The Life of Jesus in Harmony
The History of the Hellenized Jew - Part One
(333 - 168 BC) Alexander - Antiochus Epiphanes
- The pigmy threatened the giant
- He wanted to link the West (cultural unity) to the East (grandeur and wealth)
- He built new cities (enlarged old ones) populated them with Greeks (esp. his
- New: ideas, gods, methods of administration, language, military tactics,
markets for trade, etc.
- The Jews were surrounded by a new world
- Alexander, Charging the East
- He made a big impression on the Jews
- He showed hostility to the Samaritans and kindness to the Jews (granted them
- He didn't compel Jewish men to join his army (respected their Sabbaths, etc.)
- Alexander and the Jewish People
- Right when he died his general's quarreled for control over the conquered
- Many long and complicated wars followed with the Jews caught in the middle
- Two generals (Ptolemy and Seleucus) established a dynasty (important in
- Ptolemy gained control of Egypt (descendants were called "the Ptolomies")
- Seleucus won for himself all the Asian lands that were conquered (the
- Dividing Alexander's New Found Kingdom
- Both Ptolemy and Seleucus claimed Palestine as part of their kingdoms
- Finally Ptolemy seized it and Seleucus let the matter go (though his des.
never really let go)
- The Fate of Palestine
Hellenization Outside of Palestine
- Interesting note: Though Ptolemy did not expect Jerusalem to be an easy city to conquer, it was on a Sabbath and the Jews did not defend themselves (though they were considered foolish
it showed how well the scribes had done their work and the deep reverence for Judaism)
- Jews around the eastern world now looked to the west (trade, government was
- Jewish settlements began emerging along the Mediterranean and al the areas
- These Jewish emigrants had to learn Greek language, customs, and ideas
- Hellas was the Greek name for Greece
- The community of Alexandria is probably the best example of what happened to
the Jews under the influence of Greek or Hellenistic culture.
- The port of Alexandria became one of the most active commercial centers of
the world. With many Jews there they formed an important part of the community.
-Citizenship depended upon for the most part your religion (each city had a
patron god/goddess) City festivities involved sacrificing to various deities
especially if one held an office.
- Jews could not participate so they were not full citizens (yet they could
not be called foreigners because they helped found Alexandria and made it
prosperous and important)
- The Ptolemies allowed for separate communities for Jews (courts, religion,
diet, Synagogue, etc.) They could not lead in festivals or hold a public office
(unless they converted to paganism).
- In spite of all this the Jews and Alexandrians were friendly to one another.
- The Jews and the Founding of Alexandria
7. Cultural Adjustment
- As Alexandria prospered their was more learning and philosophy than in
- The Jews were hospitable and also spoke Greek and were somewhat cultured yet
they remained Jews
- Eventually very few Jews spoke Hebrew or Aramaic (dangerous to their Jewish
- This is how they dealt with it, first, they began teaching their children
Hebrew and second, they translates the Pentateuch and other Jewish literature
into Greek to preserve the Jewish spirit
8. The Legend of the Septuagint
- The Jews of Egypt surrounded the translating of the Bible with legend and
Greeks and Jews in Palestine
- See section on the Septuagint .
9. The New Greek Cities
- Greek influence was also spreading in Palestine
- Old cities assumed new Greek names and esp. the non-Jewish cities practiced
the Greek way of life
- Greek buildings, gymnasiums, and forms of government
10. Prosperity and Migration
- Non-Jewish cities became very prosperous cause they were heavy into commerce
(east and west)
- The Jews were big exporters of grain, wine, olive oil, cheese, fruit, and
- Jewish population increased heavily and many became artisans and merchants
11. Hellenization in Judea
- They maintained their Judaism and were not at all attracted to the gods of
- They rejected the philosophy and culture as inferior to Judaism though
- The Jews stood more than ever before as a different and unique people
- The priests of Jerusalem and upper class wanted it to be the great trade
center. They wanted to externally resemble the people around them and yet maintain
there Judaism and not indulge in (barbarianism)
- Note: Almost every ancient people of the Bible disappeared except the Jews
12. The Sons of Tobias (Tax Collectors)
- The chief advocates of Hellenism in Judea were members of a family who were
believed to have descended from Tobias the Ammonite who had hassled Nehemiah so
much. Though they were not Jewish they had intermarried with the family of the high priest and being important in politics and government
- About 230 BC Joseph Ben Tobias bought from the king of Egypt the right to collect the taxes from
the entire district of Syria (Judea and all its neighbors).
- The way it worked was one man would pay the royal treasury a lump sum for
the privilege of collecting as much as he could from the inhabitants of a
district. (Got rich at his neighbors expense...hated).
- Joseph, his family, and his co-workers became a great economic power in
- They adopted the customs and ways of the Greeks the most and angered even
the gentiles around.
You can learn it in Torah
13. A Scribes Advice
- The Jews had no idea what was coming soon (major struggles) as a result of
- At this time a man named Joshua ben Sirach (from Jerusalem) wrote a book on
philosophy but his philosophy differed greatly from that of the Greeks. He
ignored subjects like the physical universe, government, and society and was
primarily interested in giving people practical advice on how to live.
- According to him Moses and the prophets, and Proverbs and Eccesiastes give
us all of the answers. The wise man was the one who had no ambition and served
God faithfully. He will avoid friendship with the ambitious and wealth seekers.
- Little did he know that tragedy would follow. The poor were dividing from
the rich, things were hot.
The Maccabees Fight for Survival (The Jews fight a war against astronomical
The Maccabean Age
Judea Becomes a Syrian Province
- The next 50 years (200-150 BC) were very important and filled with stirring
events. These events forever changed the Jewish people and Judaism even to the
present day. Since all that happened, happened outside of Judea we must make
mention of the ambitions and fortunes of the empires and kingdoms that controlled
the world and their powerful rulers.
14. Syria's Ambition
- The Syrians desired to reunite all of Alexander's conquests.
- By 198 BC Antiochus III, called "the Great" took the first step when he
forced Egypt to give up Palestine
- Only one obstacle lay in the path of the Seleucid's march to world
- Rome had just destroyed the power of Carthage and was gradually dominating
the Mediterranean lands
- Antiochus was forced to give up Egypt and give hostages (his royal family)
plus large sums of money (which they exacted from the peoples subject to them)
as security against any Roman invasions.
- But Antiochus and his successor, Seleucus IV, continued to plan conquests.
- Seleucid empire began to crack when most of Asia would no longer submit to
the tyranny (esp. Israel)
15. Factions Among the Jews
- Differences of opinion and many factions developed within Judaism. (Some
were for the Syrian ambitions and some were against them)
- The family of Tobias and Hyrcanus, son of Joseph, were on the side of Egypt
(obviously) and others were on the side of Syria because they thought Syria
was too powerful
- The common people didn't really get involved (they knew they would be taxed
by either side) until it involved their religion and then real political
parties began to develop
The Attack on Judaism
16. The Sanctity of the Temple
- The pro-Syrian group wanting the favor of Seleucus revealed that there was
much wealth in the Temple
- In those days (having no banks) all Temples were used for storing treasures.
A thief would not dare arouse the anger of a god by taking what the god
- Seleucus dispatched Heliodorus (an official) to confiscate the money in the
- Heliodorus left without taking any of the money (legend tells that a certain
Jew beat him to a pulp)
- The Syrian plan was thwarted and the true intent of the Hellenized Jews was
17. The High Priest is Removed and Antiochus Epiphanes
- The pro-Syrian group decided to remove the high priest. (Hoping to control
- They did this because of the change in the government of Syria
- Seleucus IV had died and had been succeeded by his brother Antiochus IV (who
usurped the throne)
- Antiochus IV also wanted to conquer Egypt like the others and unite his
- He acted as though he really were Zeus and the people called him "Epimanes"
meaning "the madman"
- Since Palestine bordered Egypt he needed a loyal Hellenized population there
- Then a group of Jews came to him and devised a plan. The high priest Onias
III should be removed and his Hellenized brother Jason was to take his place.
(set up a Greek Constitution and coin Greek money)
- The plan was followed and all the Jews were outraged. It was the first time
since the Babylonian Captivity that a non-Jewish government had interfered with
the priesthood (treating the sacred office as though it were nothing other
than a governmental office)
- But worse was to come. Now the Hellenizers had full control of the
government in Jerusalem and they began to build gymnasiums within the city and
encouraged the young to spent all their time there.
- The young priests engaged in sports. Jerusalem was filled with Greek styles,
clothes, names, language and worst of all, its religion and loose morals.
- The most radical Hellenizers felt that things were not moving fast enough so
they convinced Antiochus to remove Jason (Jason fled) and replace him with
Menelaus (not a member of the priestly family)
- Menelaus had no sympathy for the Jewish traditions whatsoever and was only
concerned about power
- The Temple treasury did not contain enough money to pay Antiochus what he
had promised so he sold some of the holy vessels of the Temple to raise the money
- He gave himself the surname "Epiphanes" which means "the visible god" (he and
Zeus were identical)
18. Judaism was to be Destroyed
- To Antiochus to be un-Hellenized was stiff-necked nonsense
- If Judaism stood in the way then Judaism was to be destroyed so he gave the
- The Syrian army marched into Jerusalem and many of the people were killed
and others escaped to the hills. Only the known Hellenists were allowed to remain
- Orders were given: NO Sabbath, NO Holy Days, and NO Circumcision
- A Statue of Zeus/Antiochus was placed in the Temple above the altar
- The most detestable animals (the pig) were brought and sacrificed on the
- An abominable act was perpetrated on Kislev 25, 168 BC according to the Book
of Maccabees that "left the Jewish people desolate." (They call this the
Abomination of Desolation in Daniel) but Jesus taught that this was a prelimary of the secondary and greater fulfillment
coming in the last days and seventieth week of Daniel.
An Outline of The Life of Jesus in Harmony
"I marvel that whereas the
ambitious dreams of myself, Caesar, and Alexander should have
vanished into thin air, a Judean peasant - Jesus should be able to
stretch his hands across the centuries and control the destinies of
men and nations." - Napoleon
I Bonaparte (1809)
The Birth of John the Baptist
The History of the Birth of Jesus
Genealogy of Jesus (Mat
1:1-17; Lk 3:23-38).
Gabriel Announces to Mary
Mary Visits Elizabeth (Lk
An Angel Comes to Joseph (Mat
The Decree of Augustus Caesar and the Birth of Christ
The First Visitors - Shepherds (Lk
The Second Visitors - Magi
Jesus is Circumcised and Presented in the Temple
Out of Egypt
Jesus' Early Years
The Boy Jesus at the Temple
The Beginning of His Ministry
Jesus is Baptized in the Jordan
3:13-17; Mk 1:9-11; Lk 3:21-23
The Temptation in the Wilderness
4:1-11; Mk 1:12, 13; Lk 4:1-13
The Eternal Word (Jn
The Testimony of John
The First Disciples (Jn
Turning Water to Wine (Jn
Jesus Visits Jerusalem
The First Passover
A House of Merchandise (Jn
Unless One is Born Again (Jn
3:22, with 4:2
He Departed Again to Galilee (Mat
4:12; Mk 1:14; Lk 4:14; Jn 4:1-3).
The Woman at the Well (Jn
Jesus' Ministry in Galilee
He Taught in Their Synagogues (Mt
4:17; Mk 1:14,15; Lk 4:14,15; Jn 4:43-45).
A Certain Nobleman (Jn
Physician, Heal Yourself! (Mat
4:13-16; Lk 4:16-31).
Sea of Galilee
Peter, Andrew, James, and John (Mat
4:18-22; Mk 1:16-20; Lk 5:1-11).
And Jesus Went About All Galilee . . Teaching (Mat
4:23-25; Mk 1:35-39, Lk 4:42-44).
A Man With an Unclean Spirit (Mk
1:21-28; Lk 4:31-37).
Simon's Wife's Mother Lay Sick (Mat
8:14-17; Mk 1:29-34; Lk 4:38-41).
Then a Leper Came to Him (Mat
8:2-4; Mk 1:40-45; Lk 5:12- 16).
They Brought to Him a Paralytic (Mat
9:2-8; Mk 2:1-12; Lk 5:17-26).
9:9; Mk 2:13, 14; Lk 5:27, 28).
The Second Passover
Healing at the Pool of Bethesda on the Sabbath Day
Healing in the Synagogue on the Sabbath Day (Mat
12:9-14; Mk 3:1-6, Lk 6:6-11).
And in His Name Gentiles Will
12:15-21; Mk 3:7-12)
Then He Appointed Twelve (Mat
10:2-4; Mk 3:13-19; Lk 6: 12-19).
The Sermon on the Mount
A Certain Centurion's Servant (Mat
8:5-13; Lk 7:1-10).
Jesus Raises the Dead
Son at Nain (Lk
Are You the
Coming One? (Mat
11:2-19; Lk 7:18-35).
My Yoke is Easy and My Burden is Light (Mat
The Woman With the Alabaster Flask
Mary Called Magdalene (Lk
The Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (Mat
12:22-37; Mk 3: 19-30; Lk 11:14-20).
Teacher, We Want to See a Sign From You (Mat
12:38-45; Lk 11:16-36).
Woe to You, Scribes and Pharisees,
He Began to Say to His Disciples (Lk
Parable of the Fig Tree (Lk
Parable of the Sower (Mat
13:1-23; Mk 4:1-25; Lk 8:4-18).
Many Such Parables (Mat
13:24-53; Mk 4:26-34).
Sea of Galilee
Jesus Rebukes the Storm (Mat
8:18-27; Mk 4:35-41; Lk 8:22-25).
The Herd of Many Swine (Mat
8:28-33; Mk 5:1-21; Lk 8:26-40).
He Came Again to His Own City (Mat
9:1; Mk 5:21 Lk 8:40).
The Parable of the Wineskins (Mat
9:10-17; Mk 2:15-22; Lk 5:29-39).
Jairus' Daughter and the Woman With the Flow of Blood
9:18-26; Mk 5:22-43; Lk 8:41-56).
The Blind and the Mute (Mat
A Prophet is Not Without Honor Except in His Own Country
13:53-58; Mk 6:1-6).
He Was Moved With Compassion For Them (Mat
Sent His Disciples Out With Power and Authority
10; Mk 6:6-13, Lk 9:1-6).
John the Baptist is
14:1, 2, 6-12, Mk 6:14-16, 21-29; Lk 9:7-9).
The Disciples Return, Feeding Five Thousand (Mat
14:13-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:10-17, Jn 6:1-14).
Sea of Galilee
They Saw Him Walking on the Sea (Mat
14:22-36; Mk 6:45-56; Jn 6:15-21).
Am the Bread of Life (Jn
Do you also want to go away? (Jn
Unwashed Hands (Mat
15:1-20; Mk 7:1-23).
A Woman of Canaan (Mat
15:21-28; Mk 7:24-30).
Then Great Multitudes Came to Him (Mat
15:29-31, Mk 7:31-37).
Feeding Four Thousand (Mat
15:32-39; Mk 8:1-9).
Seeking From Him a Sign From Heaven (Mat
16:1-4; Mk 8:10-12).
The Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees (Mat
16:4-12; Mk 8:13-21).
Heals a Blind Man at Bethsaida (Mk
Jesus Reveals Who He is at Caesarea Philippi (Mat
He Must Go to Jerusalem and
Be Killed (Mat
16:21-28; Mk 8:31-38; 9:1; Lk 9:21-27).
And He Was Transfigured
17:1-13; Mk 9:2-13; Lk 9:28-36).
And Jesus Rebuked the Demon (Mat
17:14-21; Mk 9:14-29; Lk 9:37-43).
Speaks Again of His Death (Mat
17:22, 23; Mk 9:30-32; Lk 9:43-45).
Miracle of the Coin in the Fish's Mouth (Mat
Which One is the Greatest? (Mat
18:1-35; Mk 9:33-50; Lk 9:46-50).
He Who is Not Against Us is On Our Side (Mk
9:38, 39; Lk 9:49, 50).
The Feast of Tabernacles
Set His Face to Go to Jerusalem (Lk
9:51-62; Jn 7:2-11).
The Lord Appointed Seventy Others (Lk
The Ten Lepers (Lk
Teaches in the Temple at the Feast
of Tabernacles (Jn
The Parable of the Good Samaritan (Lk
The Report of the Seventy (Lk
The House of Mary and Martha (Lk
Jesus Teaches His Disciples to Pray (Lk
The Feast of Dedication
I Was Blind, Now I See (Jn
My Sheep Hear My Voice (Jn
They Picked Up Stones To Stone Him (Jn
Beyond the Jordan (Jn
Jesus Raises Lazarus from
the Dead (Jn
The Declaration of Caiaphas (Jn
The Woman Who Was Bent Over (Mat
19:1, 2; Mk 10:1; Lk 13:10-35).
Take the Lowest Seat (Lk
Count the Cost (Lk
More Parables, Prodigal Son (Lk
Exposes the Hypocrisy of the Pharisees (Lk
The Rich Man and Lazarus (Lk
Increase Our Faith (Lk
Teaches the Pharisees About the Coming of the Kingdom
The Pharisee and the Tax Collector (Lk
Marriage and Divorce (Mat
19:3-12; Mk 10:2-12).
Let the Little Children Come to Me (Mat
19:13-15; Mk 10:13-16; Lk 18:15-17).
Rich Young Ruler (Mat
19:16-22; Mk 10:17-22; Lk 18:18-24).
The Parable of the Vineyard (Mat
Again Foretelling His Death (Mat
20:17-19; Mk 10:32-34; Lk 18:31-34).
Can I Sit at Your Right Hand? (Mat
20:20-28; Mk 10:35-45).
Blind Bartimaeus (Mat
20:29-34; Mk 10:46-50; Lk 18:35-43).
was a Chief Tax Collector (Lk
The Parable of the Minas (Lk
Mary Anoints the Feet of Jesus (Jn
Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem
21:1-11; Mk 11:1-11; Lk 19:29-44; Jn 12:12-19).
Jesus Enters the Temple (Mat
21:12, Mk 11:11; Lk 19:45).
Drives the Vendors Out of the Temple (Mat
21:12, 13; Lk 19:45, 46).
The Blind and Lame Came to Him (Mat
He Was Teaching Daily in the Temple (Lk
The Withered Fig Tree (Mat
21:17-22; Mk 11:12-14, 20-22).
The Parable of the Two Sons (Mat
The Parable of the Vinedressers (Mat
21:33-46; Mk 12:1-12; Lk 20:9-19);
The Parable of the Great Supper
22:1-14; Lk 14:16-24).
Tested By the Pharisees (Mat
22:15-22; Mk 12:13-17; Lk 20:20-26).
Tested By the Sadducees (Mat
22:23-33; Mk 12:18-27; Lk 20:27-40);
Tested By a Lawyer (Mat
22:34-40; Mk 12:28-34).
Beware of the Scribes and the Pharisees (Mat
23; Mk 12:38-40; Lk 20:45-47).
A Certain Poor Widow (Mk
12:41-44; Lk 21:1-4).
The Prophecy of Isaiah About
their Blindness (Jn
Foretells the Destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem
24; Mk 13; Lk 21:5-36).
He Saw the City and Wept Over It (Mat
23:37; Lk 19:41-44).
The Parables of the Ten Virgins and The Talents
The Sheep and the Goats (Mat
Anointed with the Flask of Spikenard (Mat
26:6-13; Mk 14:3-9; Jn 12:1-8).
The Last Passover
The Last Passover (Mat
26:17-30; Mk 14:12-25; Lk 22:7-20).
Began to Wash the Disciples' Feet (Jn
The Hand of My Betrayer is With Me (Mat
26:23; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21; Jn 13:18).
What You Do . . Do Quickly (Mat
26:21-25; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21-23; Jn 13:21-30).
Teaches About the Holy Spirit (Jn
14; 15; 16).
Jesus' Intercession (Jn
The Prayer in Gethsemane (Mat
26:30, 36-46; Mk 14:26, 32-42; Lk 22:39-46; Jn 18:1).
Betrayed and Taken (Mat
26:47-56; Mk 14:43-54, 66-72; Lk 22:47-53; Jn 18:2-12).
The Trial (Mat
26:57, 58, 69-75; Mk 14:53, 54, 66-72; Lk 22:54-62; Jn 18:13-18, 25-27).
Delivered to Pilate (Mat
27:1, 2, 11-14; Mk 15:1-5; Lk 23:1-5; Jn 18:28-38).
He Sent Him to Herod (Lk
Tried Before Pilate (Mat
27:15-26; Mk 15:6-15; Lk 23:13-25; Jn 18:39, 40; 19:1-16).
Mocked by the Soldiers (Mat
27:27-31; Mk 15:16-20).
Led Him Away to be Crucified (Mat
27:31-34; Mk 15:20-23; Lk 23:26-32; Jn 19:16, 17).
27:35-56; Mk 15:24-41; Lk 23:33-49; Jn 19:18-30).
Joseph of Arimathea (Mat
27:57-66; Mk 15:42-47; Lk 23:50-56; Jn 19:31-42).
He is Risen (Mat
28:2-15, Mk 16:1-11 Lk 24:1-12; Jn 20:1-18).
Has Appeared to Simon (Lk
24:34; 1Cor 15:5).
Road to Emmaus
Appears to Two Disciples on the Road to Emmaus
16:12, 13: Lk 24:13-35).
© 1995-1996 The Bible Knowledge Accelerator ( Registered )