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May 23    Scripture



Ancient Israel: Art & Images


18th c. Citadel of Acre Acre - Eighteenth century Ottoman palace built over the Hospitaller Center (Crusader Fort)

A Scene from the Gilgamesh Epic From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. A scene from the Gilgamesh Epic Tablet 11: The Flood Narrative ? century BC. Gilgamesh (cylinder seal impression).

A view down the Via Dolorosa. Print by by Hugh Campbell III {Holy Land Expeditions] [Israel Images]

Aerial Photo of the Model with the Temple and the City Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original.

Aerial view of Tel Rehov [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations] [Images]

All Nations Church in Garden of Gethsemane Israel, Jerusalem, Mary Magdalene Church at background (Tony Stone Images)

Ancient Beehives [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations] [Images]

Ancient Roman Nail or Spike "Crucifixion spikes" are believed to be the type of nails used during the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. This specimens is in great condition, and comes from the well-known David Pierson Collection.

Ancient Vases from Jericho Vases from the tomb of the ancient Bronze age IV of the Necropolis of Jericho

Antonia Fortress On the NW corner of the Temple Mount was the Fortress of Antonia. Named after Marc Antony it stood 115 feet high. This headquarters for the Roman soldiers overlooked the Temple and the city. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Aramean Queen (?) with servant From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Aramean Queen(?)and servant; funerary stele; 8th century BCE (Berlin VA 2995) Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Note: Aramaean is in Latin Aramaeus, from Greek Aramaios, from Hebrew `ArAm Aramaic, ancient name for Syria, a Semitic people of the second millennium B.C. in Syria and Upper Mesopotamia.

Assyrian Officers From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Officers; 8th century BC; bas relief; Pergamon Museum, Berlin.

Assyrian Spearmen From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Soldiers #1: Spearmen; bas relief; 8th century BC; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Assyrian Warrior King Assyrian Cavalry (bas relief)7th century BC

Ba'al Ugaritic god of Storms & War From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Ba'al Ugaritic God of Storms & War (14th century BC) Louvre Museum, Paris

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-remains) Bet Guvrin. Wine press at Bet Guvrin

Beth Shean Roman period ruins 2 The row of seats to the right are toilets. [images] [Israel]

Bowls and Jars from Jericho Bowls and Jars from Jericho (3300-1550 BCE). Courtesy The Michael C. Carlos Museum.

Canaanite Statuette Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VII or VI; Late Bronze Age II, ca. 1350-1200 B.C. Gilded bronze. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1935-6. "This statuette of a god may have been the cult figure in the Canaanite temple in the ruins of which it was found. Cast in bronze and covered with gold leaf, it is an idol of the type forbidden by the much later Hebrew prophets. The identity of this bearded and enthroned deity is uncertain but is most likely to be El-the chief god of the pantheon and father of the other gods."

Clothing and Dress for Women in the Art of Ancient Greece [Ancient Greece] [Images]

Colonnaded street (The Cardo) Jordan, Jerash, Roman Ruins(Tony Stone Images)

EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies The EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies is a faculty-library initiative at Yale Divinity School that provides digital resources for teaching and research in the field of Biblical studies.

Esarhaddon From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Esarhaddon; Assyrian Emperor; (ruled 681"669 BC); stele; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Esarhaddon and Vassals From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Esarhaddon; Assyrian Emperor; (ruled 681"669 BC); with Tirhaka (Ethiopian King of Egypt); and Ba'alu (King of Tyre); dolerite stele; 3.22 meters high; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Flag of Israel Corbis Images [Modern Israel] [Images]

Four-Horned Incense Altar Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VA-IVB; Iron Age IIA, 10th century B.C. Limestone. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1926. "Horned altars are described in the Bible and have been discovered at many Iron Age Israelite sites. This example is probably too small to have been used for animal sacrifice, but may have served for the other three types of offerings known to have been made: wine, incense, and grain meal mixed with oil. The Megiddo stratum in which this altar was found was characterized by large public structures and is generally thought to have been built by King Solomon. It included a four-entryway gate and a well-built double or "casemate" wall."

Fragment of a Dead Sea Scroll Israel: Qumran, Cave 4; 1st century A.D. Parchment and ink. Oriental Museum. Purchased in Jordan, 1956. "This fragment from a Hebrew manuscript was once part of a library of scrolls hidden in caves near the Dead Sea. The parchment texts, wrapped in linen and stored in pottery jars, were hidden in the first century A.D. and recovered between 1947 and 1956, at which time they became known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. The biblical writings on many of these scrolls are the earliest known Hebrew copies of Old Testament texts. The text on this fragment comes from a non- biblical Essene psalter, similar to the Psalms of the Bible."

Gaming Board Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VIIA; Late Bronze Age II, 13th century B.C. Ivory inlaid with gold and blue paste. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1936-7. "Two types of gaming boards are found among the Megiddo ivories- one for the "game of 58 holes" and the other for the "game of 20 squares." This is one of four similarly-shaped gaming boards for the "game of 58 holes." Every fifth hole, as well as the central panel, was once inlaid with gold and blue paste. "Studs" of gold leaf found alongside the board may have capped the pegs used to play the game."

Gilgamesh Epic From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Gilgamesh Epic Tablet 11: The Flood Narrative ? century BC

Gilgamesh Epic From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. A scene from the Gilgamesh Epic Tablet 11: The Flood Narrative ? century BC. Gilgamesh (cylinder seal impression).

Griffin Plaque Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VIIA; Late Bronze Age II, 13th century B.C. Ivory. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1936-7. "This plaque is one of a group of ivories discovered at Megiddo in a semi-subterranean chamber that archaeologists called the "treasury," within a large building that may have been a palace. It bears the figure of a reclining griffin-a composite creature with a lion's body and a bird's head and wings. This motif is borrowed from the art of the Mycenaeans, but it is uncertain whether the object itself was made by a Mycenaean craftsman settled in Asia, by a local ivory carver imitating Mycenaean prototypes, or was imported directly from Greece."

Herod's Palace The Palace consisted of 2 main buildings, each with its banquet halls, baths, and accomodation for hundreds of guests. It was surrounded with groves of trees, canals, and ponds studded with bronze fountains. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Herod's Theatre [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Hippicus Tower Named after a friend, and was 132 feet high. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

HolyLand Model of Ancient Jerusalem The scale of the Holyland Model is 1:50 (2 cm. = 1m., 1/4 in. = 1 ft.). The model was produced using the same materials that were used in the times of the original construction, such as marble, stone, wood, copper and iron. The model was completed in 1969. The sources used in planning the model were the Mishna, the Tosephtha, the Talmud, the writings of Jesephus and the New Testament. The construction of the model is due to the initiative and resources of Mr. Hans Kroch. The archaeological and topographical data were supplied by Prof. M. Avi-Yonah, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, one of the foremost authorities on the subject. Since construction, the site is continuously updated according to the latest archaeological findings.

Huldah Gates of the Temple Mount In the wall were the gates of the prophetess Huldah. The wall measured 211 feet. The Ophel corner was so high that from its top "an Arab with a spear looked like a flax worm." [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Illustration of Akko (Acre) Old Acre map

Inscribed Ossuary Jordan: Jifna; ca. 70 B.C.- 70 A.D. Limestone. Oriental Museum. Gift of Dr. Harold H. Willoughby, 1953. "The name "Yo-ezer the scribe" is inscribed on one end of this ossuary, a repository for bones. Around the end of the 1st century B.C., Jewish burial practices changed from primary burial in wooden coffins to secondary burial in small limestone caskets such as this one. The body seems first to have been buried in a pit until only the bones remained. These were then gathered up and transferred to the ossuary, which was placed in a rock-hewn communal tomb. This ossuary is decorated with incised geometric designs. The Hebrew inscription on the side reads "Yo-ezer, son of Yehohanan, the scribe."

James Ossuary The James Ossuary is an ossuary, a limestone box for containing bones, which came to light in Israel in 2002. It is claimed to have been the ossuary of James, the brother of Jesus. Its provenance is unknown. Although the Israel Antiquities Authority assess it as a modern forgery, some scholars maintain its historical authenticity. Its discovery was followed in January 2003 by another contentious archaeological "find" soon connected with Oded Golan, the so-called "Jehoash Inscription" (see below). A documentary film The Lost Tomb Of Jesus (2007) makes reference to this ossuary. By 2008, in what has been termed "one of the biggest forgery scandals ever in the history of archaeology", it has become known that an Egyptian, Samah Shoukri Ghatas, had confessed to manufacturing the many items for Oded Golan. Golan, a well-known Tel Aviv antiquities collector, is presently on trial for the forgery. [images] [Israel]

Jarash, Jordan1 Nice Photo

Jarash, Jordan2 Nice Photo

Jarash, Jordan3 Nice Photo

Jarash, Jordan4 Nice Photo

Jarash, Jordan5 Nice Photo

Jarash, Jordan6 Nice Photo

Jarash, Jordan7 Nice Photo

Man at Wailing Wall Corbis Images [Modern Israel] [Images]

man praying at Wailing Wall Israel, Jerusalem, (Tony Stone Images)

Mariamme Tower Named after his beloved wife whom he had murdered. Josephus said "the king considering it appropriate that the tower named after a woman should surpass in decoration those called after men." It stood 74 feet high. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Masada Photo

Masada ruins w/Dead Sea beyond (at dawn) Israel, Masada National Park. Ruins from Herod the Great and Zealots (Tony Stone Images)

Megiddo [images] [Israel]

Mesha Stele Photo Moabite Stone
Language: Moabite (a West Semitic Language)
Medium: basalt stone stele
Size: 1.15 meters high, 60-68 centimeters wide
Length: 35 lines of writing
Honoree: Mesha, king of Moab
(late 9th century BCE)
Approximate Date: 830 BCE
Place of Discovery: Dhiban [in modern Jordan]
Date of Discovery: 1868
Current Location: Louvre Museum (Paris, France)
Inventory number: AO 5066


Model of Herod's Temple From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Model of Herod's Temple; Holyland Hotel, Jerusalem. Note: The model shows Jerusalem as it must have looked in 63 AD., the end of the Second Temple era, just before the Romans destroyed the Temple in 70 AD. The models construction was supervised by Prof. Michael Avi Yonah and was based on descriptions of the city given by Flavius Josephus, the Talmuds, the Mishna, the Tosephtha, recent archaeological discoveries, and contemporary sources. Jesus called this "My Father's House."

Monument of King Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BCE). Near the Pool of the Sheepmarket. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Mosque of Omar Dome Corbis Images [Modern Israel] [Images]

Oil Lamp Israel: Megiddo, Stratum III; Iron Age IIC, 8th century B.C. Baked clay. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1925-34. "Lamps such as this one consist of a bowl to hold fuel, which was usually olive oil, and a spout to support a wick, which was probably made of flax. The burning wick blackened the spout and must have produced a rather smoky light. The shape of these lamps changed over time, going from an open bowl with four pinched spouts to the one-spouted type shown here and, finally, to a closed lamp with a single spout. These differences in shape are one type of evidence used by archaeologists to date the levels they are excavating."

Oil Lamp from the Levant Oil Lamp Hecht Museum

Orthodox Jews praying at Western (Wailing) Wall Israel, Jerusalem, (Tony Stone Images)

Petra, Jordan Nice Photo

Petra, Jordan2 Nice Photo

Petra, Jordan3 Nice Photo

Petra, Jordan4 Nice Photo

Petra, Jordan5 Nice Photo

Petra, Jordan6 Nice Photo

Petra, Jordan7 Nice Photo

Petra, Jordan8 Nice Photo

Petra, Jordan9 Nice Photo

Petra, Khazneh (Treasury), Jordan, Bedouin on camel in foreground. It is unknown when the Khazneh was built, but estimates put it somewhere between 100 BC to 200 AD. It was built as a tomb, but gained it`s name from stories that pirates used to hide their treasure there. (Tony Stone Images)

Pool of Bethesda The Pool of the Sheepmarket was just below the Fortress of Antonia. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Robinson's Arch You may notice an area with a reddish rectangle box around it. That is the area known today as the Western "Wailing" Wall. It gives an idea of how large this wall actually was. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Row of Ancient Beehives [Images]

Shamshi-Adad V From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Shamshi-Adad V; Assyrian Emperor; (reigned 823"811 BC); limestone stele; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Silver Torah Case Modern Israel] [Images]

Silver Torah Case (Closed) Modern Israel] [Images]

Simple Topographical Map of Israel [Maps] [Israel]

Sinai Area Images Including Satellite Photos [Ancient Israel] [Images]

Still Waters of the Jordan River near the Sea of Galile Photo [Israel Images]

Storage and Cooking at Karanis A Taste of the Ancient World: [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

Tel Rehov Beehive Door [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations] [Images]

Tel Rehov Finding Preliminary Report [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations] [Images]

The 3 Towers Built by Herod Built to protect his palace were Herod's 3 towers.

1. Phasael Tower (the largest, named after his brother stood 145 feet high).
2. Hippicus Tower (named after a friend, and was 132 feet high)
3. Mariamme Tower (named after his beloved wife whom he had murdered. Josephus said "the king considering it appropriate that the tower named after a woman should surpass in decoration those called after men." It stood 74 feet high)

[Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].


The City with the Tomb of David Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original.

The Crucified Man from Jerusalem Among the collected bones in a stone ossuary in a Jerusalem burial cave dated to the late Second Temple period (first century BC - first century AD), a unique find was made - a small piece of wood with an attached heelbone fragment. The bones in the ossuary were identified as those of a young man aged 24-28, whose name was scratched on the ossuary: Yehohanan ben Hagkol. This heelbone, the only known archaeological evidence of crucifixion in the Roman world, is of particular significance, as it dates to the same time span as the most famous cruxifixion of all - that of Jesus of Nazareth by the Roman authorities.

The Crucified Man from Jerusalem (Close View) Among the collected bones in a stone ossuary in a Jerusalem burial cave dated to the late Second Temple period (first century BC - first century AD), a unique find was made - a small piece of wood with an attached heelbone fragment. The bones in the ossuary were identified as those of a young man aged 24-28, whose name was scratched on the ossuary: Yehohanan ben Hagkol. This heelbone, the only known archaeological evidence of crucifixion in the Roman world, is of particular significance, as it dates to the same time span as the most famous cruxifixion of all - that of Jesus of Nazareth by the Roman authorities.

The Crucified Man from Jerusalem (Heel Bone) Among the collected bones in a stone ossuary in a Jerusalem burial cave dated to the late Second Temple period (first century BCE - first century CE), a unique find was made - a small piece of wood with an attached heelbone fragment. The bones in the ossuary were identified as those of a young man aged 24-28, whose name was scratched on the ossuary: Yehohanan ben Hagkol. This heelbone, the only known archaeological evidence of crucifixion in the Roman world, is of particular significance, as it dates to the same time span as the most famous cruxifixion of all - that of Jesus of Nazareth by the Roman authorities.

The Crucified Man from Jerusalem (Reconstruction) Among the collected bones in a stone ossuary in a Jerusalem burial cave dated to the late Second Temple period (first century BCE - first century CE), a unique find was made - a small piece of wood with an attached heelbone fragment. The bones in the ossuary were identified as those of a young man aged 24-28, whose name was scratched on the ossuary: Yehohanan ben Hagkol. This heelbone, the only known archaeological evidence of crucifixion in the Roman world, is of particular significance, as it dates to the same time span as the most famous cruxifixion of all - that of Jesus of Nazareth by the Roman authorities.

The Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. 1QpHab: The Habakkuk Pesher (The Commentary on Habakkuk from Qumran, Cave 1).

The Hammurabi Stele THE HAMMURABI STELE. Partially Retold in English, by Stan Rummel, Director of The Humanities Program, Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas. "In the following selections, I have frequently changed the grammar and sequence of words from that of the original text, and I have omitted sections of material, so that what is given will read comprehensibly in English. I have grouped regulations by topical categories for discussion, rather than simply following their numerical sequence." Also includes an image: Detail of the top of the Hammurabi Stele, picturing King Hammurabi coming before the god Shamash.

The headwaters of the Jordan at Banias. Banias the source of Jordan River [images] [Israel]

The Hill of Calvary Located outside the second wall. The actual site of the Cross is still under discussion. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Hipprodrome South near the Synagogue of the Freedmen was the Hippodrome, built by Herod like a Roman Circus, for chariot races. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Lower City On the SE hill was the Lower City, the ancient city of Jerusalem's core and on its slopes were the crowded houses of the poor. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Lower City for the Poor On the SE hill was the Lower City, the ancient city of Jerusalem's core and on its slopes were the crowded houses of the poor. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Markets and Storehouses Located within the second wall. can also see the dwelling quarters of the merchants. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Model with the Temple and the City Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original.

The Porticoes Surrounding the Temple Mount The Outer Court was surrounded by colonnade porches. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Psephinus Tower NW corner of the third wall. The Psephinus Tower stood 115 feet high according to Josephus and from the top one could see both the Mediterranean Sea and the Mountains of Arabia. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Royal Palace of the Hasmoneans Located on the Western side of the Upper City. It contained a roof called the Xystus with where the people in the large square below could be addressed. It had large courts, living quarters, baths, and a service court. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Temple Here is where the sacrifices were made. Its Facade was 165 feet high and wide and was built of 3 kinds of marble, with a foundation of blue stones. Josephus described the Temple as resembling "a snowy mountain glittering in the sun." [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Temple (Herod's) Here is where the sacrifices were made. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Tomb of David Behind the Palace of Caiphus stood the Tomb of David which is a monument that marks the spot where David's tomb was located. The real spot for the tomb is on the SE hill in David's city. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Upper Agora in the Upper City The area east of the Palace was known as the Upper City, this is where the wealthy Jews lived. In front of the Palace was the Upper Agora (Market Square or Forum). [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Upper Agora in the Upper City The area east of the Palace was known as the Upper City, this is where the wealthy Jews lived. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

The Valley of Hinnom- Gehenna [images] [Israel]

Three Female Heads Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VIIA; Late Bronze Age II, 13th century B.C. Ivory. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1936-7. "These delicate heads belong to a group of ivories discovered at the site of Megiddo, in Israel. They had been stored in a semi- subterranean chamber that archaeologists called "the treasury," within a large building that may have been a palace. Pairs of heads such as these were attached to cosmetic boxes. A dowel inserted behind one head functioned as the hinge for a flat lid; a dowel behind the other served to fasten the lid closed. The heads show traces of Egyptian influence in their heavily curling locks of hair, which are characteristic of the Egyptian goddess Hathor."

Ugaritic god Ba'al From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Ba'al Ugaritic god of Storms & War; 14th century BC. Bronze & gold statue. Note: The adjective "Ugaritic" is characteristic of the ancient city of Ugarit.

View of the Roman Siege Camp at the foot of Masada. Very terrifying scene. [images] [Israel]

Western "Wailing" Wall You may notice an area with a reddish rectangle box around it. That is the area known today as the Western "Wailing" Wall. It gives an idea of how large this wall actually was. Also in the background is Wilson's Arch which connected the Upper and Lower Cities. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Western Wall (men praying on evening of new moon) Israel, Jerusalem, (Tony Stone Images)

Women's Gate and Towers Northern Side of the Third Wall. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

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