Jewish Literature in New Testament Times
What is the Halakah in Judaism?
or Halacha [Heb.=law
], These interpretations or discussions were of two
kinds: the Halakah, which dealt with the code of law, and the Haggadah, which
was general preaching, or everything that was not Halakah.
The Halakah stated the rule or statute by which one is guided, the definite
religious usage of the day. It was taught that "anything becomes Halakah (1)
when it is held in acceptance for a long period; (2) when it is vouched for by
recognized authority; (3) when it is supported by accepted proof from Scripture;
(4) when it is established by majority vote. Any one or all of these reasons
could establish a principle of the oral law." Since no new principle of law
could be established by invention, but rather by relation to an already existing
principle, the rabbis became expert in manipulating the inferences from the
existing law, oral and written, in order to cover all possible cases that might
be brought before them. The records of these cases and the reasoning's
concerning them made the Halakoth.
The Midrash Halakah
John 10:34 "Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your law.."
Rabbinical Literature and Second Temple Judaism
Rabbinic Writings, The Mishnah, and the Talmud. During the first century A.D.
the Pharisaic rabbis created many commentaries on the Torah. When Jesus began
his ministry He attacked the Pharisees for putting their traditions above the
word of God. All the writings and commentaries of the first two centuries A.D.
were compiled and organized into a collection by a man named Judah Hanasi around
200 A.D. forming a collection called the Mishnah. The Pharisaic rabbis were
known as the "Tannaim" which in Hebrew is translated teachers, and these men
were the teachers who regulated the law. There was another collection of their
commentary which was much smaller, it was known as the Tosefta which in Hebrew
means "enlargement". The later commentaries on the Mishnah were made by
Brief Historical Background
The Jews and Torah
The Holy Scriptures
The Apocryphal Literature
The Oral Law
The Tractates of the Mishnah
The Palestinian Talmud
The Babylonian Talmud
The Purpose and Heart of the Law
- A Heart Message
Rabbinical Writings Chart
The Persian Period 430-332 B.C.
The Greek Period 331-167 B.C.
The Period of Independence 167-63 B.C.
The Roman Period 63 B.C. to the time of Christ
The Old Testament Canon
The Text of the Old Testament
The Aramaic Language
The Great Synagogue
Preparation for Christ