First Punic War (Chronology of Events)
First Punic War (264-241 B.C.) Barbara Saylor Rodgers
Hannibal Crosses the Alps
Punic Wars. The crossing of the Alps was a heroic effort. Many classical authors told the story; the account by Livy is as good as any. The mountains themselves were dangerous, of course, but they were made even more dangerous by the fact that local tribes cheerfully fought anyone who entered their mountains, so Hannibal had to fight his way over the mountains. He arrived in Italy with only 26,000 men and about two dozen elephants. So, while it is true that Hannibal brought his elephants across the Alps, he did so only at great loss. Most died either at the Rhone or in the Alps.
Military affairs in late antiquity
(bibliography supplied by Hugh Elton (Trinity College).
Military affairs in late antiquity
Warfare in the Ancient World (BIBLIOGRAPHIES) Greece and Rome.
Rome: The Conquest of the Hellenistic Empires
While Rome was engaged in internal politics and the conquest of Italy, the Macedonian Greeks first conquered the Greek mainland and peninsula, and then, literally, the whole of the world. By 324 BC, when Rome still didn't control much of Italy and the city was still struggling with friction between the patricians and the plebeians, the entire world east of Rome, everything, was under the control of a single man, Alexander the Great. While there were numerous Greek cities on the Italian peninsula and while Rome was heavily influenced by Greek culture and thought, the Romans didn't seem to pay this ground-shaking development with much concern. Although the Hellenistic world fractured in pieces, nonetheless the end of the fourth century saw three great empires controlling the world east of Rome. The Romans, however, didn't seem overly concerned, occupied with problems of their own; the Romans, you see, were not particularly interested in world domination, but rather on their own immediate security. And the Hellenistic empires were not viewed as a threat.
The History of Rome: Battles and Campaigns of the Empire
Battle of Cannae 216 BC...
The Battle of Zama
The Battle of Cynoscephalae
The Jewish Wars 70 AD...
Trajan's Campaigns Against Dacia
The Punic Wars
During the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, three wars were fought between Rome and Carthage. The name Punic, which is used to describe them, is derived from the Latin and Greek words for Phoenician. The city of Carthage, located in what is now Tunisia in North Africa, had been founded in 814 BC by Phoenicians from Tyre in Lebanon.
The first two wars were long, lasting for 23 years and 17 years, separated by an interval of 23 years. The third war lasted nearly three years. It started 52 years after the end of the second war. All three wars were won by Rome, which subsequently emerged as the greatest military power in the Mediterranean Sea. The enmity of Carthage impelled Rome to build up its large army and to create a strong navy. The great military leaders of the war for Carthage were Hamilcar Barca and his sons Hasdrubal and Hannibal. Rome's outstanding leaders were Scipio Africanus and his adopted grandson, Scipio Aemilianus.
The first war saw Rome fighting to break Carthage's growing hold on the chain of islands that enable it to control the W Mediterranean. The second war directly pitted the ambitions of the two commercial powers; the initial area of conflict was Sicily. The last war was the final, desperate attempt of Carthage to preserve its freedom.
Wars and Military History