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Ancient Rome: 2. General
Various Topics

A Chronology of Early Byzantine History Includes a LIST OF BYZANTINE EMPERORS. Timothy E. Gregory

A Roman Funeral

A Taste of the Ancient World: Greco-Roman eating, drinking,

A Visual Compendium of Roman Emperors The goal of this page is to present an illustrated list of Roman Emperors. While I was in Rome In July of 1995 the idea for this page hit me at some point in the Vatican museum. I had seen lists of emperors on the net and I figured these lists would be much more interesting if they had pictures as well. Thus, I tried to snap pics of as many emperors as I could find in various museums.

About The Everyday Lives Of Roman Slaves Although some information survives to us about Roman slavery, and due to archeological conquests, a great deal of knowledge can be gathered about the general slave system, little is known about the everyday lives of slaves. However, enough is known to give general overview of slave`s lives. It is understood that slaves performed a wide variety of different jobs, ranging from economic to field labor roles, to being forced into gladiatorial combat like Spartacus. [Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y]

Amphitheater The amphitheater was a microcosm of Roman society. The seating arrangements reflected the stratification of Roman society. On a large podium the emperor had a special box and senators sat on marble seating divided into fourteen sections.

Amphitheaters Most people have heard of the Colosseum in Rome, but there were many other amphitheaters all over the Roman Empire. The first gladiatorial fights, in Etruscan times, were held anywhere that there was a flat place near a hill, so that people could sit on the hillside and watch the fights being held down on the flat area. But there isn't always a convenient hill like that, so before long, around 300 BC, rich men and city governments started to build temporary wooden amphitheaters for people to sit in, like artificial hills, or like the seating for events at county fairs or festivals today. They were called amphitheaters because they were built like two theaters facing each other.

ANATOMY OF A ROMAN ARCH

Ancient History - Nefer Seba A list of online resources on Classical Studies, Latin language, and archaeology (Latin dictionaries, phrases and mottoes, Classical and archaeological organizations, excavation sites, encyclopedias on the topic, etc.)

Ancient History Sourcebook: The Twelve Tables, c. 450 BCE

Ancient Roman and Greek Coins Answers to frequently asked questions about ancient Roman and Greek coins and how to collect them.

Ancient Roman Art Resources ART HISTORY RESOURCES ON THE WEB: Ancient Roman Art

Ancient Roman Chariot Races Ancient Roman chariot races were held in the Circus, such as the Circus Maximus. The festivities such as the Ludi Magni which were celebrated with the chariot races in honour of Jupiter, generally began early in the morning with a religious procession called the "pompa circensis". The procession included religious representatives, all the chariot racing teams accompanied by their standards, musicians, attending magistrates and workers of the Circus. Images of the gods such as the Dioscuri twins (one was a famed rider the other a boxer), Cibele mother of the gods and Neptune god of horses also accompanied the procession on little chariots of their own. The procession started at sunrise at the Capitol, proceeded through the Forum and into the "porta Triumphalis" (triumphal gate) of the Circus itself. The dignitaries would take their seats and to the sound of trumpets, the chariots and competitors entered the arena from the stables called "carceres", accompanied by their entourage of six slave assistants . The stables were situated in the flat end of the circus called the "officium".

Ancient Roman Civilization Links Roman Archaeology - Roman Pottery - Roman Medicine - Roman Houses

Ancient Roman Education In the early Roman society, before the 6th century BC, children were taught by their parents. The mothers taught their daughters to do housework and anything else the mothers thought might be useful for their daughters to know. The mothers also taught their sons before the age of seven. After the age of seven, boys moved under the control of their fathers. The father would decide what his son needed to know in order to succeed in life, and would give his son lessons. Learning by following examples was considered important, so the son accompanied his father on all important occasions.Later in the history, Romans adopted Greek educations principals. By then, Greek was the international language spoken by many Roman neighbors. From the 2nd century BC a Roman was considered fully educated only if he received the same education as a native Greek in parallel with instructions in Latin.

Ancient Roman History Timeline

Ancient Rome Daily Life Ancient Rome for Kids

Ancient Rome Virtual Postcards Compose your postcard

Ancient Rome: The Pantheon The Pantheon was a temple in honor of the Olympic gods; in fact, the word pantheon is Greek for "of all the gods." It is the best-preserved of all the Roman monuments. The original Pantheon was constructed by M. Vispanius Agrippa in 27 B.C. The Pantheon we see today, however, is a reconstruction built by the Emperor Hadrian, perhaps after a fire. In A.D. 609, Pope Boniface VIII received the building as a gift from the emperor of Byzantium. He made it into a Christian church dedicated it to the Madonna and the martyrs.

Ancient Rome: The Roman Forum The Roman Forum is a square which is surrounded by some of the most ancient Roman monuments. The Forum is also the origin of the first Latin population 2600 years ago.

Anecdotes & Stories Anecdotes as Historical Evidence for the Principate. By Richard Saller.

Antiqua medicina: Etruscan and Roman Medicine Pliny, in his Natural History, says that the first doctor (medicus) to come to Rome was Arcagathus. He arrived from the Greek Peloponnese in 219 BCE and was well received. Arcagathus was accorded the rights of citizenship and a medical shop was set up at state expense for his use. Prior to this time, Rome had no physicians and only home remedies were used. Because Arcagathus was an expert wound surgeon (uulnerarius), he immediately became popular; however, his popularity did not last. His vigorous use of the knife and cautery soon earned him the title "Executioner"(Carnifex). Over 100 years lapsed before we hear that another Greek physician (Asclepiades of Bithynia, ca. 100 BCE) had taken up residence in Rome.

Antiqua Medicina: Surgery Surgery and Surgical Instruments. Recovered surgical instruments used during the Roman Empire indicate that the art of surgery progressed and proliferated greatly during this time. Both Galen and Celsus emphasized the importance of surgery in the training of the conscientious physician, although they came from divergent medical traditions (Celsus, prooemium VII; Galen, II, 272). Technical competence in surgery became better as new medical tools were devised. New metals and alloys were found to provide sharper edges and cheaper equipment. Most instruments were made of bronze, or occasionally of silver. Iron was rarely used because, as in most ancient cultures, it was considered a religious taboo by both the Greeks and Romans. The full repertoire of Roman surgical equipment is still far from completely known.

Antiqua Medicina: The Doctor in Roman Society As a profession, medicine was more highly regarded in Greece than in Rome. Physicians were basically craftsmen, probably enjoying some esteem among their customers, but not being part of the socio-political elite. Roman doctors did not fare so well. Many doctors were freed Greek slaves, hence the social standing of doctors was quite low. Because recovery rates were so low, many people were skeptical or even scornful of doctors. Their skepticism is easily understood. Roman literature tells us much about the reactions of individuals to medicine and doctors. Listening to the Roman authors, we hear tales of quackery and chicanery at all levels of society. There were no licensing boards and no formal requirements for entrance to the profession. Anyone could call himself a doctor. If his methods were successful, he attracted more patients; if not, he found himself another profession. Medical training consisted mostly of apprentice work. Men trained as doctors by following around another doctor. Plutarch grumbles that practitioners used all sorts of questionable methods to gain patients, ranging from escorting the prospective patient home from bars to sharing dirty jokes with him.

Antique Roman Dishes - Collection

Antiquity Online, List of Text Maps

Antony, Octavian, Cleopatra: the end of the Roman Republic

ARMAMENTARIVM: the Book of Roman Arms and Armour A dynamic illustrated source book about Roman military equipment.

Athena Review Image Archive: Gaul, Caesar's campaigns

Augustus and Tiberius: the beginnings of the Roman Empire

Augustus Caesar

Augustus Caesar on Roman Emperors 27 years before Jesus Christ was born, the Senate of Rome bestowed upon Octavian the title Augustus. Augustus became the first "Emperor", which comes from the military title imperator. In actuality he became no more than first senator, but he skillfully combined within himself all the powers of consul, tribune, and other offices, and he really had no rival.

Barbarization in the Late Roman Army Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. The term `barbarization` is used to describe the use of soldiers whose origins were outside the Roman Empire in the late Roman army.

Bath's Sacred Spring (Ancient Roman Baths in Britain) Bath's Sacred Spring by Bruce Heydt

Baylor University : Classics Department Baylor University, Waco, Texas

Bernard Hibbitts - Roman Law Readings

Bibliomania: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Full text of History of The Decline And Fall of The Roman Empire by Gibbon

Biography of Hannibal of Carthage In 218 B.C., Hannibal of Carthage, 28, set off from Spain with 90,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry (estimates run as high as 40,000) and "a number of elephants"--the usual guess is 40. His goal was to besiege Rome by crossing the French Alps and entering Italy from the north through the Po River Valley.

Boadicea -- Queen of the Iceni

Buying and Selling in the Roman World

Byzance A Great Empire; The Byzantines

Byzantium The Metropolitan Museum of Art`s on-line exploration of Byzantium

ByzNet Byzantine Studies on the Net

Caen - Scale Model of Rome Plan de Rome

Caesar Augustus Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Born: 23-Sep-63 BC Birthplace: Rome, Italy Died: 19-Aug-14 AD Location of death: Nola, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: White Sexual orientation: Straight Occupation: Royalty Nationality: Ancient Rome Executive summary: Roman Emperor, 23 BC to 14 AD Augustus (from augeo, increase, venerable, majestic), the title given by the Roman senate, on the 17th of January 27 BC, to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, or as he was originally designated, Gaius Octavius, in recognition of his eminent services to the state, and borne by him as the first of the Roman emperors. The title was adopted by all the succeeding Caesars or emperors of Rome long after they had ceased to be connected by blood with the first Augustus.

Caesar`s Calendar Changes (Julian Calendar) Describes Julius Caesar`s 45 B.C. calendar changes. Also has Calendrical Terms for definitions.

CALIGULA: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Barbara F. McManus, The College of New Rochelle

Celts Against the Empire

Centre for Roman Studies: Pompeii Interim Report

Changing Concept of Roman Weapons and Tactics Development of the Roman Legion from the late Republic to the height of the Empire. Campaigns and battles. Tactics and weapons of the Roman armies. Siege warfare / fortification. Profiles of the greatest military commanders. [Warfare] [Rome]

Chariot Racing

Chart of Roman Emperors List of Roman Emperors from Augustus to Justinian.

Christians and Rome

Chronological of Historical Events and People

Chronology of Christianity

Circus, Stadia and Entertainment Chariot racing was Rome's oldest and most popular pastime, dating back to at least the Roman monarchy. Greek chariot races were held in hippodromes in the east, but in the west they were held in circuses. Other events eventually infiltrated the circus games (ludi circenses), such as Greek athletics and wrestling, but chariot racing remained the popular favorite. As a sport, it was highly expensive, but organized into a highly profitable business. There were four chariot facing factions, the blues, greens, whites, and reds, the colors of which were worn by respective charioteers during races. If successful, a charioteer could become rich and famous throughout Rome. Images of charioteers survive in sculpture, mosaic, and molded glassware, sometimes even with inscribed names. The factions rivaled greatly, sometimes leading to violence among supporters. In general, however, the greens and blues were the favorites.

Cities and Provinces of the Roman Empire

Classical Atlas Project -- Home Page

Classics Department: Roman Holidays

Clothing of Ancient Rome

Collapse of the Roman Empire - Military Aspects Modern historians explain the collapse of the western Roman empire in the fourth and fifth centuries in one of two ways. One group follows an institutional approach, which finds the reasons in the long-term and looks closely at internal structures. A second group has adopted a political approach and looks at short term causes of collapse. Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. Hugh Elton

Collapse of the Roman Empire - Military Aspects Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. Modern historians explain the collapse of the western Roman empire in the fourth and fifth centuries in one of two ways. One group follows an institutional approach, which finds the reasons in the long-term and looks closely at internal structures. A second group has adopted a political approach and looks at short term causes of collapse. Hugh Elton.

Collecting Roman Coins

Constantine I Britannica online encyclopedia article on Constantine I (Roman emperor):Constantine I, colossal marble head, c. ad 325.The Granger Collection, New Yorkthe first Roman emperor to profess Christianity. He not only initiated the evolution of the empire into a Christian state but also provided the impulse for a distinctively Christian culture that prepared the way for the growth of Byzantine and Western medieval culture.

Constantine the Great

Constantine: The First Roman Emperor to Sponsor Christianity Constantine's Christianity. Constantine was a key figure in Roman, Christian, and Byzantine history. He was born in February in the late 280`s A.D., in what is now the city of Nis, in Yugoslavia. His father had risen to the rank of Caesar or deputy emperor and had served under Maximian in the west. When his parents were divorced, Constantine was brought up in the court of Diocletian in the eastern part of the empire. [Alice Jagger]

Construction of the Colisseum The Colosseum - the greatest amphitheatre of the antiquity - was built in Rome, Italy, about 1920 years ago. It is considered an architectural and engineering wonder, and remains as a standing proof of both the grandeur and the cruelty of the Roman world.

Contemporary Civilizations: Neighbors of Rome

COOKING FOR THE GODS The research coordinator and research associate at The University of Pennsylvania for this project have been Michael W. Meister and Pika Ghosh; the curator at the Newark Museum is Valrae Renolds; the exhibition draws on the Nalin collection in the Newark Museum and on the generous gifts of Dr. David Nalin to the University of Pennsylvania for preparation of the exhibition. Photographs are courtesy of Dr. Nalin.

Crazy Caesars of Rome

Cremation in a Roman Port Town

De Imperatoribus Romanis: Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors DIR is an on-line encyclopedia on the rulers of the Roman empire from Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) to Constantine XI Palaeologus (1449-1453). The encyclopedia consists of (1) an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire`s 1500 years, (2) a growing number of biographical essays on the individual emperors, (3) family trees ("stemmata") of important imperial dynasties, (4) an index of significant battles in the empire`s history, (5) a growing number of capsule descriptions and maps of these battles, and (6) maps of the empire at different times. Wherever possible, these materials are cross-referenced by live links.

Dead Romans

Dead Romans

Decadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't

Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Detailed Table of Contents (with links to quotations). The "Best of" Edward Gibbon`s

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Diotima: Glossary of Roman Clothing

Early Church Fathers Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College.

Early Sources of Christianity The official Roman dislike of Christianity was surprising, for the Romans were usually quick to adopt the gods of other faiths into their own religion. For instance, when Rome conquered Greece, the Romans readily accepted the Greek gods and goddesses and their myths, and altered many established Roman deities to resemble their Greek counterparts. The Roman god Jupiter, for example, took on many traits of Zeus, the Greek god of the heavens.

EAWC Chronology: Rome

EAWC Chronology: Rome

Electronic Resources in Classical Studies Internet Resources by Subject. Art and Archaeology: Epigraphy: Geography: Greek and Latin Authors History Language Mythology and Religion Numismatics Paleography Papyrology Philosophy Science and Medicine Theatre and Drama Women Full-Text Databases Electronic Journal Web Sites Images and Exhibits Discussion Groups Organizations and Individuals Academic Programs in Classics Software in Classics, For Fun. The University Library, University of California, Davis

Enemies of the Roman Empire

Engineering in the Roman World

Every day life in Rome The Baths Entertainment Breakfast Siesta/Lunch Roman Families Clothing/Hair Styles Roman Houses Weddings The Forum Toys & Games Life in the Country School! Dinner Time Great Builders

Family Rule frm Tiberius to Nero TIBERIUS, AN UNPOPULAR BUT ABLE RULER. Frank E. Smitha

Family Values in Ancient Rome The Romans had their own evolutionary story about family mores, and it had nothing to do with the invention of affection, which they took to be natural and eternal in the family. However, their story did contain elements of the decline of paternal authority and the stable family. Roman authors--all men--often lamented that in the late Republic wives no longer played the ideal role that they had fulfilled for centuries. According to the Roman writers of the first century BCE and first century CE, divorce became increasingly frequent after 200 BCE, initiated easily by the husband or the wife. In addition, wives had their own property, which they could sell, give away or bequeath as they liked. As a result, women became more liberated and less dependent on their husbands. In fact, by the late Republic a rich wife who could divorce and take her wealth with her had a real threat against her husband and could wield influence over him. The sense of independence also showed up in increasing sexual promiscuity and adultery.

Forum

Forum Romanum Forum Romanum is a collaborative project among scholars, teachers, and students with the broad purpose of bringing classical literature out of college libraries and into a more accessible, online medium. Toward this end, we host a number of materials for students of the classical world, including texts, translations, and other pedagogical resources.

from jesus to christ: the first christians: women in ancient

frontline: from jesus to christ - the first christians

Gaius Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (100 - 44 BCE) is the most famous Roman general and statesman, conqueror of Gaul (58 - 50 BCE) who brought about the effective end of the Republic. After building up an army in Gaul, Caesar marched against the Senate in 49 BCE, and defeated his rival Gnaeus Pompeus Magnus at the battle of Pharsalus. As dictator of Rome, he launched a series of political and social reforms before he was assasinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March.

Gaul -- Encarta® Concise Encyclopedia Article Gaul (Latin Gallia), ancient Roman designation of that portion of western Europe which is substantially identical with France, although extending beyond the boundaries of the modern country. It was bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Pyrenees Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea, on the north by the English Channel, and on the east by the Alps and the Rhine River. The inhabitants, called the Gauls (Latin Galli), were among the most prominent of Celtic peoples and played an important role in the ethnic distribution of the early peoples of Europe. The first historic mention of Gaul occurs about 600 BC, when Phocaean Greeks founded the colony of Massalia (Marseille) on the southern coast. Greeks of a later period called the country Galatia, which in Roman times became Gallia.

German Tribes Invaded the Roman Empire German Tribes invaded the Roman Empire and the Slavs occupied the Illyrian Provinces.

Gibbon: General Observations

Gladiatorial Games

Gladiators History & Origins Who were the Gladiators? Gladiator Training & Combat Public Perception of Gladiators The Venatio: Hunting Animals Female Gladiators Return of the Gladiator The Movie "Gladiator" in Historical Perspective

Glossary of Scholarly Terms, Latin, and Greek Words

Glossary of Scholarly Terms, Latin, and Greek Words

Government in the Roman Republic and the Empire

Government in the Roman Republic and the Empire

Graffiti From the Walls of Pompeii Each inscription begins with a reference to where it was found (region.insula.door number). The second number is the reference to the publication of the inscription in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Volume 4.

Grave Art: Early Christian Tombs and Figures of Mourning In Augustine's Confessions. Roman emperors loved bronze and stone, but their best poets vaunted written poetic language as a much better medium of monuments-- indeed, of immortality.

Greek & Roman Cities of Western Turkey Michael Greenhalgh

Greek and Roman Sculpture in Rome Images. Not many words needed, the beauty speaks for itself. Examples of Greek and Roman sculptures, All in Roman Museums

Guide to Early Church Documents

Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site This site has everything you need to know about planning a trip to Hadrian's Wall.

Hannibal

Hannibal The African Warrior In 218 B.C., Hannibal began the most daring military move in history, that of invading Rome by way of the Alps. But why did this African military genius decide to war against Rome? Before Hannibal's birth, the Romans ruled Italy, and the Carthaginians ruled Carthage in North Africa. The Carthaginians also ruled the Mediterranean Islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Syracuse (now know as Sicily). The Carthaginians were content as things were, but the Romans were military expansionists. So the Romans broke their treaty with the Carthaginians by expanding their empire into Sicily, and the First Punic War began (264 B.C.). In 247 B.C., Hamilcar Barca took command of the Carthaginian army and his son, Hannibal, was born. Hannibal was born to one of the most distinguished families in Carthage--the Barcas.

Heart of Wisdom Rome Links WWW-VL HISTORY: ANCIENT ROME GENERAL SITES

Hellenistic / Roman Religion & Philosophy The Jewish Roman World of Jesus. Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls | Christian Origins and the New Testament Ancient Judaism. James D. Tabor

Historical Background for Spartacus

History House: Stories: Circus Maximus-Rome's Astrodome The races were on, a type of spectacle which has never had the slightest attraction for me. I can find nothing new or different in them: once seen is enough, so it surprises me all the more that so many thousands of adult men should have such a childish passion for watching galloping horses and drivers standing in chariots, over and over again.... When I think how this futile, tedious, monotonous business can keep them sitting endlessly in their seats, I take pleasure in the fact that their pleasure is not mine. And I have been very glad to fill my idle hours with literary work during these days which others have wasted in the idlest occupations. - Pliny the Younger

History of Tunisia: Carthaginians and Romans In ancient times Tunisia was part of the mighty Carthaginian Empire. Its chief city, Carthage, was reputedly founded in 814BC by Phoenician traders, who had previously established several small trading posts along the North African coast. The site of Carthage, which became the largest and most famous of these Phoenician settlements, is thought to have been slightly to the north-east of the modern city of Tunis. The Carthaginian Empire dominated most of North Africa, as well as parts of the Iberian Peninsula, Sardinia and Sicily. By the third century BC, however, trouble was brewing for the Carthaginians, in the shape of the fast-expanding Roman Empire.

How Excessive Government Killed Ancient Rome

HWC, The Fall of the Republic In this chapter, the lives and impact of Caesar, Octavian, Antonius (Antony) and even Cleopatra, along with the continuing stories of men like Pompey, Crassus and Cicero will be examined. The Fall of the Republic was more than a single man or event. It was a culmination of several individual actions or achievements, coupled with social conditions that weighed heavily on Roman society. Additionally, massive and rapid expansion from Rome's foundation as a fledgling city 700 years earlier until the mid 1st century BC, created monumental holes in the political and governing ability of the Senate. Periods of stability were mixed in with those of near collapse while powerful generals or inciters of the Roman mob jockeyed for position.

Hyperlinked Alphabetical Index of Historical Events and Peop

Image Archive: Rome

Images from World History: Early Byzantine history (7 - 11th (7 - 11th c. A.D.)

Italy: Its Geography and Climate

Jay's Roman History and Coins Page

JUDAEA AND CIVIL WAR REVOLT, INDEPENDENCE, AND RELIGIOUS DIVISIONS. Frank E. Smitha

Julius Caesar Roman Emperors Julius Caesar may not be technically referred to as the first "Emperor" of Rome, but he began a dynasty that would rule the Roman Empire for a hundred years. In 44 B.C. the Senate bestowed upon him the title of "Imperator" which is where the word "emperor" originates. Though he was acting as dictator, he would not allow himself to be referred to publicly as king or emperor but "Caesar" instead. He was assassinated in 44 B.C. by some of his close friends, including Brutus on the Ides of March, the 15th. [romanemperors.com]

Julius Caesar: Historical Background

LacusCurtius - Codrington's Roman Roads in Britain A Web-enhanced version of Roman Roads in Britain by Thomas Codrington published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge London, 1903

LacusCurtius - The Roman Circus (Smith's Dictionary, 1875). CIRCUS (ἱπποδρόμος) a place for chariot-races and horse-races, and in which the Roman races (Circenses Ludi) took place. When Tarquinius Priscus had taken the town of Apiolae from the Latins, as related in the early Roman legends, he commemorated his success by an exhibition of races and pugilistic contests in the Murcian valley, between the Palatine and Aventine hills; around which a number of temporary platforms were erected by the patres and equites, called spectacula, fori, or foruli, from their resemblance to the deck of a ship; each one raising a stage for himself, upon which he stood to view the games (Liv. I.35; Festus, s.v. Forum; Dionys. III. p192, &c.). This course, with its surrounding scaffoldings, was termed circus; either because the spectators stood round to see the shows, or because the procession and races went round in a circuit (Varr. De Ling. Lat. V.153, 154, ed. Müller). Previously, however, to the death of Tarquin, a permanent building was constructed for the purpose, with regular tiers of seats in the form of a theatre (cf. Liv. and Dionys. ll. cc.) To this the name of Circus Maximus was subsequently given, as a distinction from the Flaminian and other similar buildings, which it surpassed in extent and splendour; and hence, like the Campus Martius, it is often spoken of as the Circus, without any distinguishing epithet.

LacusCurtius Home Page

Landmark Events

Latin Quotes and Phrases Over 1,900 Latin Mottos, Latin Phrases, Latin Quotes and Latin Sayings with English Translations. Bis vivit qui bene vivit He lives twice who lives well.

Lead and the Fall of Rome: A Bibliography Since the nineteenth century, there have been sporadic suggestions that the large-scale use of lead in antiquity contributed to the fall of Rome through heavy-metal poisoning.

Lead and the Fall of Rome: A Bibliography Since the nineteenth century, there have been sporadic suggestions that the large-scale use of lead in antiquity contributed to the fall of Rome through heavy-metal poisoning.

Leisure and Entertainment

Lepcis Magna - The Roman Empire in Africa

Lepcis Magna - Window on the Roman World in North Africa

Link to Ancient Rome History Link 101's Ancient Rome page connects you to the best of Art, Biographies, Daily Life, Maps, Pictures, and Research on Rome.

List of Roman Emperors From Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Augustus) to Flavius Anastasius

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (b. 138 BC - d. 78 BC, Puteoli), was the great Roman general who as dictator carried out remarkable constitutional reforms in an attempt to preserve the Republic, and reinforce the traditional power of the Senate. Yet in spite of these reforms, his most lasting impact was not the preservation of the Republic, but its destruction. For in the precedent of his dictatorship and his march on Rome, he paved the way for Julius Caesar and the rise of the Imperial Monarchy.

Lupercalia Festival The History of St. Valentine`s Day

Management Plan for the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site Hadrian's Wall and its associated features are the most complex and best preserved of all the frontier works of the Roman Empire comprising the Wall itself, the Vallum, which probably marked the rear edge of the Wall zone, 16 forts (surrounded by civilian settlements) along or near the Wall, the Roman towns of Carlisle and Corbridge lying behind the Wall, and outpost forts protecting the approaches from the north. There are also many earlier Roman military works such as marching camps and permanent bases along the east-west Stanegate road which may itself have begun as a control line before the decision was taken to build the Wall. The landscape of the Tyne-Solway isthmus is very varied. In the east, on Tyneside, the setting of the Wall is predominantly urban. In east Northumberland, the country is mainly arable and open while in the central sector the ground rises to over 300 metres above sea level and the land-use is pastoral. East Cumbria too is pastoral, except for the built-up areas of the City of Carlisle. West of Carlisle, the landscape changes again as the defences run along the edge of the Solway tidal marshes, and there are further differences along the west Cumbrian coast, part open, part industrial and urban.

Map of the Roman Empire

Map of the Second Punic War

Maps and Codices of the Roman Empire A few maps of parts of Rome and the provinces. With a timeline of the Roman Empire.

Marius and Sulla The domestic political scene during the period in between the death of Gaius Gracchus and the dictatorship of L. Cornelius Sulla, 120-81 BC. The ancient sources see the political situation in this period as ever more factionalized, with politicians belonging to one of two parties, optimates or populares.

Marriage in Ancient Rome

MEALTIME IN THE ROMAN HOUSE AGE, GENDER, AND STATUS DIVISIONS AT MEALTIME IN THE ROMAN HOUSE: a synopsis of the literary evidence. From: Pedar W. Foss, "Kitchens and Dining Rooms at Pompeii: the spatial and social relationship of cooking to eating in the Roman household.

Medieval World Medieval Europe was a constant battleground, from petty border disputes to internal power struggles and National rivalries. The Church was as much a competitor as it was a peace keeper. Feudalism, the Roman Catholic Church and the Code of Chivalry provided the framework for the social, political and economic environments of Europe during the Middle Ages. Emphasis was on manor life in the Early Middle ages but shifted to the cities and commercial activities during the later period. Monasteries gave way to Universities as centers of learning. Medieval art was primarily art of the Church. After the period of migration (AD500 - 800) in which the art was small and personal, the Germanic tribes settled into the old Roman Empire. Intricate and organic designs dominated this period. Later, beautiful illuminated manuscripts as well as relief sculpture was use to instruct an illiterate faithful. Massive Romanesque and then richly ornate Gothic cathedrals with ethereal stain glass windows soared to unbelievable heights. The journey from pessimism and superstition to intellectual and creative revival was reflected in the changing styles of art.

MIDWIVES AND MATERNITY CARE IN ANCIENT ROME

Modern Equivalent Of Ancient Roman Place Names A glossary of ancient Roman place names and their modern (circa 2001) equivalent. Kenneth Wellesley

Monuments of Ancient Rome Rome, the capital city of Italy since 1871, is a city with an incredibly rich history. It was the main city of the vast Roman Empire, whose control reached from Rome to places as far away as England. The Roman Empire left an enduring legacy throughout Western civilization -- and many enduring ruins throughout Rome.

More Greek and Roman Links This page contains links to sites devoted to history, law, society, commerce and biography.

Mr. Donn Ancient Rome Daily Life Introduction The Baths Entertainment Breakfast Siesta/Lunch Roman Families Clothing/Hair Styles Roman Houses Weddings The Forum Toys & Games Life in the Country School! Dinner Time Great Builders [for kids] Lin and Don Donn

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Rome, 1st century, A.D. -- The porcine Roman emperor had a succession of singularly unpleasant relationships with women. Perhaps it was because he was a feral, sadistic, sexually depraved, homicidal lunatic.

Notes on Roman Politics

Nova Roma ROMA RESURGENS. Dedicated to the restoration of Classical Roman religion, culture, and virtues

Nova Roma Front Page

Octavian`s Calendar Changes (Octavian Calendar) Changes to the Julian Calendar made during the time of Caesar Augustus. Prior pages in this series were: An Introduction to Calendars, Days and Weeks, Months and Years, Calendar Structures, 8th to 4th Century B.C. Calendar Changes, 360 - The Trial, Early Roman Calendars, Julian Calendar, Following sections concern: Gregorian Calendar, Fixed-Week Calendar.

ORB -- Early Byzantium (To 1000) Index Early Byzantium A Guide to Online Resources

ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM In ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM, Manfred Davidmann proves what Jesus really taught: The social laws of the Torah have to be followed. These social laws guarantee equality, social justice and security, and a good life for all members of the community. These laws protect people from exploitation, oppression and enslavement through need. Early Christians, being mostly Jews, followed these laws. Manfred Davidmann then proves how these essential social laws of the Torah were bypassed and ceased to be observed, in Judaism and in Christianity at the same time.

Pantheon

Parts of a Roman Warship

Pax Romana Home Page Starting with the reign of Augustus and ending with that of Marcus Aurelius was a period of Roman peace that is known as the Pax Romana (literally "The Roman Peace"). Its stand-out characteristic is the polyglot origins of its emperors (known as the "five good emperors" who ruled between 96 and 18 A.C.E. and then the Severan dynasty until 235 A.C.E.). The tranquility spread throughout the Mediterranean world (as far as North Africa and Persia). Every province was protected and governed (with their own laws as long as they accepted Roman taxation and military control). This period of change spanned over 200 years; throughout the large empire there was unity, peace and national stability for all of the Romans.

Pictish Nation

Pictures of History - Roman Empire John Hauser; Rome (38 images) Ostia (40) Pompeii (108)

Political Offices in the Roman Republic

POMPEII FORUM PROJECT

Pompey`s War Wars between the Jews and Romans: the subjugation of Judaea (63 BC)

Priscus at the court of Attila

Quick Index of Emperors and Empresses

Reenactment Roman army Online community of students and enthusiasts of the ancient Roman Army. We aim to provide an encyclopedia about the Roman military, a translation of Ritterling's classic article 'Legio', a travelogue section and a database of images of Roman military tombstones with the picture of the soldier on it.

Rivals of Rome

ROMA - History and Civilization of the Eternal City

Roman and Latin Latin was brought to Italy about 1000 BC by Indo-European immigrants from Northern Europe. It began, as all languages do, as an isolated local tongue of a small territory on the Tiber River called Latium. As the people in Latium developed into an organized community, the city of Rome was eventually founded in, according to legend, 753 BC.

Roman Architecture Roman Architecture: Arches, Columns, Temples, Theaters, Amphitheaters, Baths, Basilicas that the great architects that built them. As far as Roman Architecture goes, it is difficult to compare it with that of other nations, because the Romans applied architecture to so many and such varied purposes, and so constructed monuments involving both architectural and engineering skill, as to make it doubtful to what class they belonged. The Romans were the first people to treat architecture as a minister to the numberless needs of a great nation. Before them, except in the Greek theatres, it had served the gods, the royal families, and the dead, alone.

Roman Architecture: Construction Techniques The recognition Ancient Romans did not receive from art historians came from modern engineers who investigated and admired the construction techniques the Romans used to build roads, aqueducts, baths, tribunals, circuses, walls and obviously temples and houses.

Roman Architecture: Past and Present In this section of Architecture Through the Ages you will learn how Rome looked a long time ago and how it looks now. These series of pictures show the original plan for that area of Rome (left), and how it looks now (right). I hope that you enjoy these pictures and you learn how time can destroy even the most wonderful buildings. The Colosseum, Inside the Colosseum, The Great Square of the Colosseum, The Forum of Caesar, The Forum Square, The Circus Maximus, The Pantheon, Temples of the Forum Boarium

Roman Army Part II

Roman Art and Architecture Roman art is traditionally divided into two main periods, art of the Roman Republic and art of the Roman Empire (from 27 bc on), with subdivisions corresponding to the major emperors or to imperial dynasties. When the Republic was founded, the term Roman art was virtually synonymous with the art of the city of Rome, which still bore the stamp of its Etruscan past. Gradually, as the Roman Empire expanded throughout Italy and the Mediterranean and as the Romans became exposed to other artistic cultures, notably that of Greece, Roman art shook off its dependence on Etruscan art; during the last two centuries before Christ a distinctive Roman manner of building, sculpting, and painting emerged.

Roman Art and Sculpture

Roman Ball Games Ball-playing was popular among the Romans, and they often spent their morning exercises playing games on the fields (palaestra) or ball-courts (sphaerista). The Romans enjoyed a variety of ball games, including Handball (Expulsim Ludere), Trigon, Soccer, Field Hockey, Harpasta, Phaininda, Episkyros, and certainly Catch and other games that children might invent, like perhaps Dodge Ball. Pila was the term used for ball playing in general, but is here used to define the circular version of harpasta, which may have been the most popular ball game in Roman times. An additional game called Roman Ball is invented here in an attempt to fill in the gaps of our knowledge about ancient circular ball games. The pages linked on the right provide descriptions of these games.

Roman Baths

Roman Baths

Roman Baths

Roman Board Games Knucklebones (Tali & Tropa) , Dice (Tesserae) , Roman Chess (Latrunculi), Petteia (Single Stone Latrunculi), Latrunculi , Roman Checkers (Calculi) , The Game of Twelve Lines (Duodecim Scripta) , The Game of Lucky Sixes (Felix Sex) , Tic-Tac-Toe (Terni Lapilli) , Roman Backgammon (Tabula)

Roman Boys becoming Men Did young people in ancient times with their responsible public functions mature earlier, or were they fickle, sometimes idealistic, adolescents? In the book Jeugd in het Romeinse Rijk (Young People in the Roman Empire), Leiden historian Johan Strubbe and his colleague from Leuven, Christian Laes, analyse a current debate. Do literary sources and inscriptions contradict one another?

Roman Byzantine Info

Roman Byzantine Sites

Roman Calendar Our modern calendar is closely based on that implemented by Julius Caesar during 46-45BC, and amended by Pope Gregory XIII in AD1582. The ancient Roman calendar was closely linked to the science of astrology, and the teachings of Claudius Ptolemaeus, which were prevalent throughout the entire lifetime of Imperial Rome. Ptolemy's teachings were based, in turn, on those of Plato and Pythagoras who both expounded a geocentric, 'earth-centred' view of the universe in which the sun, moon and planets all revolved about a stationary Earth, positioned as it should be, at the very hub of the cosmos.

Roman Calendars from Romulus to Julius Caesar Story of the Roman Calendar from Romulus` time to that of Julius Caesar, including several methods used to reconcile it with solar year length.

Roman Children As soon as a child was born, it was laid at its father's feet. If he raised the child in his arms, he was acknowledging as his own and admitting it to all rights and privileges of membership in a Roman family. If he did not take it out, the child was an outcast, without family or protection. If a child was to be disposed of, it was exposed; that is, taken from the house by a slave and left by the roadside. This likely did not often occur. No actual instances of exposure are known during the Republic.

Roman circuses were large entertainment buildings Images. Found all over the Roman Empire, a circus is a building for public entertainment, including chariot racing.

Roman Clothing, Part I

Roman Clothing, Part II

Roman Coins of the Early Empire Roman Numismatic Gallery: Roman Coins, Sculpture, Military Equipment

Roman Coliseum Facts The Roman coliseum was originally known as the "Flavian Amphitheater". It is a massive and huge building of the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman Emperor Vespasian initiated the construction of the Roman Coliseum in the year 70 AD. He was the founder of the Flavian dynasty. The Roman coliseum was completed in 80 AD after the death of the emperor. The next heir to the throne, Emperor Titus, opened it to the public. It is said, the inaugural ceremony lasted for more than 100 days.

Roman Colosseum The Roman COLOSSEUM , Flavian amphitheater built over the remains of Nero's "Golden House" in Rome, c. 80 AD. The primary function of an amphitheater was to house spectacles of blood sports--gladiators combats and hunts of wild animals. Early Roman Christians were persecuted in this manner in the Colosseum. The design of an amphitheater basically requires the construction of two semicircular theaters placed face to face. Tiers of seats were supported by vaulted substructures constructed of tile and mortar. Elevators raised and lowered animals to the floor of the arena from caged areas below. Seating capacity of the Colosseum is estimated around 50,000.

Roman Colosseum - Rome, Italy - Great Buildings Online The Colosseum or Flavian Amphitheater was begun by Vespasian, inaugurated by Titus in 80 A.D. and completed by Domitian. Located on marshy land between the Esquiline and Caelian Hills, it was the first permanent amphitheater to be built in Rome. Its monumental size and grandeur as well as its practical and efficient organization for producing spectacles and controlling the large crowds make it one of the great architectural monuments achieved by the ancient Romans.

Roman Cuisine: Basic Food For Ordinary people

Roman Cuisine: Give Us This Day Our Daily Bread

Roman Emperors Images, photos, busts, statues, coins, information and more about the Roman Emperors.

Roman Emperors - The Imperial Index the emperors are listed in a chronological table in order of their dates of rule. The name of each emperor for whom a biographical essay is complete offers a live link to the essay.

ROMAN EMPIRE AND DICTATORSHIP ROME INTERVENES ABROAD. Frank E. Smitha [Roman Empire, Republic and Politics by Violence]

Roman Engineers: "We Can Build It Better!"

Roman Engineers: A Plan For a Small Roman City

Roman Engineers: All Roads Lead to Rome

Roman Engineers: Bronze Age Weapons of Rome's Enemies

Roman Engineers: Bronze Age Weapons of Rome's Enemies

Roman Engineers: Bronze Age Weapons of Rome's Enemies

Roman Engineers: Did The Romans Actually Make Their Coins Fr

Roman Engineers: Elegantly Laid Out Cities

Roman Engineers: Roman Bridges and Bridge Building

Roman Family Law and Traditions Roman Law One of the greatest legacies of Rome is their legal system. The development of Roman law began with the Twelve Tables in the mid-fifth century B.C. During a period of over 1000 years, the Roman jurists created a rich literature about all aspects of law: property, marriage, guardianship and family, contracts, theft, and inheritance. Roman law laid the foundations for much of Western civil and criminal law. The Roman Family The family came first for the Romans, before all other obligations; such as, civil, politic, and military obligations. The family was the vehicle for transmission of moral character. The institution of the Roman family was strengthened by a healthiness, a solidarity, and a spirit of uprightness and self-restraint superior to that of perhaps all other ancient peoples. Roman families were very diverse. The Basis of Roman civil law was the familia, a group consisting of a head, the paterfamilias, and his descendants in the male line. Free members and slaves, all under the guardianship and control of the paterfamilias, were also part of the familia. Free members were the wives, unmarried children (biological and adopted) and other dependents. The members of the familia had no voice in the Curiae, yet they were subject to its decisions and laws, as well as to the decisions made on the family level by the patriarch.

Roman Food

Roman Forum This is the main forum in Rome, the biggest and the most important of the Roman fora (one forum, two fora). People first began meeting in this forum around 500 BC, at the time of the founding of the Roman Republic. The Senate met in the brick building on the right of the photograph (actually this is a later replacement for an older building that burned down). Little by little, rich men added temples, statues, triumphal arches, and basilicas to the forum, until by the time of Julius Caesar the forum was very crowded.

Roman Gods and Goddesses of Children and Childhood Gregory Flood's Roman Gods and Goddesses.

Roman Government and Laws: A Quick Look at Governments In Cl

Roman Government and Laws: A Quick Look at Governments In Cl

Roman Government and Laws: Governing the Different Geographi

Roman Government and Laws: Governing the Different Geographi

Roman Government and Laws: The Roman Senate

Roman Health and Medicine Ancient Roman medicine was a combination of some limited scientific knowledge, and a deeply rooted religious and mythological system.

Roman History, Coins and Technology Site

Roman Holidays The ludi were not holidays (feriae), as such, although they did have their origins in religion and ritual, and the days of their celebration were considered dies festi. The oldest and most famous of the public games were the Ludi Romani (Roman Games), which originally were vowed in honor of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, whose temple was dedicated on September 13, 509 BC, as a votive offering if victory were won in battle. They were celebrated in the Circus Maximus following the triumphal procession (pompa) from the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol. By 366 BC, they had become an annual event, no longer associated with the triumph, and were held for several weeks in September.

Roman Ladies

Roman Law

Roman Law: Questions and Answers

Roman Life Expectancy

Roman Military Forts and Camps The Roman Military in Britain. The Roman fortification, whether it was a temporary overnight camp in enemy territory, an auxilliary outpost fort set to guard a strategic location, or a large fortress to garrison the might of the Roman legions, all were posessed of an internal layout which almost invariably followed the same basic pattern. A Roman camp was always enclosed by a defensive system comprising at least three components; 1. At least one ditch or fosse. 2. An inner rampart or agger containing the ditch outcast. 3. A palisade or vallum surmounting the rampart.

Roman Military Glossary actuarius, ala(e), ala quingenaria, ala milliaria, armamentarium, Armilustrium, ascensi, auguratorium, Campestres, campus, cardo decumanus, cardo maximus, carnarium, cella, centuria , centurio, cippi, clavicula, contubernium, cornicularius, custos armorum, fabrica, Feriale Duranum, fossae, fossa fastigata, fossa punica, groma, gyrus, horrea, immunes, intervallum, latera praetorii, legatus, liberarii, lilia, papilio(nes), portae, porta decumana, porta praetoria, portae principales, portae quintanae, praefectus alae, praefectus annonae, praefectus castrorum, praefectus cohortis, praefectus praetorio, praefectus urbi, praefectus vigilum, praetentura, praetorium, principia, quaestorium, retentura, sacellum, scholae, signa, signifer(i), stabulum, tabularium, tertiata, thermae, titulum, tolleno, tribunal, turma(e), valetudinarium, vallum, veterinarium, viae, via decumana, via praetoria, via principalis, via quintana, via sagularis, viae vicinariae, vivarium

Roman Military Sites in Britain Legionary Forts Vexillation Forts Auxiliary Forts Marching Camps Fortlets Stations/Towers Practice Works

Roman Month Divisions Describes the early Roman method of dividing months into sections that ended with days named Calends, Nones and Ides.

Roman Names

Roman Navy The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis) operated between the First Punic war and the end of the Western Roman Empire. History and Evolution The Roman navy was very much inferior, both in prestige and capability, to the Roman army. Before the First Punic War in 264 BC there was no Roman navy to speak of as all previous Roman war had been fought in Italy. But the war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. The first few naval battles of the First Punic War were disasters for Rome, and it was not until the invention of the Corvus, a grappling engine which made it easier for Romans to board the Carthaginian vessels, that Rome was able to win the war. This meant that Rome could use her superior army in naval combat, and was a significant shift away from the tactics of all other navies at the time. Rome was able to use her superior army in preference to her navy in most of the wars she fought afterwards. By the late Empire Roman control over the Mediterranean coast meant that there were no non-Roman navies to fight. Indeed, Rome's last major naval battle was fought between Romans, Octavian and Marc Antony, at Actium. However, she still maintained a large navy which patrolled not just the Mediterranean, but the various major rivers in the empire. Although the quality of the navy did degrade into the later imperial period, emperors such as Diocletian put significant effort into rebuilding the navy. The average estimate of manpower strength of the navy ranges from 50,000-100,000.

Roman newspaper

Roman Pregnancy and Childbirth Fertility,Pregnancy and Childbirth on the Coinage of Ancient Rome

Roman Religion Roman Religion, including Early Religion, Coming of the Foreign Gods, Religion of Numa, Priestly Colleges, the College of Vesta, Religion of the Family, Devotion, State Religion, Revival, and the Imperial Age.

Roman Slavery Other slaves were forced to work deep underground in the mines, getting gold or silver or copper or iron or tin for the Roman government. They also suffered and died after just a few years. The Roman government, and private traders, owned many men who rowed ships as slaves, often chained to their oars. Many of these men were sentenced to the mines or to the ships because they were criminals. We don't use men to power ships anymore, and we don't send criminals to the mines, but miners still have difficult and very dangerous work.

Roman Society and Social Institutions

Roman Society: The Education of the Young Roman

Roman Society: The Education of the Young Roman

Roman Society: The Father of the Roman Family

Roman Sports Edifices and Centers Roman Sports Buildings. CIRCUS MAXIMUS, CIRCUS FLAMINIUS, THEATER OF POMPEY, THEATER OF MARCELLUS, COLOSSEUM, STADIUM OF DOMITIAN, BATHS OF CARACALLA, BATHS OF DIOCLETIAN, CIRCUS OF GAIUS AND NERO, NAUMACHIA AUGUSTI

Roman Walls

Roman Walls

Roman Warships

Roman Women And their Houses What were Roman houses like? Through excavation we know what these houses looked like and how people lived. ALAE ATRIUM CUBICULUM CULINA EXEDRA HOUSE LARARIUM PERISTYLIUM ROMAN WOMEN TABERNAE TABLINUM TRICLINIUM VESTIBULUM

Romano-British Sites and Museums

Romans Important People / Main Events / Town Tour / Web Links A Child's Life / Military / Art & Craft / Fun & Games

Romans KS2 history - Information and activities on the Romans and the Roman Empire

Romans - Families and Children KS2 history - Information on family, home and school life for the Romans, together with activities and a quiz.

RomanSites - History Greek and Roman History Links, Documents, Notes

RomanSites Home Page Architecture Aqueducts Baths Buildings & Homes Calendar Clocks Clothing - Hair Styles Coins - Numismatics Culture Education Family - Marriage Food Language - Alphabet - Writing Medicine - Surgery Recreation - Sports & Games - Gladiators Roads Transportation Science - Technology Slavery Tattoo Volcanoes Mythology Gods And Goddesses Art & Artists - Glass Theaters Libraries Literature - Dramas - Epics - Mime - Livy - Naevius - More Rise And Fall Of The Roman Empire Roman Kings Law & Government Politics Julius Caesar Emporers Empresses - Women Military Navy Punic Wars Antioch Byzantine Empire Carthage Etruscans Religion Popes Christianity Mithraism Philosophy Current Archaeological Discoveries

ROMARCH: Roman art and archaeology The ROMARCH pages are the original crossroads for Web resources on the art and archaeology of Italy and the Roman provinces, ca. 1000 BC - AD 700. ROMARCH is sponsored by the Department of Classics and the Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art and Archaeology (IPCAA) at the University of Michigan.

ROMARCH: Roman art and archaeology The ROMARCH pages are the original crossroads for Web resources on the art and archaeology of Italy and the Roman provinces, ca. 1000 BC - AD 700. ROMARCH is sponsored by the Department of Classics and the Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art and Archaeology (IPCAA) at the University of Michigan.

Rome Architectural Images

Rome: Historical Background The glorious Roman civilization had its origins in small groups of farmers and shepherds who settled along the banks of the Tiber, on the Palatine hills and the surrounding areas.

Rome: Imperial Rome

Rome: Julius Caesar

Rome: Map of Trade Routes

Rome: Republic to Empire

Rome: The Age of Augustus

Rome: The Etruscans

Rome: The Etruscans, 530 BC

Rome: The Punic Wars The seventh chapter of the learning module, Rome; this chapter narrates the history of the three conflicts between Rome and Carthage which left Rome in control of the Carthaginian Empire. [Richard Hooker]

Rome: The Roman Kingdom

Rome: Timelines & Tables - Net Links

Romulus and Remus

Sample Plan of a Roman House This reconstructed model of the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii shows the exterior of the house from the front, the back and one side. Click here for a cut-away drawing of a domus.

School Time and Play Time for Roman Children Most Roman kids did not go to school. Like their parents, they worked in the fields hoeing and weeding and plowing as soon as they were old enough. Their parents needed them to work, to get enough to eat. They did not learn to read or write or do math.

Scipio Africanus Personality Scipio Africanus : Princeps (200 - 190 BCE). "It was said that the people had once been rebuked by Scipio for wishing tomake him consul for an indefinite period and dictator; that he had forbidden the erection of statues to himself in the Comitium, on the Rostra, in the Curia, on the Capitol, in the shrine of Jupiter; that he had also forbidden a decree that a likeness of himself in in triumphal costume should be represented coming out of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus." - Livy, The History of Rome from its Foundation XXVIII.57

Ships of the Ancient Greeks Ancient Ships: The Ships of Antiquity War Ships of the Greeks

SLAVE-MISTRESS RELATIONSHIPS "Marriage more shameful than adultery": slave-mistress relationships, "mixed marriages," and late roman law. JUDITH EVANS-GRUBBS

SLAVE-MISTRESS RELATIONSHIPS "Marriage more shameful than adultery": slave-mistress relationships, "mixed marriages," and late roman law. JUDITH EVANS-GRUBBS

Sources of Information on Antiquities Theft antiquities theft, archaeological theft, artifact theft, looting, plunder, archaeology

SPARTACUS AND A DECLINE IN SLAVERY A Roman soldier named Spartacus became an outlaw, perhaps after having deserted. For survival he joined drifters in bandit raids, and he was caught. For punishment, Roman authorities sold him as a slave. He became a prisoner at a training school for gladiator contests in the city of Capua. And there, in 73 BCE, he and seventy-seven other prisoners and slaves escaped and seized control of nearby Mount Vesuvius. As before, news of the revolt encouraged other slaves to revolt, and they joined Spartacus on Mount Vesuvius - an army of from fifty to a hundred thousand. Thus began what historians called the Third Servile War.

Steel in Ancient Greece and Rome The melting point of pure iron is 1540°C. Landels points that even by Roman times European furnaces were not producing heat much over 1100°C[9]. Smelting of iron, unlike the smelting of the lower melting point metals, copper, zinc and tin, did not involve the iron turning to the liquid state. Instead, it was a solid state conversion requiring chemical reduction of the ore. Ore was placed in a pit and mixed in a hot charcoal fire. Air was forced into the dome covered structure via bellows through a fireproof clay nozzle called a tuyere. After a sustained temperature of 1100°-1200°C, slag (oxidised non-metallics) fell to the bottom leaving the spongy mass containing the iron. Holes forming the sponge texture were a result of the removal of the non-metallics when the slag melted out. The spongy mass is called a bloom by some[10, 11]. This spongy mass was then pounded, usually while still hot, and more slag dropped out as the metal was concentrated into a denser mass. The pounded metal was called wrought iron.

SUCCESSORS OF ROME: GERMANIA, FRANCIA, & RUSSIA, 395-1945

The Aeneid of Virgil The Aeneid By Virgil Written 19 B.C.E Translated by John Dryden

The Aquaducts of Rome (Nice Images) Large images and useful.

The arena was used for both naval and gladiatorial battles Like chariot racing, contests of gladiators probably originated as funeral games; these contests were much less ancient than races, however. The first recorded gladiatorial combat in Rome occurred when three pairs of gladiators fought to the death during the funeral of Junius Brutus in 264 BCE, though others may have been held earlier. Gladiatorial games (called munera since they were originally "duties" paid to dead ancestors) gradually lost their exclusive connection with the funerals of individuals and became an important part of the public spectacles staged by politicians and emperors (click here for some modern assessments of the cultural meaning of the arena). The popularity of gladiatorial games is indicated by the large number of wall paintings and mosaics depicting gladiators; for example, this very large mosaic illustrating many different aspects of the games covered an entire floor of a Roman villa in Nennig, Germany. Many household items were decorated with gladiatorial motifs, such as this lamp and this flask.

The Atrium: For Devotees of Ancient Greece & Rome The latest incarnation of the Atrium, your portal to the worlds of Greece and Rome.

The Basic naval Tactic of Ramming

The Battle of Actium

The Byzantine Empire It is not possible to effectually distinguish between the later empire in Rome and the Byzantine empire centered around Constantinople. For the Byzantines were the Roman Empire, not simply a continuation of it in the East. The capital city, Constantinople, had been founded as the capital of Rome by the Emperor Constantine, but a uniquely Greek or Byzantine character to the Roman Empire can be distinguished as early as Diocletian. When Rome was seized by Goths, this was a great blow to the Roman Empire, but it didn't effectively end it. Although Rome was under the control of foreigners who themselves claimed to be continuing the empire, the Byzantine empire continued as before, believing themselves to be the Roman Empire.

The Celts and the Holy Roman Empire

THE CHRISTIAN CATACOMBS OF ROME

THE CIRCUS: ROMAN CHARIOT RACING The first-century CE satirist Juvenal wrote, "Long ago the people shed their anxieties, ever since we do not sell our votes to anyone. For the people"who once conferred imperium, symbols of office, legions, everything"now hold themselves in check and anxiously desire only two things, the grain dole and chariot races in the Circus" (Satires 10.77-81). Juvenal's famous phrase, panem et circenses ("bread and circuses") has become proverbial to describe those who give away significant rights in exchange for material pleasures. Juvenal has put his finger on two of the most important aspects of Roman chariot races"their immense popularity and the pleasure they gave the Roman people, and the political role they played during the empire in diverting energies that might otherwise have gone into rioting and other forms of popular unrest. The image above bears witness to the popularity of the races; found in the imperial baths in Trier (Germany), this centerpiece of a large mosaic floor depicts a charioteer for the Reds, holding in his hands the palm branch and laurel wreath, symbols of victory. Both the driver, Polydus, and his lead horse, Compressor, are identified by name, as though they were great state heroes. We can deduce something of the political role of chariot racing from the fact that the same word, factiones, was used to designate the four racing stables as had been applied to the political factions (the populares and the optimates) that had such large followings in the Republic.

The City of Rome ROME, Caput Mundi during the Roman Empire, capital of Italy since 1870, home of the Catholic Church and the Italian government, is placed on the banks of the Tiber, there where the river, running weakly among the seven hills, creates vast meanders which originate little plains.

The Coliseum on Eliki

The Colisseum's Description The amphitheater is a vast ellipse with tiers of seating for 50,000 spectators around a central elliptical arena. Below the wooden arena floor, there was a complex set of rooms and passageways for wild beasts and other provisions for staging the spectacles. Eighty walls radiate from the arena and support vaults for passageways, stairways and the tiers of seats. At the outer edge circumferential arcades link each level and the stairways between levels.

The Cosmic Mysteries of Mithras

The Deification of Roman Women The Deification of Roman Women Marleen B. Flory (Gustavus Adolphus College) The Ancient History Bulletin 9.3-4 (1995) 127-134

The Development of the Roman Empire The most marvelous witnesses to the character of Roman civilization are the Roman ruins east of the Jordan in Syria.

The Early Church Church history - extensive notes covering the period up through the Reformation.

The Early Church in Europe

The Ecole Initiative: Early Church History of the Web Hypertext Encyclopedia of Early Church History on the World-Wide Web

The End of the Roman Empire Revisited The Fall of the Roman Empire Revisited: Sidonius Apollinaris and His Crisis of Identity By Eric J. Goldberg

The Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried by an avalanche of boiling mud and lava. Pompeii was buried about 20-40 feet under and Herculaneum was under 60-75 feet. The cities were abandoned and their location forgotten. In 1595 their were some expeditions in the area of Pompeii by the order of Charles III, King of the Two Sicilies, and some artifacts were discovered which caused much pillaging. Then some Archeological excavations began in the mid-nineteenth century. Today much of Pompeii has been excavated, and along with it ghostly stories of people who had been trying to save their lives. There are numerous molds of people and animals found.

The Father of the Household Adapts His Role to Politics

The First Ladies of Rome LordBest's Gallery of Roman Emperors and Empresses. Version 2.0 The Empresses Rome was host to many powerful women in its time, many of the female relations of the reigning Emperor exercised considerable power, others were mere pawns in political games. All of them, however, were the fashion setters of their time, influencing hairstyles and fashions all accross the empire. In chronological order.

The First Roman Emperor to Sponsor Christianity Constantine was a key figure in Roman, Christian, and Byzantine history. He was born in February in the late 280`s A.D., in what is now the city of Nis, in Yugoslavia. His father had risen to the rank of Caesar or deputy emperor and had served under Maximian in the west. When his parents were divorced, Constantine was brought up in the court of Diocletian in the eastern part of the empire.

The First Triumvirate - Pompey, Crassus, Caesar Although Sulla gets credit from moderns for resigning his dictatorship, the measures he undertook to ensure that the Republican system would continue to work were not adequate. Things had gone too far; all of the ominous trends which we have noticed in the previous two lectures, i.e political violence in the city, armies whose loyalty belonged in the first instance to individual commanders and only secondarily to the state itself, agitation for land distributions, and threats to the traditional prerogatives of the Senate, all these intensify in this period. [David L. Silverman] Classics 373

The FORUM ROMANUM - Exploring an ancient market place The Forum Romanum, the Roman name for what we usually call the Roman Forum, was the place where the victorious legions held their triumphal marches, where the deaths of famous persons were made public, where the corpses of emperors were burned, where the heads of emperors rolled, in short the centre of power of the Roman empire. At this web site you find a description of the Roman Forum between 100 BC and 100 AD. The Roman Forum was the centre of ancient Rome. At this web site the Forum is the centre of exploration. It will be the starting point for a great variety of wanderings. Many interesting aspects of Rome and its inhabitants can be met. Descriptions and views of many historic buildings can be found. The most important social, political, cultural and religious functions of the Roman Forum are dealt with. Attention is paid to the celebrities of that time and the roles they played in public life. All this is put against the background of the Roman Forum. The site presents emperors, senators, writers, artists and architects. Those works of art that originate in the Roman Forum but that are to be found in various museums are presented as well.

The FORUM ROMANUM - The Centre of Power The Forum Romanum, the Roman name for what we usually call the Roman Forum, was the place where the victorious legions held their triumphal marches, where the deaths of famous persons were made public, where the corpses of emperors were burned, where the heads of emperors rolled, in short the centre of power of the Roman empire. At this web site you find a description of the Roman Forum between 100 BC and 100 AD. The Roman Forum was the centre of ancient Rome. At this web site the Forum is the centre of exploration. It will be the starting point for a great variety of wanderings. Many interesting aspects of Rome and its inhabitants can be met. Descriptions and views of many historic buildings can be found. The most important social, political, cultural and religious functions of the Roman Forum are dealt with. Attention is paid to the celebrities of that time and the roles they played in public life. All this is put against the background of the Roman Forum. The site presents emperors, senators, writers, artists and architects. Those works of art that originate in the Roman Forum but that are to be found in various museums are presented as well.

The Geography of Roman Gaul

The Gracchi Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus. The importance of the two Gracchan episodes can not be underestimated.

The great builders Perhaps more than any other civilization the Romans are famed for their incredible constructions There appeared almost no limit to what they could do with stones, bricks, mortar and wood. Bridges over the Danube and Rhine, Colosseum, Roads, Aquaeducts, Hagia Sophia, Hadrian's Wall.

The Hadrianic Baths at Leptis Magna

The Historical Coliseum The Coliseum (Coloseum, Colosseum), was built during the reign of Emperor Vespasiano c. 72 AD and dedicated in 80 AD by his son Titus. The popular name of Coliseum came about because the immense oval stadium was situated next to a colossal statue of Nero. The original name of this ancient Roman sports arena, the largest arena of its kind, is The Amphitheatrum Flavium.

The History of Plumbing - Pompeii & Herculaneum

The History of Plumbing - Roman and English Legacy

The History of Rome - Part One 743 - 136 B.C. From the Dawn of Rome to the Third Punic War.

The holding capacity for the Circus Maximus The holding capacity for the Circus Maximus was a quarter of a million people! This was about one quarter of Rome's population. The Circus Maximus was a track used primarily for horse-racing, although it was used on occasion for hunts or mock battles. It had 300,000 seats and was famous throughout the ancient world. Built in the 6th century B.C. during the time of the Tarquins, the history of the Circus Maximus is troubled. It was twice destroyed by fire and on at least two occasions the stands collapsed, killing many people. There was a long barrier (spina) that ran down the middle of the track, in the area of the picture where you now see only grass. In addition to obelisks, fountains, statues, and columns, there were also two temples on the spina, one with seven large eggs and one with seven dolphins. At the end of each lap of the seven lap race, one egg and one dolphin would be removed from each temple, to keep the spectators and the racers updated on how many laps had been completed. In the Circus Maximus, unlike the amphitheaters of the day, men and women could sit together. The Circus Maximus also had the ancient equivelant of the skyboxes you see now in stadiums for professional sports. The Emperor had a reserved seat, as did senators, knights, those who financially backed the race, those who presided over the competition, and the jury that awarded the prize to the winners. The last race held at the Circus Maximus was in 549 A.D., nearly a full millenium after the track's construction.

The Hunterian Museum: Romans in Scotland This exhibition tells the story of the Roman presence in Scotland in the first and second centuries AD, with emphasis on the Antonine Wall frontier and the life lived by the soldiers based in forts along its line.

The Jewish Diaspora: Rome The Jewish community in the Roman Diaspora dates back to the second century BCE and was comparatively large. Several synagogues and catacombs are known. After the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, the community remained at some distance from the new, rabbinical Judaism of Judaeae, maintaining several archaic traits. The history of the Jewish community of ancient Rome is known from several classical, Latin and Greek sources. Some additional information on cult practices can be found in the Talmud. The inscriptions found in the catacombs are valuable sources of information on the synagogues.

The Johns (toilets) of Rome This picture shows part of bank of toilet seats in public bathroom serving both the Roman Arena and the Roman theatre in Merida (Augustus Emeritus), Spain. This city was known as a retirement community for Roman military in Spain (it was the city from which Gladiator's Maximus supposedly hailed). Toilets were against wall, base of which is visible. This area of ruins was full of water channels for fresh and sewer water. ~Dan Reynolds

The Justinian Code and the Catholic Faith.

The Justinian Code and the Catholic Faith.

The Kings of Early Rome

The Landings of Caesar in Britain, 55 and 54 BC

The Late Roman Empire: The Barracks Emperors

The Late Roman Empire: The Crisis of the Third Century

The Later Roman Emperors

The Later Roman Empire: Diocletian Reforms the Money System

The Later Roman Empire: First Barbarian Invasions

The Later Roman Empire: First Barbarian Invasions

The Later Roman Empire: Good Money, Bad Money, and Runaway I

The Later Roman Empire: Good Money, Bad Money, and Runaway I

The Later Roman Empire: Goths Enter and Settle Within the Ro

The Later Roman Empire: Rebellions and Breakaway Empires

The Later Roman Empire: The Tetrarchy

The Mighty Roman Legions

The Mighty Roman Legions: Praetorian Prefect

The Mighty Roman Legions: Roman Army Camps

The Mighty Roman Legions: Roman Army Units

The Mighty Roman Legions: Sherman Tank - Roman Style

The Mighty Roman Legions: Starving a City Into Submission Wi

The Mistresses and Prostitutes in Ancient Rome Ancient Roman Prostitutes, harlots, and brothels - Notes on Roman Prostitutes from the Satyricon."

The Organization of the Roman Republic The Romans never had a written constitution, but their form of their government, especially from the time of the passage of the lex Hortensia (287 B.C.), roughly parallels the modern American division of executive, legislative, and judical branches, although the senate doesn't neatly fit any of these categories. What follows is a fairly traditional, Mommsenian reconstruction, though at this level of detail most of the facts (if not the significance of, e.g., the patrician/plebian distinction) are not too controversial. One should be aware, however, of the difficulties surrounding the understanding of forms of government (as well as most other issues) during the first two centuries of the Republic.

The Punic Wars A Retelling of the Struggle between Rome and Carthage

The Re-Creation of a Young Roman Girl At seven years old this young, upper-class1 Roman girl, daughter of a prominent political figure, is posing for a portrait of her face. Her father is demanding her whole family have one done so that everyone can see their family displayed for years to come. As predicted by her father, Roman art historians are very interested in these portraits and the past they represent. In 1998 this bust is a rare and exceptional find among art collectors. This portrait is now one of twenty-one sculptures found in the Riley Collection of Roman Portrait Sculpture at the Cedar Rapids Museum of Art.

The reign of Augustus as Emperor Augustus had won the war, but the question (a question I think Vergil had) was whether he could win the peace.

The reign of Tiberius TIBERIUS, AN UNPOPULAR BUT ABLE RULER. The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. [[1]] In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

The Roman amphitheatre The Roman amphitheatre was the centre of entertainment in Rome, and all over the Roman Empire. Ruins of amphitheaters can be found all over the empire . The largest amphitheatre in the empire was the Colosseum. It could seat up to 50,000 people at once. The amphitheatre was the place where people went to see fights. These fights were between slaves, prisoners of war or criminals, and sometimes wild animals.These fights were so popular that schools were set up to train ordinary men as special fighters known as Gladiators This idea once started out as entertainment at funerals.Two fighters would begin and the crowd would watch. Eventually the crowds got so big, they had to build a place to hold them. This was not only the reason for building the amphitheatre. When the democratic system was changed to an imperial one, the emperors needed a way to keep the people happy, although they had lost the right to vote. The fights fulfilled this role. From the ruins of the Colosseum, archaeologists have put together an idea of what happend at these fights.

The Roman Army Nowhere does the Roman talent for organization show itself so clearly as in its army. The story of the Roman army is an extensive one, demonstrated in part by the scale of this chapter. The first part of this chapter considers the history of the Roman army (concentrating on the legions), trying to explain as much background as possible. The later part of the chapter seeks to explain specific points such as various different units, the workings of the army, etc.

The Roman Army - A legionary's Basic Equipment

The Roman Army in the Late Republic and Early Empire

The Roman Calendar Attributed to Romulus, the Roman calendar originally had only ten months, common among `primitive` agricultural people. (They were apparently unconcered about the passage of time during the winter months when it was impossible to work in the fields.) At some later time (traditionally under Numa, 715-676BC), the calendar was reformed to include 12 months of 28 days, with an extra month to keep the calendar aligned with the sun. Julius Caesar, as Pontifex Maximus, reformed the calendar as of Jan. 1, 45BC, and introduced the calendar as we basically know it today, 12 months with varying days each, totaling 365 days a year with a leap year every 4 years.

The Roman cities The Forum, The marketplace with shops and taverns, Fountains, Thermes and Baths, Houses, Insulae and more.

The Roman Colosseum The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81­96). The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia). Originally capable of seating around 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. It remained in use for nearly 500 years with the last recorded games being held there as late as the 6th century. As well as the traditional gladiatorial games, many other public spectacles were held there, such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building eventually ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such varied purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry and a Christian shrine. <> Although it is now in a ruined condition due to damage caused by earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum has long been seen as an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. Today it is one of modern Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession to the amphitheatre.

The Roman Economy

The Roman Empire The Roman Army Roman Emperors Roman Clothing Roman Roads Roman Houses Women Gladiators Theatre Amphitheatre Map of Empire Trade The Collaseum Education Public Baths Chariot Racing Numerals Calendar Signs of Zodiac Cooking Aquaducts

The Roman Empire Aenas Ascanius Aggripina Augustus Bathhouses Caesar, Julius Caligula Claudius Clientes Colosseum Domus Food and games Forum Romanum Gladiators Houses Ilium Imperator Insulae Iulian - Claudian House Jesus of Nazareth Julius Caesar Nero Octavianus Paedagogus Patriciër Patronus Pax Romana Roads Salutatio Seianus Senate Senators Sportula Storage accommodations of the villa-complex Tiberius Toga candida Toga picta Toga praetexta Toga virilis Troy Veni, vidi, vici Villa-complex Villa rustica Villa urbana Vitruvius

The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire at its Greatest Extent This map of the Roman Empire was scanned from pages 16 & 17 of a 1925 reprint of the 1907 Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography in the Everyman Library, published by J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd. and is, by Canadian copyright law, in the public domain, to the best of my knowledge.

The Roman Empire, A.D. 12

The Roman Empire, A.D. 150

The Roman Empire, A.D. 500

The Roman Forum: Through the Ages The Forum in the Time of the Kings and the Early Republic
The Forum in the Time of the Republic, the Civil Wars and the Age of Augustus
The Forum in the Time of the Empire: From the Julio-Claudian Dynasty to the Antonine Dynasty and the Time of Hadrian (including Imperial Fora)
The Forum in the Late Empire: From Hadrian to the Sack of Rome by the Vandals
The Forum Today: The Archaeological Record
The Role of the Forum in Everyday Life; Conclusion


The Roman History Roman History The Land and People The Etruscans The Roman Kingdom The Roman Republic The Conquest of Italy The Punic Wars The Conquest of the Hellenistic Empires The Republican Crisis Julius Caesar Augustus Imperial Rome, 14-180 AD The Calamitious Century. 180-284 AD The Late Empire

The Roman History

The Roman Navy The Roman navy was very much inferior, both in prestige and capability, to the Roman army. Before the First Punic War in 264 BC there was no Roman navy to speak of as all previous Roman war had been fought in Italy. But the war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. The first few naval battles of the First Punic War were disasters for Rome, and it was not until the invention of the Corvus, a grappling engine which made it easier for Romans to board the Carthaginian vessels, that Rome was able to win the war. This meant that Rome could use her superior army in naval combat, and was a significant shift away from the tactics of all other navies at the time. Rome was able to use her superior army in preference to her navy in most of the wars she fought afterwards. By the late Empire Roman control over the Mediterranean coast meant that there were no non-Roman navies to fight. Indeed, Rome's last major naval battle was fought between Romans, Octavian and Marc Antony, at Actium. However, she still maintained a large navy which patrolled not just the Mediterranean, but the various major rivers in the empire. Although the quality of the navy did degrade into the later imperial period, emperors such as Diocletian put significant effort into rebuilding the navy. The average estimate of manpower strength of the navy ranges from 50,000-100,000.

The Roman Republic from The Revolt against King Tarquin to Octavian the sole ruler of Rome. The Latin words res publica which are perhaps best translated as 'public affairs' are the source of today's term 'republic'. Before setting out on reading about the history of the Roman republic, please find here the various offices and assemblies which were created in order to rule of the Roman state.

The Roman Republic

The Roman Republic - 1st and 2nd Triumvirates

The Roman Republic - Consuls

The Roman Republic - Magistrates

The Roman Virtues

The Roman-Byzantine Period

The Rome Project Links to many informative sites

The Seven Hills of Rome Of Early Rome: Cermalus Cispius Fagutal Oppius Palatium Sucusa Velia Of Later Rome: Aventinus (Aventine) Caelius (Caelian) Capitolium (Capitoline) Esquiliae (Esquiline) Palatium (Palatine) Quirinalis (Quirinal) Viminalis (Viminal)

The Siege of Masada Flavius Josephus - AD 72 [text]

The Soap Factory - History and Techniques of Soap and Soapma

The Throne of the Caesars: The Emperors

The Throne of the Caesars: Trajan Emperor A.D 98 - 117. Trajan was governor of Upper Germany when he was adopted by the emperor Nerva and made heir to the throne. He became emperor when Nerva died in A.D. 98. Trajan was a professional soldier who had worked his way up through the ranks. He had served honorably with Domitian as a general in his German campaigns. While Nerva was not trusted by the army because he was suspected of being involved in the murder of their favorite emperor Domitian, Trajan was liked by the soldiers because he was one of them. He continued to lead his Roman legions to conquer so much more territory that by the time of his death in A.D. 117, the Roman Empire covered more territory than at any other time in its 700 year history.

The triumvirate Britannica online encyclopedia article on triumvirate:in ancient Rome, a board of three officials. There were several types: Tresviri capitales, or tresviri nocturni, first instituted about 289 bc, assisted higher magistrates in their judicial functions, especially those relating to crime and the civil status of citizens.

The Virtual Roman House The Atmosphere world below represents a Roman house of a type known as a domus or atrium house. Though this particular house is an imaginary one, it incorportates elements drawn from various actual Roman houses (for example, the atrium wall decoration imitates that of the House of Sallust in Pompeii). To enter the 3D environment, click inside the image at the right. Once inside, you can move around within the space using the arrow keys or the mouse. You can adjust your viewpoint by using the arrow keys or mouse while holding down the control key.

The Vlach Connection and Further Reflections on Roman Histor

Three Roman Slave Rebellion The First Servile War of 135"132 BC was an unsuccessful slave uprising against the Romans on the island of Sicily.

Tiberius Roman Emperor The reign of Tiberius was damaged by treason trials, scandal, absence, indulgence, and his own personal orgies. The ancient writer Suetonius wrote many scandalous stories regarding Tiberius and his orgies, indulgences, and sadistic displays. Tiberius learned of the treachery of Sejanus in 31 A.D. and had him executed. Sometime around 30 A.D. Jesus of Nazareth was crucified under the rule of Sejanus' prefect, Pontius Pilate, a fact which was known by the Roman historian, Tacitus. © RomanEmperors.com

Timeline of the Roman Empire THE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

Timeline of the Roman Empire A comprehensive timeline of the Roman Empire.

TRAJAN'S ROME: The Man, the City, the Empire Produced in conjunction with the Getty Education Institute for the Arts, this unit's six lessons use both primary source texts and the visual arts to situate Roman art in a broader context of social, cultural, and political meaning. Grades 6"9. National Center for History in the Schools, 139 pages.

Transportation in the Roman World

Transportation in the Roman World

Virtual Walkthrough of the Colosseum Image Archive: The Foru

Warfare in Roman Europe Book. Despite the importance of warfare in the collapse of the Roman Empire, there is no modern, comprehensive study available. This book discusses the practice of warfare in Europe, from both Roman and barbarian perspectives, in the late fourth and early fifth centuries. It analyses the military practices and capabilities of the Romans and their northern enemies at policy, strategic, operational, and tactical levels, and covers civil wars, sieges, and naval warfare. Dr Elton analyses in depth the issue of barbarization, and shows that it did not affect the efficiency of the Roman army. Other sections of the book discuss organization, fortifications, and equipment.

Warfare in the Roman World Topics covered on this site: Ancient Rome Medieval England Tudor England Stuart England Britain 1700 to 1900 World War One World War Two The role of British women in the Twentieth Century Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany Inventions and Discoveries of the Twentieth Century

WATERS OF ROME FRONT PAGE

WATERS OF ROME FRONT PAGE

Waters of the City of Rome

Waters of the City of Rome

What the Roman Lady Wears Roman Clothing. The women of the Roman Empire were not considered important like the men were. This social distinction left an impact on the female clothing.

Why Rome Fell Western New England College.

Women in Ancient Rome The Augustan Reformation , Intrigue and the Emperor's Women , Julia, Daughter of Augustus , Justinian's Law as it Applied to Women and Families , Legal Status of Women in Ancient Rome , Vestal Virgins , Women and Marriage in Ancient Rome , Women and Slavery in Ancient Rome

Women In Medicine The shift from female control to male involvement came about largely because men were suspicious of women's reproductive autonomy. Female patients described in the Hippocratic treatises, and for that matter, in Greek literature in general, were often suspect by men. A wife's potential to sabotage her husband's lineage was a great source of anxiety for men. Thus, women's struggle to control their own bodies was a volatile issue in antiquity, even as it is today.

Women in Roman Society

Women of Ancient Rome: Biographies Women of the Roman Empire 31 BCE to 395 CE. Information on their lives, plus biographies of some of the key women who wielded power during the Empire.

Women on Roman Coins Part 1: Octavia to Crispina Part 2: Manlia Scantilla to Galeria Valeria Part 3: Helena to Aelia Verina

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