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January 23    Scripture

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Ancient Egypt: History

3D models of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt in 3D Models for Universities.

A History of Christianity in Egypt Learn how the Land of the Pharaohs proved to be fertile ground for the young religion. "When writing about the history of any religion, regardless of time and place, I have found that it is often difficult to separate history from tradition. In some cases, the two are one and the same, while in others, one account can be radically different from another. It is my purpose in these articles neither to vilify nor praise any one system of belief, but merely to present the story of a fascinating aspect of our world's history."

A New Light On Ancient Art

ABZU Regional Index: Egypt

Akhet Egyptology One of the UK's oldest Egyptology sites, including original photos from Egypt and various collections.

Alexandria, Egypt The City of Alexandria, Egypt - The Building of Alexandria - The second largest city in Egypt, Alexandria, known as "The Pearl of the Mediterranean", has an atmosphere that is more Mediterranean than Middle Eastern ; its ambience and cultural heritage distance it from the rest of the country although it is actually only 225 km. from Cairo. Founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC, Alexandria became the capital of Graeco-Roman Egypt, its status as a beacon of culture symbolized by Pharos, the legendary lighthouse that was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The setting for the stormy relationship between Cleopatra and Mark Antony, Alexandria was also the center of learning in the ancient world. But ancient Alexandria declined, and when Napoleon landed, he found a sparsely populated fishing village. From the 19th century Alexandria took a new role, as a focus for Egypt's commercial and maritime expansion. This Alexandria has been immortalized by writers such as E-M- Forster and Cavafy. Generations of immigrants from Greece, Italy and the Levant settled here and made the city synonymous with commerce, cosmopolitanism and bohemian culture. Alexandria is a city to explore at random. It's as important to enjoy the atmosphere as it is to see the sights. Old Alexandria - Dinocrates built the Heptastadion, the causeway between Pharos and the mainland. This divided the harbors into the Western and Eastern. The Eastern harbor was really where the old harbor from the Middle Ages was located.

Ancient Egypt at the British Museum Ancient Life, Geography, Gods and Goddesses, Mummifications, Pharaoh, Pyramids, Temples, Times, Trades, Writing

Ancient Egypt Glossary of Terms Over Egypt's past, many terms from many origins have come into use. In order to understand the Egyptian past, we have included a glossary of terms.

Ancient Egyptian History and Documents Index of Ancient Documents Pharaonic Related 400 Year Stela, The Abbott Papyrus: An investigation into tomb robberies held under Ramses IX Admonitions of Ipuwer, The Astarte and the Insatiable Sea Autobiography of Ahmose, Son of Abana, The Autobiography of Ankhtifi, The Autobiography of Bekenkhonsu, The Autobiography of Ahmose Pen-nekhbet (18th dynasty) Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian Account of Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian Account of (Poem) Battle of Megiddo, Egyptian Account of (c. 1482 BC) Bentrech Stele, The Biography of Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet Blinding of Truth by Falsehood, The Book of the Dead Contendings of Horus and Seth, The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden Edict of Horemheb, The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus Eloquent Peasant, The Tale of Famine Stele, The Ghost Story, A History of Creation, The Hymn to the Aten, The Hymn of Merneptah Hymn to the Nile (c. 2100 BC) Hymn to Osiris and the Legend of the Origin of Horus, A Hymn to Senusret III Ideal autobiography (18th dynasty) Ikhernofret's Description of the Osiris Passion Play at Abydos Inscription (Autobiography) of Wini, The Inscriptions from the Tomb of Harkhuf Inscription of Kamose Inscriptions of Kheti II (First Intermediate Period Inscription of Ptahshepses, The Instruction of Amenemope, The Instructions of Kagemni, The Instructions of Khety (Middle Kingdom) Inscription of Khnumhotep (12th dynasty) Installation of the Vizier, The Koller Papyrus - Model letter: The equipment of a Syrian expedition Koller Papyrus: Warnings to the idle scribe Koller Papyrus: A letter concerning Nubian tribute Legend of Horus of Behutet and the Winged Disk, The Legend of Ra and Isis, The Legend of the Destruction of Mankind, The Loyalist Instruction from the Sehetepibre Stela, The Man Who was Tired of Life, The The Magic Book of Princess Ahura (c. 1100 BC) Mouse as Vizier Naukratis Decree Negative Confessions from the Papyrus of Ani, The Peace Treaty between Ramesses II and Hattusili III Precepts of the prefect, the lord Ptah-hotep (c. 2200 BC) Prophecies of Neferti, The Quarrel of Apophis and Seknenre, The Restoration Stele of Tutankhumn (c. 1330 BC) Semna stela of the viceroy Merimose (18th dynasty) Shabaka Stone, The Shipwrecked Sailor, The (c. 2200 BC) Stela of King Nesbanebded (Smendes I) Commemorating the re-opening of the quarry at Geelein Stela of Piye Story of Sinuhe, The Taking of Joppa, The Tale of the Doomed Prince Tale of Two Brothers, The Turin King List Teaching of King Ammenemes I to His Son Sesostris, The Teaching for Merikare, The Victorious King (Tuthmosis III), The Victory Stele of Merneptah Wenamen's Journey Non-Egyptian Text Archaic Herododus: An Account of Egypt: Being the Second Book of His Histories Called Euterpe Manetho on the Hyksos Modern A Thousand Miles Up the Nile by Amelia B. Edwards The Burden of Isis by James Teackle Dennis Discovery of the Source of the Nile, The by John Hanning Speke Egypt Magic by Wallis Budge Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life by Wallis Budge Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity by Samuel Sharpe The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh by W. M. Flinders Petrie Analysis and Information Amarna Letters, The Amduat, The Book of Caverns Book of the Celestial Cow, The Book of the Dead, The Book of the Earth Book of Gates, The Books of the Sky (Heavens) Coffin Text, The The Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld Litany of Re, The Literature in Ancient Egypt: A Prominent Component of Civilization Major Egyptian Books of the Underworld Offering Formula and Ritual Pyramid Text, The Wisdom Literature Islamic Related The Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, 1187 Christian Related History of the Egyptian Monks (Historia Monachorum in Aegypto) Lausiac History (Historia Lausiaca) Sayings of the Egyptian Fathers Quasi-Christian Manichaean Psalm-Book, Part II

Ancient Egyptian to English wordlist (ASCII text file, 726 Kb in German and 1.1 Mb in English) This is the Beinlich Egyptian wordlist. The handlist of Ancient Egyptian words known to Egyptologists as the "Beinlich Wordlist" was announced by Horst Beinlich and Friedhelm Hoffmann

Ancient Nubia Nubia was also called - Upper & Lower Nubia, Kush, Land of Kush, Te-Nehesy, Nubadae, Napata, or the Kingdom of Meroei. The region referred to as Lower Egypt is the northernmost portion. Upper Nubia extends south into Sudan and can be subdivided into several separate areas such as Batn El Hajar or "Belly of Rocks", the sands of the Abri-Delgo Reach, or the flat plains of the Dongola Reach. Nubia, the hottest and most arid region of the world, has caused many civilizations to be totally dependent on the Nile for existence.

Annual Egyptological Bibliography The AEB is published by the International Association of Egyptologists in cooperation with the Netherlands Institute for the Near East. Since 1 november 2007 access to this website is only possible through subscription.

Babylonian and Egyptian Mathematics

Best Egyptian Museums Outside of Egypt Egypt has long been a mysterious and inviting land, enticing everyone from Napoleon to modern travelers. The country bursts with history, culture and legend. Yet a trip to the Nile Valley is often too expensive or too much of a hassle for many of those who dream of mummies and pyramids. Fortunately, there are many places outside of Cairo that allow people to experience the grandeur of Egypt without making the long trek to the desert. Here are our picks of the best.

1. Museo Egizio
2. Metropolitan Museum of Art
3. The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum
4. The Louvre
5. Allard Pierson Museum
6. The Oriental Museum
7. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Travel Channel

Brittanica Ancient Web sites Provides vast resources chosen and rated by the editors [Ancient History]

Color Tour of Egypt Abu Simbel Abydos Aswan Cairo Dendera Edfu Giza Kom Ombo Luxor Saqqara The West Bank/Luxor

Coptologia Christianity in Egypt through the ages. As an overdue inquiry into the rich world of the Copto-Pharaonic heritage, this research publication attempts to fill a lacuna which is deeply felt by Coptologists, Mid-Eastern scholars and Egyptologists. The main objective is to increase awareness of an indispensable area that has long been minimized or deplorably neglected particularly in the West.

Digital Mummies: Ancient Faraos on the Net

Diotima: Women & Gender in the Ancient World

Directory of North American Egyptologists

Duke Papyrus Archive

Egypte, the Land of Civilization In Dutch and English. This site includes: A diary and photographs of a recent trip to Egypt including Cairo. A story about researchers of the Giza Pyramid. News about Egypt, icluding a story by Franck Goddio about the discovery of ancient cities. Rated and commented weblinks to sites about Egypt (worldwide).

Egyptian Museums in Egypt

Egyptian Unit Fractions Nowadays, we usually write non-integer numbers either as fractions (2/7) or decimals (0.285714). The floating point representation used in computers is another representation very similar to decimals. But the ancient Egyptians (as far as we can tell from the documents now surviving) used a number system based on unit fractions: fractions with one in the numerator. This idea let them represent numbers like 1/7 easily enough; other numbers such as 2/7 were represented as sums of unit fractions (e.g. 2/7 = 1/4 +1/28). Further, the same fraction could not be used twice (so 2/7 = 1/7 + 1/7 is not allowed). We call a formula representing a sum of distinct unit fractions an Egyptian fraction.

EGYPTOLOGY ONLINE Egyptology Online is the free information resource for students studying Egyptology with the National Home Study College. Egyptology describes the study of mummification, the pyramids, Hyksos, scarabs, and lots more!

Historical Astrology In Egypt Find out how Egypt provided the basis for modern Astrology.

History of Ancient Egypt University of South Carolina

History of Egypt The information on Egyptian history is taken from a number of sources, including Sir Alan Gardiner's Egypt of the Pharaohs. Many sources are used so as to reflect a wide variety of theories and ideas about Egypt's history, particularly its early days. Note: This is one of the nices and most informative sites I have seen for historical reference on Pharaonic history.

Math of Egypt Bruce's Hieratic (Middle Kingdom) Math of Egypt Page Working to decrypt the Hieratic RMP. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus is a fascinating document (1650 B.C.E.) copied from an older papyrus circa 1850 B.C.E.

Netherlands Institute for the Near East NINO initiates, supports, and conducts scholarly research in the civilizations of the Near East from the ancient to the early modern period. In particular, it concentrates on the archaeology, history, languages, and cultures of Egypt, Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Persia. In addition to its scientific research, NINO supports and advances the cultural relations between the Netherlands and the Near East. NINO is an independent foundation with ties to the academic community of the Netherlands. It is located on the premises of Leiden University

Newton Institute Egyptology Resources (Cambridge)

NOVA Online/Pyramids -- The Inside Story

Portals To Eternity: Necropolis at Terenouthis

Roman Portraits from Egypt Located some one hundred kilometers south of Cairo, Fayyum is a green and fertile region in a vast circular depression. Its diameter from east to west is approximately 60 kilometers, northwest of the lake of Birket Qarun. The ancient Egyptians called this region Mer-our (The Great Lake). Fayyum played a significant role during the 12th Dynasty, and later under the Ptolemies. The Fayyum portraits conflict in an intriguing manner, scattered as they are around the world in museums and collections and, which, here, bring together the image to be viewed as a whole. An ideal museum, which may be visited city by city, to which we soon become attached, to the extent that, during the visit, already familiar traits await us, as one of this art's truly ambiguous features is its ability to multiply effigies which, at first sight, quickly, even too quickly, elicit a feeling of déjà-vu. Here is the work belonging to the Basel Museum.

Room in the Egyptian Museum (Vatican)

Step Pyramid Complex of Djoser

The Ancient Egypt Site Explore more than 3.000 years of Ancient Egyptian history, from the end of prehistory at around 3.000 BC to the closing of the last Egyptian temple in 535/537 AD A timeline helps you navigate through history and discover the formidable Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt.


The Egyptian Galleries

The Great Pyramid Since the earliest of times the "Great Pyramid" of Giza (Arab. Al Jizah ) along with its 2 other main pyramids have been considered one of the wonders of the world. The Great Pyramid is still among the world's largest structures, standing almost as tall as a 50 story skyscraper. Brief study of the Pyramid and its builders. [Bible History Online Study]

The Griffith Institute (Oxford) Includes Tutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation

The people of ancient Egypt The people of ancient Egypt: the population, numbers and composition, the language

The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh ...1883. Sir Flinders Petrie's 1st Edition online which surveys the Gizaplateau pyramids.

The Weights and Measures of Ancient Egypt An examination of the Great Pyramids of Egypt and other buildings makes it clear that the Egyptians at a very early stage incorporated a measurement system, though really their system of weights and measures was fundamental to all sorts of functions and essential for the smooth running of their bureaucracy.

Torso of Pharaoh Nectanebo I (Graphic)

UCLA Egyptology Homepage

Virtual Museum where you can take a tour of important Egyptian relics around the world.

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