But ancient Alexandria declined, and when Napoleon landed, he found a sparsely populated fishing village.
From the 19th century Alexandria took a new role, as a focus for Egypt's commercial and maritime expansion. This Alexandria has been immortalized by writers such as E-M- Forster and Cavafy. Generations of immigrants from Greece, Italy and the Levant settled here and made the city synonymous with commerce, cosmopolitanism and bohemian culture.
Alexandria is a city to explore at random. It's as important to enjoy the atmosphere as it is to see the sights.
Old Alexandria -
Dinocrates built the Heptastadion, the causeway between Pharos and the mainland. This divided the harbors into the Western and Eastern. The Eastern harbor was really where the old harbor from the Middle Ages was located.
Ancient Egypt at the British Museum
Ancient Life, Geography, Gods and Goddesses, Mummifications, Pharaoh, Pyramids, Temples, Times, Trades, Writing
Ancient Egypt Glossary of Terms
Over Egypt's past, many terms from many origins have come into use. In order to understand the Egyptian past, we have included a glossary of terms.
Ancient Egyptian History and Documents
Index of Ancient Documents
400 Year Stela, The
Abbott Papyrus: An investigation into tomb robberies held under Ramses IX
Admonitions of Ipuwer, The
Astarte and the Insatiable Sea
Autobiography of Ahmose, Son of Abana, The
Autobiography of Ankhtifi, The
Autobiography of Bekenkhonsu, The
Autobiography of Ahmose Pen-nekhbet (18th dynasty)
Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian Account of
Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian Account of (Poem)
Battle of Megiddo, Egyptian Account of (c. 1482 BC)
Bentrech Stele, The
Biography of Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet
Blinding of Truth by Falsehood, The
Book of the Dead
Contendings of Horus and Seth, The
Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden
Edict of Horemheb, The
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus
Eloquent Peasant, The Tale of
Famine Stele, The
Ghost Story, A
History of Creation, The
Hymn to the Aten, The
Hymn of Merneptah
Hymn to the Nile (c. 2100 BC)
Hymn to Osiris and the Legend of the Origin of Horus, A
Hymn to Senusret III
Ideal autobiography (18th dynasty)
Ikhernofret's Description of the Osiris Passion Play at Abydos
Inscription (Autobiography) of Wini, The
Inscriptions from the Tomb of Harkhuf
Inscription of Kamose
Inscriptions of Kheti II (First Intermediate Period
Inscription of Ptahshepses, The
Instruction of Amenemope, The
Instructions of Kagemni, The
Instructions of Khety (Middle Kingdom)
Inscription of Khnumhotep (12th dynasty)
Installation of the Vizier, The
Koller Papyrus - Model letter: The equipment of a Syrian expedition
Koller Papyrus: Warnings to the idle scribe
Koller Papyrus: A letter concerning Nubian tribute
Legend of Horus of Behutet and the Winged Disk, The
Legend of Ra and Isis, The
Legend of the Destruction of Mankind, The
Loyalist Instruction from the Sehetepibre Stela, The
Man Who was Tired of Life, The
The Magic Book of Princess Ahura (c. 1100 BC)
Mouse as Vizier
Negative Confessions from the Papyrus of Ani, The
Peace Treaty between Ramesses II and Hattusili III
Precepts of the prefect, the lord Ptah-hotep (c. 2200 BC)
Prophecies of Neferti, The
Quarrel of Apophis and Seknenre, The
Restoration Stele of Tutankhumn (c. 1330 BC)
Semna stela of the viceroy Merimose (18th dynasty)
Shabaka Stone, The
Shipwrecked Sailor, The (c. 2200 BC)
Stela of King Nesbanebded (Smendes I) Commemorating the re-opening of the quarry at Geelein
Stela of Piye
Story of Sinuhe, The
Taking of Joppa, The
Tale of the Doomed Prince
Tale of Two Brothers, The
Turin King List
Teaching of King Ammenemes I to His Son Sesostris, The
Teaching for Merikare, The
Victorious King (Tuthmosis III), The
Victory Stele of Merneptah
Herododus: An Account of Egypt: Being the Second Book of His Histories Called Euterpe
Manetho on the Hyksos
A Thousand Miles Up the Nile by Amelia B. Edwards
The Burden of Isis by James Teackle Dennis
Discovery of the Source of the Nile, The by John Hanning Speke
Egypt Magic by Wallis Budge
Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life by Wallis Budge
Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity by Samuel Sharpe
The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh by W. M. Flinders Petrie
Analysis and Information
Amarna Letters, The
Book of Caverns
Book of the Celestial Cow, The
Book of the Dead, The
Book of the Earth
Book of Gates, The
Books of the Sky (Heavens)
Coffin Text, The
The Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld
Litany of Re, The
Literature in Ancient Egypt: A Prominent Component of Civilization
Major Egyptian Books of the Underworld
Offering Formula and Ritual
Pyramid Text, The
The Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, 1187
History of the Egyptian Monks (Historia Monachorum in Aegypto)
Lausiac History (Historia Lausiaca)
Sayings of the Egyptian Fathers
Manichaean Psalm-Book, Part II
Ancient Egyptian to English wordlist
(ASCII text file, 726 Kb in German and 1.1 Mb in English) This is the Beinlich Egyptian wordlist. The handlist of Ancient Egyptian words known to Egyptologists as the "Beinlich Wordlist" was announced by Horst Beinlich and Friedhelm Hoffmann
Nubia was also called - Upper & Lower Nubia, Kush, Land of Kush, Te-Nehesy, Nubadae, Napata, or the Kingdom of Meroei. The region referred to as Lower Egypt is the northernmost portion. Upper Nubia extends south into Sudan and can be subdivided into several separate areas such as Batn El Hajar or "Belly of Rocks", the sands of the Abri-Delgo Reach, or the flat plains of the Dongola Reach. Nubia, the hottest and most arid region of the world, has caused many civilizations to be totally dependent on the Nile for existence.
Annual Egyptological Bibliography
The AEB is published by the International Association of Egyptologists in cooperation with the Netherlands Institute for the Near East. Since 1 november 2007 access to this website is only possible through subscription.
Babylonian and Egyptian Mathematics
Best Egyptian Museums Outside of Egypt
Egypt has long been a mysterious and inviting land, enticing everyone from Napoleon to modern travelers. The country bursts with history, culture and legend. Yet a trip to the Nile Valley is often too expensive or too much of a hassle for many of those who dream of mummies and pyramids. Fortunately, there are many places outside of Cairo that allow people to experience the grandeur of Egypt without making the long trek to the desert. Here are our picks of the best.
1. Museo Egizio
2. Metropolitan Museum of Art
3. The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum
4. The Louvre
5. Allard Pierson Museum
6. The Oriental Museum
7. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Brittanica Ancient Web sites
Provides vast resources chosen and rated by the editors
Color Tour of Egypt
The West Bank/Luxor
Christianity in Egypt through the ages. As an overdue inquiry into the rich world of the Copto-Pharaonic heritage, this research publication attempts to fill a lacuna which is deeply felt by Coptologists, Mid-Eastern scholars and Egyptologists. The main objective is to increase awareness of an indispensable area that has long been minimized or deplorably neglected particularly in the West.
Digital Mummies: Ancient Faraos on the Net
Diotima: Women & Gender in the Ancient World
Directory of North American Egyptologists
Duke Papyrus Archive
Egypte, the Land of Civilization
In Dutch and English. This site includes: A diary and photographs of a recent trip to Egypt including Cairo. A story about researchers of the Giza Pyramid. News about Egypt, icluding a story by Franck Goddio about the discovery of ancient cities. Rated and commented weblinks to sites about Egypt (worldwide).
Egyptian Museums in Egypt
Egyptian Unit Fractions
Nowadays, we usually write non-integer numbers either as fractions (2/7) or decimals (0.285714). The floating point representation used in computers is another representation very similar to decimals. But the ancient Egyptians (as far as we can tell from the documents now surviving) used a number system based on unit fractions: fractions with one in the numerator. This idea let them represent numbers like 1/7 easily enough; other numbers such as 2/7 were represented as sums of unit fractions (e.g. 2/7 = 1/4 +1/28). Further, the same fraction could not be used twice (so 2/7 = 1/7 + 1/7 is not allowed). We call a formula representing a sum of distinct unit fractions an Egyptian fraction.
Egyptology Online is the free information resource for students studying Egyptology with the National Home Study College. Egyptology describes the study of mummification, the pyramids, Hyksos, scarabs, and lots more!
Historical Astrology In Egypt
Find out how Egypt provided the basis for modern Astrology.
History of Ancient Egypt
University of South Carolina
History of Egypt
The information on Egyptian history is taken from a number of sources, including Sir Alan Gardiner's Egypt of the Pharaohs. Many sources are used so as to reflect a wide variety of theories and ideas about Egypt's history, particularly its early days. Note: This is one of the nices and most informative sites I have seen for historical reference on Pharaonic history.
Math of Egypt
Bruce's Hieratic (Middle Kingdom) Math of Egypt Page
Working to decrypt the Hieratic RMP. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus is a fascinating document (1650 B.C.E.) copied from an older papyrus circa 1850 B.C.E.
Netherlands Institute for the Near East
NINO initiates, supports, and conducts scholarly research in the civilizations of the Near East from the ancient to the early modern period. In particular, it concentrates on the archaeology, history, languages, and cultures of Egypt, Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Persia. In addition to its scientific research, NINO supports and advances the cultural relations between the Netherlands and the Near East. NINO is an independent foundation with ties to the academic community of the Netherlands. It is located on the premises of Leiden University
Newton Institute Egyptology Resources (Cambridge)
NOVA Online/Pyramids -- The Inside Story
Portals To Eternity: Necropolis at Terenouthis
Roman Portraits from Egypt
Located some one hundred kilometers south of Cairo, Fayyum is a green and fertile region in a vast circular depression. Its diameter from east to west is approximately 60 kilometers, northwest of the lake of Birket Qarun. The ancient Egyptians called this region Mer-our (The Great Lake). Fayyum played a significant role during the 12th Dynasty, and later under the Ptolemies.
The Fayyum portraits conflict in an intriguing manner, scattered as they are around the world in museums and collections and, which, here, bring together the image to be viewed as a whole. An ideal museum, which may be visited city by city, to which we soon become attached, to the extent that, during the visit, already familiar traits await us, as one of this art's truly ambiguous features is its ability to multiply effigies which, at first sight, quickly, even too quickly, elicit a feeling of déjà-vu.
Here is the work belonging to the Basel Museum.
Room in the Egyptian Museum (Vatican)
Step Pyramid Complex of Djoser
The Ancient Egypt Site
Explore more than 3.000 years of Ancient Egyptian history, from the end of prehistory at around 3.000 BC to the closing of the last Egyptian temple in 535/537 AD
A timeline helps you navigate through history and discover the formidable Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt.
The Egyptian Collection
MUSEO CIVICO ARCHEOLOGICO DI BOLOGNA
The Egyptian Galleries
The Great Pyramid
Since the earliest of times the "Great Pyramid" of Giza (Arab. Al Jizah ) along with its 2 other main pyramids have been considered one of the wonders of the world. The Great Pyramid is still among the world's largest structures, standing almost as tall as a 50 story skyscraper. Brief study of the Pyramid and its builders. [Bible History Online Study]
The Griffith Institute (Oxford)
Includes Tutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation
The people of ancient Egypt
The people of ancient Egypt: the population, numbers and composition, the language
The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh
...1883. Sir Flinders Petrie's 1st Edition online which surveys the Gizaplateau pyramids.
The Weights and Measures of Ancient Egypt
An examination of the Great Pyramids of Egypt and other buildings makes it clear that the Egyptians at a very early stage incorporated a measurement system, though really their system of weights and measures was fundamental to all sorts of functions and essential for the smooth running of their bureaucracy.
Torso of Pharaoh Nectanebo I (Graphic)
UCLA Egyptology Homepage
where you can take a tour of important Egyptian relics around the world.
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