: 2. GeneralVarious Topics
Agriculture in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptian agriculture: irrigation, ploughing and planting, harvest, crops
Akhenaten by Megaera Lorenz
Akhenaten was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who reigned about 3,500 years ago. He made some major, but rather short-lived changes to various aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, the most notable one being his religious revolution. Akhenaten also made major changes in the ancient Egyptian art style, and presented himself in a very different manner from any of his predecessors.
Akhenaten of Amarna
18th Dynasty Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. This page is an introduction to the pharaoh Akhenaten, and the mysteries of his life, his religion, and his reign.
Who was Akhenaten ? Akhenaten was a Ruler of Egypt during the period known as the 18th Dynasty.
No Pharaoh of Egypt causes quite so much debate as the 'Heretic' Akhenaten. Despised by his successors and all but erased from history, only now are some of the details being painstakingly put together of this man and the profound effect he had on an empire.
Akhenaten: The Great Heretic Ruler
Akhenaten will always be remembered as a great heretic ruler, who uprooted traditional Egyptian religions, and conjured a monotheistic religion that is very close in nature to Christianity and Judaism. His political power was not his strong point, but with the creation of his religion, and the vast change in art forms, Akhenaten will never be forgotten.
Resource for Egyptology, including a clickable mummy, original photography, and UK Egyptology resources.
Akhet Egyptology Home
Explore the wonders of the past. Find out about the people of this amazing culture, and learn about the gods they worshiped, the Pharaohs they followed and the tombs and statues they left behind. Tutankhamun, the elaborate preparations they made for an eternal life. Masks and jewelry which the dead took with them into their tombs and the elaborate mythology that inspired it.
Akhet Egyptology Index
An ideal place to start exploring the wonders of the past. Find out about the people of this amazing culture, and learn about the gods they worshiped, the Pharaohs they followed and the tombs and statues they left behind.
Alexandria -- Related links
WWW Links Related to Alexandria. The Library of Alexandria
The Decline of the Library and the Mouseion (technical paper)
Hypatia of Alexandria (at cosmopolis.com)
Hypatia of Alexandria (book review)
The Mysterious Fate of the Great Library of Alexandria
The Library of Alexandria (technical paper)
The New Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Bibliotheca Alexandrina: Landscape and Design
History and Tradition
Alexander the Great's Home Page
Alexander the Great on the Web
Alexandria: Cosmology, Philosophy, Myth, and Culture
Alexandria Preservation Trust
Amicale Alexandrie Hier Aujourd'hui
Ancient World Web
Archaeology Article in the Christian Science Monitor
Cavafy's Alexandria (book review)
Classics Archive (The Tech/MIT)
Clement of Alexandria's "the Stromateis"
Constantine P. Cavafy
History of the Patriarchs of Alexandria
History of Mathematics: Alexandria
The House of Ptolemy
Philo of Alexandria
Alexandria Landmarks and Alexandria Monuments
The vast majority of Alexandria's most significant landmarks and monuments are leftovers from the Romans. These ancient monuments are unique and fascinating to tour. Not to be missed are the Roman Amphitheatre, the only one in Egypt, and Pompey's Pillar, a huge freestanding structure.
More modern landmarks in Alexandria include the ornate Abbas al-Mursi Mosque, while the city's harbours hide hundreds of ancient treasures, which can only be observed on a diving trip. Here are Alexandria's main landmarks and monuments.
Alexandria: The Ptolemaic Dynasty
For the next three centuries the Ptolemaic Dynasty would hold sway over Egypt, surviving both family feuds and external conflicts while living an unusual combination of Hellenic and Egyptian life. And under them Alexandria grew mighty and prosperous, the center of an empire that extended around the coast of Syria to the Aegean Sea. In fact, if Alexandria had been any more prosperous, it might have replaced Rome as the center of the world, as Rome was neither as strategically located nor as culturally diverse. But all this is not to say that Alexandria was a city completely at peace with itself. With the large numbers of people and cultures coming through the city, it was inevitable that conflict would arise. Certainly racial tensions, by no means an invention of the twentieth century, played a strong part. Additionally, a number of more tradition-minded Egyptians resented the presence of the Greeks, nations brought their feuds with them to the streets and businesses of Alexandria, and there was always the wildly unpredictable Alexandrian Mob to lend spice to things.
Museum of Natural History. Ancient Egypt was a narrow strip of land along the Nile River. Each year the river flooded its banks, leaving behind a fertile fringe of soil they called "the Black Land," while the desert all around the Nile valley was called "the Red Land."
Ancient Egypt : The British Museum
Ancient Egypt Artifacts and Antiquities
The cornerstone for Egyptian society was laid around 3100 BC with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the rule of a single King. This king, known as Pharaoh, was the central figure of the Egyptian state which built pyramids during the Old Kingdom, mainly in the 3rd Dynasty, starting at Saqqara (c. 2650 BC). The most notable of these was the Great Pyramid at Giza built by Khufu (Cheops). Later-Dynasty Pharaohs turned their attention to the building of temples with large halls and stylized columns. Dynastic rule in ancient Egypt ended in approximately 300 BC with the beginning of the Macedonian Kings and Ptolemaic reign which itself ended with its conquest by the Roman Empire and the death of Cleopatra in 31 BC.
Ancient Egypt for Kids - Daily Life
The ancient Egyptians were fascinating people, and thanks to the movies, are often misunderstood. The ancient Egyptians were not in love with death, but with life! They enjoyed their life to the fullest. They worked very hard, but saved time to enjoy family, friends, music, parties, swimming, fishing, hunting, sailing, and especially their children, all of which were very important to the ancient Egyptians.
Ancient Egypt Kid Connection
Ancient Egypt Research Associates
Official web site of Ancient Egypt Research Associates (AERA).
Ancient Egypt Resources
Ancient Egypt: the Mythology
Comprehensive site on ancient Egyptian mythology.
Ancient Egyptian Coloring Book
The following drawings are renderings based on actual ancient Egyptian wall paintings, sculpture and everyday objects discovered in tombs and temples. Most of them are from the shrines and tombs at Thebes (modern Luxor) on the Nile which were unearthed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by European explorers and archeologists.
Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology
Archaeological discoveries continually enrich our understanding of the people, culture, history, and literature of the Middle East. The heritage of its peoples -- from urban civilization to the Bible -- both inspires and fascinates. Near Eastern Archaeology brings to life the ancient world from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean with vibrant images and authoritative analyses. [History] [Egypt]
Gives an introduction to writing systems
Annual Egyptological Bibliography
The online Annual Egyptological Bibliography (AEB) website. The AEB is published by the International Association of Egyptologists in cooperation with the Netherlands Institute for the Near East.
Antony, Octavian, Cleopatra
Anubis, The God of Embalming
The Ancient Egyptians held a great reverence for the Jackal headed god Anubis, who oversaw the embalming and mummification process as well as escorting the deceased through the procedures for entering the underworld.
British Museum Statues
The collection of the British Museum is one of the largest and most famous in the world. The range and variety of items on display is impressive, although the damage sustained in the original monuments when the exhibits were removed does not bear thinking about. This section gives a small sample of the items on display.
One of the most popular cults to arise in Late Period Egypt was of the cat goddess Bast. At this time many thousands of Cats were mummified for sale to pilgrims, who presented them to the goddess as an offering.
Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV.
Cleopatra's Needle is located on the Thames Embankment in London close to the Embankment underground station. The Obelisk was actually constructed for Tuthmose III and is carved with Hieroglyphics praising Tuthmose and commemorating his third sed festival. Later inscriptions were added by Ramesses II to commemorate his victories.
Welcome to the Clickable Mummy. Click on different parts of the Mummy to view interesting facts and information about the mummification process. The mummy shown here dates from the Roman Period. It has a distinctive painting inlaid into the head part, and is intricately bandaged and studded. The feet are molded in gold painted plaster, which is typical of the period.
Coffin Art - Birds
A common feature of coffin art, especially from the Middle Kingdom, was the inclusion of divine wings wrapped around the deceased. These symbolised the that the deceased was blessed with divine protection in the afterlife
Crystalinks:Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great, Megas Alexandros (July 20, 356 BCJune 10, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336323 BC), was one of the most successful Ancient Greek military commanders in history. The name 'Alexander' derives from the Greek words "alexo" meaning refuge, defense, protection) and "aner" meaning man).
Before his death, he conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks. Alexander is also known in the Zoroastrian Middle Persian work Arda Wiraz Namag as "the accursed Alexander" due to his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital Persepolis.
He is known as Eskandar-e Maqduni (Alexander of Macedonia) in Persian, Al-Iskander Al-Makadoni (Alexander of Macedonia) in Arabic, Alexander Mokdon in Hebrew, and Tre-Qarnayia in Aramaic (the two-horned one, apparently due to an image on coins minted during his rule that seemingly depicted him with the two ram's horns of the Egyptian god Ammon),(Alexander the Great) in Arabic, Sikandar-e-azam Sikandar, his name in Urdu and Hindi, is also a term used as a synonym for "expert" or "extremely skilled".
Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
To understand the everyday life of ancient Egyptians, archaeologists draw on many sources. The most valuable sources include tomb paintings, reliefs, and the objects included in tombs that the Egyptians used in their daily life. [Carnegie Museum of Natural History]
Death in Ancient Egypt
[General] [Egypt] (Oriental Institute)
Decline of Library of Alexandria
The Library of Alexandria, in reality two or more libraries in the ancient Egyptian capitol, has achieved an almost mythic stature in the study of classics from the time of the Renaissance. The apocryphal burning of the Library during Julius Caesar`s occupation of the city has been described as the greatest calamity of the ancient world, wherein the most complete collection of all Greek and Near Eastern literature was lost in one great conflagration. In reality, the Library and its community of scholars not only flourished during the Hellenistic era of the Ptolemies, but continued to survive through the Roman Empire and the incessant turbulence of the Empire`s most volatile and valuable city. For valuable indeed was the granary of the empire, which was also a prosperous trade center between east and west, linked to the Mediterranean and, not far to the east, to the Red Sea and Indian traderoutes via a canal. This cosmopolitan city drew Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, and Jews into a unique and not entirely harmonious coexistence. The Alexandrian Museum and Library, then, was an ideal place for scholars from these different cultures to meet and exchange learning, and was a repository for the literature and accounts of the Alexandrian intelligensia and the Roman Empire in general. However, while sources agree on the Museum`s uniqueness and value, no surviving account of its activities actually exists, and modern scholarship has largely ignored this poorly-documented portion of history.
Deep in the Tombs of Egypt
WELL, GOLLY GEE, IT`S ARCHAEOLOGY Deep in the Tombs of Egypt
Deir el-Medina Database (Leiden, Netherlands)
EAWC Chronology: Egypt
Corbis Images [Modern Egypt] [Images]
Egypt: Alexander the Great in Egypt
Alexander III of Macedon (356-323 bc), better known to history as 'Alexander the Great', spent several months in Egypt as part of his on-going campaign against the mighty Persian Empire of Darius III. After conquering Persia's naval bases all along the coastline of Asia Minor and Syria-Israel, Alexander marched south into Egypt where he remained for some six months.
Egypt: History - Pharaonic Dynasties
Egypt: Magi Tours
We are one of the leading Travel Agencies in Egypt, Hotel & Nile Cruise Reservation, Tour packages, Classic Trips to Cairo, Sharm, Hurghada, Aswan, Luxor and many more places, come in and have a look.
Egyptian Archaeology - Directory of Online Resources
Egyptian Art Exhibit
Some Old Kingdom sculptures present an idealized version of their subject, but other royal and non-royal images exhibit features that identify them as distinct individuals. The more realistic faces range from thin to fleshy, with traces of character as well as signs of age. Especially noticeable in this regard are the individual facial features in the sculptures of King Menkaure shown here. In some instances, similarities between portraits in relief and statuary help to identify otherwise anonymous individuals. The most enigmatic of Old Kingdom portraits are the "reserve heads" found in a select group of tombs at Giza. These heads, with their strikingly individual faces, were complete works of art in themselves, rather than part of a larger statue; none is identified by name. [General] [Egypt] (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Egyptian Art Galleries
Richard Deurer. The Egyptian Galleries contain my paintings, photographs and sculptures. You will also find valuable information about Ancient Egypt. Please, go to the gallery that you find the most interesting. [General] [Egypt]
Egyptian Artifacts Exhibit
Egyptian Book of the Dead
1240 BC The Papyrus of Ani Parts Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge and Allen and Faulkner. An Introduction to the Book of the Dead by Marie Parsons
Egyptian Chronology: Dynasties
Egyptian Chronology: Dynasties 1-5
Ancient Egypt was called the land of Khem.
It was originally divided into Upper (Southern) and Lower (Northern) Egypt.
There are various theories as to how Egypt became united -
approximately 3000 BC.
Egyptian Exhibit (Cleveland Museum of Art)
Writing Numbers and Fractions Eye of Horus Downloads Links
Egyptian Museum Artifacts
Mummies, Coffins, Artifacts. You are in for a surprise when you open this page.[History] [Egypt]
Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom
Egyptian Statues and Reliefs
Store selling pieces made of hydrostone, a gypsum compound suitable for indoor or outdoor placement.
Egyptian Temple Rituals
The Daily Temple Rituals Morning Service - Ritual Purity - Awakening the God - Serving the God - Midday and Evening Rituals [General] [Egypt]
(University of Cambridge) [History] [Egypt]
Food of the Ancient Egyptians
Food: Bread, beer, and all good things. The Egyptians` staple food was bread. It was made from barley and emmer wheat, their most common crops. Bread was usually baked in a conical mold that was placed over an open fire. There were also dome-shaped ovens where net loaves of bread were baked by placing them against either the hot interior or exterior of the dome. The main beverage of ancient Egypt was beer, but the frequent depictions of grape arbors on tomb walls and the numerous wine vessels found throughout Egypt indicate that wine was also popular. However, only the nobility could afford to drink wine on a regular basis.
Four Sons Of Horus
The Four Sons of Horus were traditionally the guardians of the internal organs of the deceased. Each was associated with a particular organ, and also with a different cardinal point on the compass.
GIZA PLATEAU COMPUTER MODEL
Gize Pyramid Links
A selection of links to Egyptology & Pyramid related websites.
Gods And Goddesses
Gods and Religion
The ancient Egyptians interpreted every occurrence in terms of the relationship between natural and supernatural forces. Those phenomena that figured prominently in their lives included the annual cycle of the Nile River`s flood, the enormous size and unchanging harshness of the surrounding desert, and the daily cycle of the sun`s appearance in the east, gradual movement across the sky, and eventual disappearance in the west. The ancient Egyptians developed a world view in which these and other events and conditions were attributed to the actions of multiple, related gods and goddesses. [Carnegie Museum of Natural History]
Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association
New research on the great pyramid from the world's largest research association. Ancient Egypt
Guardian's King Tut
The Sphinx of Giza is a symbol that has represented the essence of Egypt for thousands of years. Even with all of the pictures that we see of the Sphinx, nothing can really prepare you for the time that you finally see the Sphinx with your own eyes. Here's a look at the Sphinx that will give you a hint of what you can expect to see if you visit Egypt.
Guardian's Web - Main Gate
Guardian`s Egypt Main Gate
Welcome to Guardian`s Egypt where you can explore the mystery and splendor of ancient Egypt from the comfort of your own computer. Guardian`s Egypt was founded in 1994 by Andrew Bayuk. [History] [Egypt]
Hatshepsut The Female Pharaoh
Hatshepsut, was the daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose Nefertari. Hatshepsut (1473-1458 BC) was married to her half brother Thutmose II perhaps in order to strengthen his claim to the throne. Hatshepsut had a daughter by her husband/half brother Thutmose II, but the heir to the throne, the future Thutmose III, was in fact the son of one of his father's concubines.
These are signs that make the sound of one consonant. These glyphs are used to translate into our modern alphabet.
Historical Astrology In Egypt
Find out how Egypt provided the basis for modern Astrology.
History of Alexandria: Cleopatra
Cleopatra, the Last Pharaoh (B.C. 69-30). When Cleopatra VII ascended the Egyptian throne, she was only seventeen. She reigned as Queen Philopator and Pharaoh between 51 and 30 BC, and died at the age of 39.
Before glancing at Cleopatra's reign, let us first have a look at the keys to her rise and fall. The demise of the Ptolemies power coincided with the rise of the Roman Empire. Having little choice, and seeing city after the other falling into Rome's grip, the Ptolemies decided to ally with the Romans, a pact that lasted for two centuries. During the rule of the later Ptolemies, Rome gained more and more power over Egypt, and was even declared guardian of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII had to pay tribute to the Romans to keep them away from his Kingdom. Upon his death, the fall of the Dynasty seemed even closer.
Howard Carter Biography
Those that recognize the name, Howard Carter, usually associate it with the discovery of King Tutankhamun's tomb.
Institute of Egyptian Art and Archaeolgy
Contains excellent Egyptian Artifacts Exhibit [History] [Egypt] University of Memphis
The Temple of Karnak is actually three main temples, smaller enclosed temples, and several outer temples. This vast complex was built and enlarged over a thirteen hundred year period. The three main temples of Mut, Monthu and Amun are enclosed by enormous brick walls. The Open Air Museum is located to the north of the first courtyard, across from the Sacred Lake. The main complex, The Temple of Amun, is situated in the center of the entire complex. The Temple of Monthu is to the north of the Temple of Amun, while the Temple of Mut is to the south.
King Ramses II
The most famous of all the kings found in the Valley of the Kings was Tutankhamun, also known as KingTut. He died in mid-January, 1343 B.C. It is thought that he was murdered by an official because his skull was bashed in and only a person of great importance could get near enough to harm him.
Life in Ancient Egypt - Funerary Customs
Much of our knowledge about ancient Egyptian culture comes from archaeological evidence uncovered in tombs. Objects, inscriptions, and paintings from tombs have led Egyptologists to conclude that what appeared to be a preoccupation with death was in actuality an overwhelming desire to secure and perpetuate in the afterlife the "good life" enjoyed on earth. [Carnegie Museum of Natural History]
Life in Ancient Egypt - Scribes
Even though much ancient Egyptian written material is still extant, it surely represents only a fraction of what originally existed. To produce such a mass, there must have been an impressive arsenal of scribes. In fact the word sesh, "scribe," was among the most frequently used titles in ancient Egypt. It is also one of the earliest recorded, and there are representations of scribes carrying the tools of their craft (pigments, water pot, and pen) over their shoulders from various periods beginning with the Old Kingdom. [Carnegie Museum of Natural History]
The museum in Luxor, although not on the scale of it's illustrious Cairo predecessor does house a large collection of tremendously significant objects. These include statues from the famous Cachette found buried in Luxor temple as well as a small selection of items from the tomb of Tutankhamun.
Macedonia FAQ: Bucephalus
Contians Bronze statue of Alexander on Bucephalus Museo Nazionale di Villa Guilia, Rome, Italy
Main Map of Ancient Egypt
Click on the map to go to that region.
Mansoor Amarna Collection
The M.A. Mansoor Collection of Amarna Era art, their world-renowned collection is justifiably honored as one of the most extraordinary single groupings of Egyptian art in existence. Pieces of the Amarna Collection are included in the permanent collections of the Louvre and the Denver Art Museum and San Francisco State University.
Map: Alexander in the East
Michael C. Carlos Museum
On the campus of Emory University. Collections include mummies and other artifacts from ancient Egypt
Middle Egyptian - Great site for info Hieroglyphs
More on Cleopatra
More Powerful than Cleopatra? Hatshepsut
Video: Hatshepsut, a woman, ruled Egypt during a time of great prosperity. Dr. Kara Cooney talks about this unprecedented situation in Egypt's history.
Mummies of Ancient Egypt
A project of the Cultural Heritage Initiative for Community Outreach at the University of Michigan School of Information.
Mummies of Ancient Egypt
Many ancient civilizations believed in life after death. We identify mumification with ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians - during the time of the dynasties - believed that mummification would guarantee the soul passage into the next life. Some believed that the dead lived on in the tomb. While others thought of the dead as having gone to a blessed afterworld in some far-distant place. That being the case they provided for both worlds. In no other civilization have such elaborate preparations for the afterlife been made in the preservation of the dead.
Mummy Masks - Faces Of The Dead
Masks were a very important aspect of Ancient Egyptian burials. In common with the anthropoid coffin they provided the dead with a face in the afterlife. In addition they also enabled the spirit to recognise the body.
Neferchichi's Egyptian Graphics
Shop for your favorite Egyptomaniac (even if that's you) in our Gift Shop Bazaar! You'll find lots of cool books, toys, posters, videos & DVDs, games, clocks, mouse pads, tote bags, and lots of other Egyptian-inspired merchandise. Here's a small sample of our wares...
Famed throughout the ancient world for her outstanding beauty, Akhenaten's queen Nefertiti remains the one of the most well known of the queens of Egypt.
The famous statue of Nefertiti, found in a sculptors workshop in Akhetaten, is one of the most immediately recognisable icons from this period of history. It has escaped the excesses of the Amarna artistic style, and survived the wholesale destruction of Akhenaten's monuments after his death.
Nile River Cruises of Egypt
Contains some of the Finest Most Luxuries Nile Cruises that Travel Through the River Nile.
NM's Creative Impulse: Medieval World
With their eyes and minds on eternity, the Egyptians built a society that remained constant for nearly 3000 years. Many of their monuments still attest to that permanence. Ancient eyes of monumental sculptures and the Sphinx still stare at us through the centuries. The tombs in the Valley of Kings and at Beni Hasan and the ruins of massive pylon temples at Luxor and Karnak reminded us of the importance of religious belief in Egyptian society. The only remaining Wonder of the Ancient World still stands proudly at the pyramid complex at Giza.
http://mahan.wonkwang.ac.kr/link/med/med-home/NM/medieval.html#NM's Creative Impulse
NMS Mummy Project
The National Museums of Scotland (NMS) are blessed with an excellent collection of Ancient Egyptian artefacts. This includes several mummies excavated by such famous Egyptologists as Alexander Rhind and Flinders Petrie. In order to find out more about the collection, and also to assess the conservation required, a 4 year project was initiated to investigate fully various items from the collection.
NOVA Online/Pyramids -- The Inside Story
Nubia: The Land Upriver
The Rise of Kush
Power Vacuum in Nubia. The Egyptian New Kingdom came to an end in ca. 1070 BC. The succeeding royal government of the Twenty-first Dynasty (ruling from Tanis) abandoned all claim to Nubia, apparently creating a power vacuum there that lasted over 400 years.
Since no textual records or cemeteries have been detected in Nubia for this period, most archaeologists believe that Lower Nubia was fairly deserted at this time, perhaps due to low Nile levels and increased desiccation of the region. The Nubian inhabitants, they suggest, migrated southward, where they collected around Napata. Ultimately, a strong independent state did grow up centered around that city, i.e., the resurgent Kingdom of Kush. On the other hand, some archaeologists argue that certain sites in Lower Nubia actually do show continuous Nubian occupation through this period and later--down to the succeeding Kushite kingdom, e.g., Qasr Ibrim. They suggest that Lower Nubia was not deserted at this time, but contained various indigenous polities that were absorbed even earlier than previously suspected by the growing Kushite state at Napata.
Odyssey in Egypt
When we think about Egypt, camels, pyramids, and mummies often come to mind! That's not surprising since much of what we know about ancient Egypt comes from the tombs of Egyptians and the objects found buried with them.
No one knows exactly what life was like in ancient Egypt, but these objects tell us a lot. Egyptian fashion, religious beliefs, recreational activities, and much more can be explored through the art they created and included in their burials.
Osiris And Isis
Osiris is perhaps the most famous of the gods of Ancient Egypt. Here he is shown in his typical guise as a mummified pharaoh holding the hook and flail, the traditional symbols of royal authority. Osiris is usually depicted wearing the feathered Atef crown.
Papyrus of Ani; Egyptian Book of the Dead
Pharaoh Maatkare Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut' Temple. The King's Daughter, God's Wife, King's Great Wife, Lady of the Two Lands, Hatshepsut, says "Oh my mother Nut, stretch thyself over me, that thou mayest place me among the imperishable stars which are in thee, and that I may not die." Prayer to the Goddess Nut from the lid of one of Hatshepsut's sarcophagus.
Pharaoh's Pump Foundation
How the Great Pyramid At Giza was built, and Why! Explanations with graphics and animations. Focus is on the water punmping system that was used, and how it can be used today. Lots of info.
Pharaohs: Short biographies
of some of the more well-known pharaohs of Egypt from Neferchichi`s Tomb site.
Pyramid Crossword Puzzle
Puzzle about Egypt. Ancient Egypt's Deepest Secrets Revealed Bartlett Elementary School 2000
Reeder's Egyptian Gallery
The Egyptian Portfolio,
Cairo: The Islamic Monuments. ,
The Pharaonic Monuments,
Black & White Photography,
Digital Egypt Ephemera
Roemer-und Pelizaeus Museum collecton
Phoenix Art Museum is the only venue in the Southwest to present Splendors of Ancient Egypt, the largest exhibition of ancient Egyptian treasures ever to tour America and one of the most spectacular collections in the world. [History] [Egypt] Phoenix Art Museum.
This section was where Akhet all started, many years ago on CompuServe. Here you will find a guide to Egyptological collections as well as original photographs of the best that Scotland has to offer.
Shabti - Servants For The Afterlife
In Ancient Egyptian burial it was important that the deceased had a workforce to carry out their every day tasks in the underworld so they would not have to dirty their hands. Originally in high ranking Old Kingdom burials servants were buried with their masters. It is not known if these were sacrifices, or people honored with a resting place beside their King when they died.
Story of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great World conqueror by Chris Whitten
The Ancient Egypt Site
Explore more than 3.000 years of Ancient Egyptian history, monuments, language and more. History starting with the end of prehistory at around 3.000 BC to the closing of the last Egyptian temple in 535/537 A.D. A time-line helps you navigate through history and discover the formidable Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt.
The Ancient Egyptian Culture Exhibit
Links - Book References
The Cairo Museum
The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities in Cairo is an unbelievable treasure house of riches. As it develops this section of the site will contain unique photographs of the exhibits there.
The Construction of the Pyramids
Ever wonder how the pyramids were built? We have put together some general information on their construction.
The Egyptian Book of the Dead
The Papyrus of Ani by E. A. WALLIS BUDGE 
THE EGYPTIAN COLLECTION
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Egyptian Law Firm
The Egyptian Law Firm
The Enigma of Tomb KV55
Perhaps the most controversial find ever made in the Valley of the Kings was tomb KV55. This tomb was discovered on the 3rd of January 1907 by Edward Ayrton.
The tomb contained a number of Amarna objects. These included a large gilded shrine, originally prepared by Akhenaten for the Akhetaten burial of his mother Tiye.
The Finding of the Rosetta Stone
The Great Pyramid of Giza
A gigantic stone structure near the ancient city of Memphis, serving as a tomb for the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu. [General] [Egypt]
The History of Plumbing - Egypt
The History of Plumbing - Egypt
The International Association of Egyptologists
[International] [Professional Societies]
The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
The King List
The Early Dynastic Period
The Old Kingdom
The First Intermediate Period
The Middle Kingdom
The Second Intermediate Period
The New Kingdom
The Third Intermediate Period - High Priests (Thebes)
The Late Period
The Graeco-Roman Period - Macedonian Kings
The Lighthouse of Alexandria
A colossus of Helios the sun-god, erected by the Greeks near the harbor of a Mediterranean Island. [General] [Egypt]
The Mysteries of Akhenaten
Although we know a great deal about Akhenaten compared to some of the other Pharaohs, there are still some major mysteries concerning his reign. Various 'experts' have differing theories concerning this enigmatic ruler. On this page I will detail some of the various theories which have been presented, along with their relative pros and cons.
The Nile Delta near Alexandria
NASA image: This view from the southeast overlooks the green expanse of the Nile delta, with the Suez Canal and portions of the Red Sea in the background.
The Palace of Rameses III
The Pronunciation of Ancient Egyptian
The Queens of Egypt - Cleopatra
Egypt: Tour Egypt Monthly: Queens of Egypt, Part III - Cleopatra
The Rosetta Stone Images and Information
The Rosetta Stone is 3 feet 9 inches long and 2 feet 41/2 inches wide - (114x72x28cm). It is dark grey-pinkish granite stone (originally thought to be basalt in composition) with writing on it in two languages, Egyptian and Greek, using three scripts, Hieroglyphic, Demotic Egyptian and Greek. Because Greek was well known, the stone was the key to deciphering the hieroglyphs.
The Royal Tomb
The royal tomb at Akhetaten stands as a silent monument both to the destruction wrought in the Anti-Atenist backlash, and the destruction caused in modern times by man's greed and ignorance. The tomb is yet another example of how the condition of ancient monuments has deteriorated more in the last 100 years than in the previous three millennia.
The Sphinx Temple
The Great Sphinx is, like many other monuments in Egypt, a complex rather than simply a single colossal statue. At the Sphinx on the Giza Plateau near Cairo, there are actually two Sphinx temples.
The Splendors of Ancient Egypt (Site 1)
The Step Pyramid Complex of Djoser
THE STONE OF ROSETTE
The Rosetta Stone (image with info). The name Rosetta is attached to the stone of Rosette. This is a compact basalt slab (114x72x28 cm) that was found in July 1799 in the small Egyptian village Rosette (Raschid), which is located in the western delta of the Nile. Today the stone is kept at the British Museum in London. It contains three inscriptions that represent a single text in three different variants of script, a decree of the priests of Memphis in honour of Ptolemaios V. (196 b.c.).
The Story of Hatshepsut
Born in the 15th century BC, Hatshepsut, daughter of Tuthmose I and Aahmes, both of royal lineage, was the favorite of their three children. When her two brothers died, she was in the unique position to gain the throne upon the death of her father. To have a female pharaoh was unprecedented, and probably most definitely unheard of as well. When Tuthmose I passed away, his son by the commoner Moutnofrit, Tuthmose II, technically ascended the throne. For the few years of his reign, however, Hatshepsut seems to have held the reins. From markings on his mummy, archaeologists believe Tuthmose II had a skin disease, and he died after ruling only three or four years. Hatshepsut, his half sister and wife, had produced no offspring with him (her daughter Nefrure was most likely the daughter of her lover Senmut), although he had sired a son through the commoner Isis. This son, Tuthmose III, was in line for the throne, but due to his age Hatshepsut was allowed to reign as queen dowager.
The Temple of Hatshepsut
The Unnatural Museum - Mummy's Curse
The Valley of The Kings
Theban Mapping Project
The largest Egyptological website on the internet, offering complete coverage of the Valley of the Kings in images, text and maps. Produced by the Theban Mapping Project and directed by Kent Weeks.
Theban Mapping Project - Valley of the Kings
Wadi Biban al Molouk, Wadi al Moluk. See the Valley of the Kings in Virtual Reality.
Thebes Photographic Project
[General] [Egypt] Oriental Institute
The god Thoth was worshiped in the form of an Ibis, and is often shown in human form with the unusual head of that bird. Thoth was primarily thought to be the god of wisdom. He was patron of arts and science and also the patron god of scribes. He was the inventor of the words of god, or Hieroglyphs.
Tomb of Niankhkhnum & Khnumhotep
The Tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep was discovered by Mounir Basta in 1964 in Saqqara. Basta found the tomb by crawling through a series of passages in the escarpment facing the causeway to the pyramid of Unas. [General] [Egypt]
Tombs and Temples
The temples of Ancient Egypt remain as a constant reminder of the power and glory of the Egyptian state and it's Gods. Each of the major gods had their own cult center with a temple complex as well as the 'state' temples at Luxor and Karnak.
Trumpet of Tutankhamun
Click to download the audio of King Tut's Trumpet [General] [Egypt]
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King Nebkheperura Tutankhamun remains the most famous of all the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, but in fact he was a short lived and fairly insignificant ruler during a transitional period in history. Little was known of him prior to Howard Carters methodical detective work, but the discovery of his tomb and the amazing contents it held ultimately ensured this boy king of the Immortality he sought.