Contents | Index
Under the Romans. As Syria holds an important place in the NT as well as in
the OT, some account of its condition under the Romans is in order. That
condition was somewhat peculiar. Although the country generally was formed into a Roman
province, under governors who were at first propraetors or quaestors, then
proconsuls, and finally legates, a number of "free cities" were exempted from the
direct rule of the governor. These retained the administration of their own
affairs, subject to a tribute levied according to the Roman principles of
taxation. Also a number of tracts, assigned to petty princes, commonly natives, were
ruled at their pleasure, subject to the same obligations as the free cities as to
taxation. The free cities were Antioch, Seleucia, Apamea, Epiphania, Tripolis, Sidon, and Tyre; the principalities, Comagene, Chalcis ad Belum, Arethusa, Abila or
Abilene, Palmyra, and Damascus. The principalities were sometimes called
kingdoms, sometimes tetrarchies. They were established where it was thought that the
natives were so inveterately wedded to their own customs, and so well disposed
for revolt, that it was necessary to consult their feelings, to flatter the
national vanity, and to give them the semblance without the substance of freedom.
Although previously overrun by the Romans, Syria was not made tributary and
governors appointed until 64 BC Down to the battle of Pharsalia the country was
fairly tranquil; the only trouble was with the Arabs, who occasionally attacked
the eastern frontier. The Roman governors, particularly Gabinius, took great
pains to restore the ruined cities. After Pharsalia (46 BC) the troubles of Syria
were renewed. Julius Caesar gave the provinceto his relative Sextus (47 BC), but Pompey's party was still
so strong in the East that the next year one of his adherents, Caecilius
Bassus, put Sextus to death and established himself in the government so firmly that
he was able to resist for three years three proconsuls appointed by the Senate
to dispossess him. He only finally yielded upon terms that he himself offered
to his antagonists. Bassus had just made his submission when, upon the
assassination of Caesar, Syria was disputed between Cassius and Dolabella (43 BC). The
next year Cassius left his province and went to Philippi, where he committed
suicide. Syria then fell to Antony, who appointed as his legate L. Decidius Saxa (41 BC.). Pacorus, the crown
prince of Parthia, overran Syria and Asia Minor, defeating Antony's generals and
threatening Rome with the loss of all her Asiatic possessions (40-39 BC).
Ventidius, however, in 38 BC, defeated the Parthians, slew Pacorus, and recovered
for Rome her former boundary. A quiet time followed. In 27 BC a special
procurator was therefore appointed to rule it. He was subordinate to the governor of
Syria but within his own province had the power of a legatus. Syria continued
without serious disturbance from the expulsion of the Parthians (38 BC) to the
breaking out of the Jewish war (AD 66). In 19 BC it was visited by Augustus and in A.D. 18-19 by Germanicus, who died at Antioch in the last named year.
In AD 44-47 it was the scene of a severe famine.
An Outline of The Life of Jesus in Harmony
"I marvel that whereas the
ambitious dreams of myself, Caesar, and Alexander should have
vanished into thin air, a Judean peasant - Jesus should be able to
stretch his hands across the centuries and control the destinies of
men and nations." - Napoleon
I Bonaparte (1809)
The Birth of John the Baptist
The History of the Birth of Jesus
Genealogy of Jesus (Mat
1:1-17; Lk 3:23-38).
Gabriel Announces to Mary
Mary Visits Elizabeth (Lk
An Angel Comes to Joseph (Mat
The Decree of Augustus Caesar and the Birth of Christ
The First Visitors - Shepherds (Lk
The Second Visitors - Magi
Jesus is Circumcised and Presented in the Temple
Out of Egypt
Jesus' Early Years
The Boy Jesus at the Temple
The Beginning of His Ministry
Jesus is Baptized in the Jordan
3:13-17; Mk 1:9-11; Lk 3:21-23
The Temptation in the Wilderness
4:1-11; Mk 1:12, 13; Lk 4:1-13
The Eternal Word (Jn
The Testimony of John
The First Disciples (Jn
Turning Water to Wine (Jn
Jesus Visits Jerusalem
The First Passover
A House of Merchandise (Jn
Unless One is Born Again (Jn
3:22, with 4:2
He Departed Again to Galilee (Mat
4:12; Mk 1:14; Lk 4:14; Jn 4:1-3).
The Woman at the Well (Jn
Jesus' Ministry in Galilee
He Taught in Their Synagogues (Mt
4:17; Mk 1:14,15; Lk 4:14,15; Jn 4:43-45).
A Certain Nobleman (Jn
Physician, Heal Yourself! (Mat
4:13-16; Lk 4:16-31).
Sea of Galilee
Peter, Andrew, James, and John (Mat
4:18-22; Mk 1:16-20; Lk 5:1-11).
And Jesus Went About All Galilee . . Teaching (Mat
4:23-25; Mk 1:35-39, Lk 4:42-44).
A Man With an Unclean Spirit (Mk
1:21-28; Lk 4:31-37).
Simon's Wife's Mother Lay Sick (Mat
8:14-17; Mk 1:29-34; Lk 4:38-41).
Then a Leper Came to Him (Mat
8:2-4; Mk 1:40-45; Lk 5:12- 16).
They Brought to Him a Paralytic (Mat
9:2-8; Mk 2:1-12; Lk 5:17-26).
9:9; Mk 2:13, 14; Lk 5:27, 28).
The Second Passover
Healing at the Pool of Bethesda on the Sabbath Day
Healing in the Synagogue on the Sabbath Day (Mat
12:9-14; Mk 3:1-6, Lk 6:6-11).
And in His Name Gentiles Will
12:15-21; Mk 3:7-12)
Then He Appointed Twelve (Mat
10:2-4; Mk 3:13-19; Lk 6: 12-19).
The Sermon on the Mount
A Certain Centurion's Servant (Mat
8:5-13; Lk 7:1-10).
Jesus Raises the Dead
Son at Nain (Lk
Are You the
Coming One? (Mat
11:2-19; Lk 7:18-35).
My Yoke is Easy and My Burden is Light (Mat
The Woman With the Alabaster Flask
Mary Called Magdalene (Lk
The Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (Mat
12:22-37; Mk 3: 19-30; Lk 11:14-20).
Teacher, We Want to See a Sign From You (Mat
12:38-45; Lk 11:16-36).
Woe to You, Scribes and Pharisees,
He Began to Say to His Disciples (Lk
Parable of the Fig Tree (Lk
Parable of the Sower (Mat
13:1-23; Mk 4:1-25; Lk 8:4-18).
Many Such Parables (Mat
13:24-53; Mk 4:26-34).
Sea of Galilee
Jesus Rebukes the Storm (Mat
8:18-27; Mk 4:35-41; Lk 8:22-25).
The Herd of Many Swine (Mat
8:28-33; Mk 5:1-21; Lk 8:26-40).
He Came Again to His Own City (Mat
9:1; Mk 5:21 Lk 8:40).
The Parable of the Wineskins (Mat
9:10-17; Mk 2:15-22; Lk 5:29-39).
Jairus' Daughter and the Woman With the Flow of Blood
9:18-26; Mk 5:22-43; Lk 8:41-56).
The Blind and the Mute (Mat
A Prophet is Not Without Honor Except in His Own Country
13:53-58; Mk 6:1-6).
He Was Moved With Compassion For Them (Mat
Sent His Disciples Out With Power and Authority
10; Mk 6:6-13, Lk 9:1-6).
John the Baptist is
14:1, 2, 6-12, Mk 6:14-16, 21-29; Lk 9:7-9).
The Disciples Return, Feeding Five Thousand (Mat
14:13-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:10-17, Jn 6:1-14).
Sea of Galilee
They Saw Him Walking on the Sea (Mat
14:22-36; Mk 6:45-56; Jn 6:15-21).
Am the Bread of Life (Jn
Do you also want to go away? (Jn
Unwashed Hands (Mat
15:1-20; Mk 7:1-23).
A Woman of Canaan (Mat
15:21-28; Mk 7:24-30).
Then Great Multitudes Came to Him (Mat
15:29-31, Mk 7:31-37).
Feeding Four Thousand (Mat
15:32-39; Mk 8:1-9).
Seeking From Him a Sign From Heaven (Mat
16:1-4; Mk 8:10-12).
The Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees (Mat
16:4-12; Mk 8:13-21).
Heals a Blind Man at Bethsaida (Mk
Jesus Reveals Who He is at Caesarea Philippi (Mat
He Must Go to Jerusalem and
Be Killed (Mat
16:21-28; Mk 8:31-38; 9:1; Lk 9:21-27).
And He Was Transfigured
17:1-13; Mk 9:2-13; Lk 9:28-36).
And Jesus Rebuked the Demon (Mat
17:14-21; Mk 9:14-29; Lk 9:37-43).
Speaks Again of His Death (Mat
17:22, 23; Mk 9:30-32; Lk 9:43-45).
Miracle of the Coin in the Fish's Mouth (Mat
Which One is the Greatest? (Mat
18:1-35; Mk 9:33-50; Lk 9:46-50).
He Who is Not Against Us is On Our Side (Mk
9:38, 39; Lk 9:49, 50).
The Feast of Tabernacles
Set His Face to Go to Jerusalem (Lk
9:51-62; Jn 7:2-11).
The Lord Appointed Seventy Others (Lk
The Ten Lepers (Lk
Teaches in the Temple at the Feast
of Tabernacles (Jn
The Parable of the Good Samaritan (Lk
The Report of the Seventy (Lk
The House of Mary and Martha (Lk
Jesus Teaches His Disciples to Pray (Lk
The Feast of Dedication
I Was Blind, Now I See (Jn
My Sheep Hear My Voice (Jn
They Picked Up Stones To Stone Him (Jn
Beyond the Jordan (Jn
Jesus Raises Lazarus from
the Dead (Jn
The Declaration of Caiaphas (Jn
The Woman Who Was Bent Over (Mat
19:1, 2; Mk 10:1; Lk 13:10-35).
Take the Lowest Seat (Lk
Count the Cost (Lk
More Parables, Prodigal Son (Lk
Exposes the Hypocrisy of the Pharisees (Lk
The Rich Man and Lazarus (Lk
Increase Our Faith (Lk
Teaches the Pharisees About the Coming of the Kingdom
The Pharisee and the Tax Collector (Lk
Marriage and Divorce (Mat
19:3-12; Mk 10:2-12).
Let the Little Children Come to Me (Mat
19:13-15; Mk 10:13-16; Lk 18:15-17).
Rich Young Ruler (Mat
19:16-22; Mk 10:17-22; Lk 18:18-24).
The Parable of the Vineyard (Mat
Again Foretelling His Death (Mat
20:17-19; Mk 10:32-34; Lk 18:31-34).
Can I Sit at Your Right Hand? (Mat
20:20-28; Mk 10:35-45).
Blind Bartimaeus (Mat
20:29-34; Mk 10:46-50; Lk 18:35-43).
was a Chief Tax Collector (Lk
The Parable of the Minas (Lk
Mary Anoints the Feet of Jesus (Jn
Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem
21:1-11; Mk 11:1-11; Lk 19:29-44; Jn 12:12-19).
Jesus Enters the Temple (Mat
21:12, Mk 11:11; Lk 19:45).
Drives the Vendors Out of the Temple (Mat
21:12, 13; Lk 19:45, 46).
The Blind and Lame Came to Him (Mat
He Was Teaching Daily in the Temple (Lk
The Withered Fig Tree (Mat
21:17-22; Mk 11:12-14, 20-22).
The Parable of the Two Sons (Mat
The Parable of the Vinedressers (Mat
21:33-46; Mk 12:1-12; Lk 20:9-19);
The Parable of the Great Supper
22:1-14; Lk 14:16-24).
Tested By the Pharisees (Mat
22:15-22; Mk 12:13-17; Lk 20:20-26).
Tested By the Sadducees (Mat
22:23-33; Mk 12:18-27; Lk 20:27-40);
Tested By a Lawyer (Mat
22:34-40; Mk 12:28-34).
Beware of the Scribes and the Pharisees (Mat
23; Mk 12:38-40; Lk 20:45-47).
A Certain Poor Widow (Mk
12:41-44; Lk 21:1-4).
The Prophecy of Isaiah About
their Blindness (Jn
Foretells the Destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem
24; Mk 13; Lk 21:5-36).
He Saw the City and Wept Over It (Mat
23:37; Lk 19:41-44).
The Parables of the Ten Virgins and The Talents
The Sheep and the Goats (Mat
Anointed with the Flask of Spikenard (Mat
26:6-13; Mk 14:3-9; Jn 12:1-8).
The Last Passover
The Last Passover (Mat
26:17-30; Mk 14:12-25; Lk 22:7-20).
Began to Wash the Disciples' Feet (Jn
The Hand of My Betrayer is With Me (Mat
26:23; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21; Jn 13:18).
What You Do . . Do Quickly (Mat
26:21-25; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21-23; Jn 13:21-30).
Teaches About the Holy Spirit (Jn
14; 15; 16).
Jesus' Intercession (Jn
The Prayer in Gethsemane (Mat
26:30, 36-46; Mk 14:26, 32-42; Lk 22:39-46; Jn 18:1).
Betrayed and Taken (Mat
26:47-56; Mk 14:43-54, 66-72; Lk 22:47-53; Jn 18:2-12).
The Trial (Mat
26:57, 58, 69-75; Mk 14:53, 54, 66-72; Lk 22:54-62; Jn 18:13-18, 25-27).
Delivered to Pilate (Mat
27:1, 2, 11-14; Mk 15:1-5; Lk 23:1-5; Jn 18:28-38).
He Sent Him to Herod (Lk
Tried Before Pilate (Mat
27:15-26; Mk 15:6-15; Lk 23:13-25; Jn 18:39, 40; 19:1-16).
Mocked by the Soldiers (Mat
27:27-31; Mk 15:16-20).
Led Him Away to be Crucified (Mat
27:31-34; Mk 15:20-23; Lk 23:26-32; Jn 19:16, 17).
27:35-56; Mk 15:24-41; Lk 23:33-49; Jn 19:18-30).
Joseph of Arimathea (Mat
27:57-66; Mk 15:42-47; Lk 23:50-56; Jn 19:31-42).
He is Risen (Mat
28:2-15, Mk 16:1-11 Lk 24:1-12; Jn 20:1-18).
Has Appeared to Simon (Lk
24:34; 1Cor 15:5).
Road to Emmaus
Appears to Two Disciples on the Road to Emmaus
16:12, 13: Lk 24:13-35).
© 1995-1996 The Bible Knowledge Accelerator ( Registered )