HISTORICAL TIME CHART (Biblical and Historical)
Note: Biblical dating follows that of several scholars in my Bibliography, esp. Whitcomb and Boyer. Some dates are uncertain. There is also some overlap, especially in the case of the judges and the kings.
B.C.2090 Abraham called by God 2067 Isaac born 2007 Jacob born 1992 Abraham dies 1944 Isaac dies 1877 Jacob arrives in Egypt 1860 Jacob dies in Egypt 1806 loseph dies in Egypt 1730 Hyksos invasion of Egypt; Hebrews bondage begins. 1728 Hammurabi of Sumer born 1570 Hyksos expelled from Egypt; Amose I founds 18th dynasty 1548 Amenhotep I becomes pharaoh of Egypt Hebrew midwives ordered to destroy all Hebrew male children 1528 Thutmose I becomes pharaoh All newborn Hebrew males are to be cast into the Nile 1525 Moses born 1510 Thutmose II becomes pharaoh 1504 Hatshepsut becomes pharaoh 1487 Moses pees Egypt 1483 Thutmose III becomes pharaoh The great oppression of the Hebrews begins 1450 Amenhotep II becomes pharaoh 1447 The Exodus begins 1446 The Tabernacle constructed 1423 Thutmose IV becomes pharaoh 1410 Amenhotep III becomes pharaoh 1407 Moses dies; Joshua conquers Canaan 1400 Conquest of Canaan completed 1377 Akhnaton becomes pharaoh; inaugurates monotheistic reforms 1375 Othniel becomes judge 1319 Ehud becomes judge 1318 Rameses I founds the 19th dynasty in Egypt 1240 Deborah and Barak judge Israel 1194 Gideon becomes judge 1167 Eli born 1155 Abimelech usurps power in Israel 1152 Tola becomes judge 1131 Jair becomes judge 1109 Eli becomes priest 1105 Samuel born 1089 Jephthah becomes judge 1083 Ibzan becomes judge 1071 Elon becomes judge Samson becomes judge 1069 Samuel begins to minister 1066 Abdon becomes judge 1043 Saul becomes king 1011 Saul and Jonathan slain David becomes king of Judah 1004 David becomes king over all Israel 971 Solomon ascends the throne 966 Solomon begins to build the Temple in Jerusalem 945 Sheshhonk ( Shishak) becomes pharaoh of Egypt 931 Rehoboam becomes king of Israel and Judah Jeroboam rebels; sets Up a rival kingdom in the north 913 Abijam becomes king of Judah 911 Asa becomes king of Judah 910 Nadab becomes king of Israel 909 Bausha becomes king of Israel 890 Benhadad becomes king of Syria 886 Elah becomes king of Israel Zimri becomes king of Israel 885 Tibni becomes king of Israel 883 Ashurbanipal II becomes king of Assyria 880 Omri becomes king of Israel 874 Ahab becomes king of Israel 873 Jehoshaphat becomes king of Judah 859 Shalmaneser III becomes king of Assyria 858 Elijah begins to prophesy 853 Ahaziah becomes king of Israel Jehoram becomes king of Judah 852 Joram becomes king of Israel Elisha begins to prophesy 841 Jehu becomes king of Israel Ahaziah becomes king of Judah Athaliah seizes the throne of Judah Hazael becomes king of Syria 835 Joash becomes king of Judah 830 Joel prophecies 814 Jehoahaz becomes king of Israel 801 Benhadad II becomes king of Syria 798 Jehoash becomes king of Israel 796 Amaziah becomes king of Judah 790 Uzziah becomes co-regent of Judah 783 Shalmaneser IV becomes king of Assyria 783 Jonah begins his ministry 782 Jeroboam II becomes king of Israel 776 Olympic games begin in Greece 767 Uzziah becomes full king of Judah 764 Amos begins to prophesy 755 Hosea begins to prophesy 753 Rome founded Zechariah becomes king of Israel 752 Shallum becomes king of Israel Menahem becomes king of Israel 745 Tiglath-pileser III becomes king of Assyria 742 Pekahiah becomes king of Israel 740 Pekah becomes king of Israel 739 Uzziah dies; Isaiah begins to prophesy Jotham becomes king of Judah 736 Micah begins to prophesy 735 Ahaz becomes king of Judah 732 Hoshea becomes king of Israel 727 Shalmaneser IV becomes king of Assyria 722 Sargon II becomes king of Assyria Samaria falls; the ten tribes go into captivity 715 Hezekiah becomes king of Judah 705 Sennacherib becomes king of Assyria 701 Judah invaded by the Assyrians 686 Manasseh becomes king of Judah 681 Esarhaddon becomes king of Assyria 669 Ashurbanipal becomes king of Assyria 660 Zoroaster born 648 Nahum predicts the fall of Nineveh 642 Amon becomes king of Judah 640 Josiah becomes king of Judah 634 Zephaniah begins to prophesy 627 Jeremiah begins to prophesy 626 Nabopolasser becomes king of Babylon 622 Revival in Judah 619 Habakkuk begins to prophesy 612 Nineveh falls 609 Neco II becomes pharaoh of Egypt Jehoahaz becomes king of Judah Jehoiakim becomes king of Judah 605 Nebuchadnezzar becomes king of Babylon The Babylonians invade Judah Daniel begins to prophesy 597 Jehoachin becomes king of Judah Zedekiah becomes king of Judah 593 Ezekiel begins to prophesy 586 The Babylonians destroy Jerusalem and the Temple The Jews deported to Babylon Gedaliah becomes governor of Jerusalem The rabbis preempt the priests as the chief custodians of divine truth 563 Buddhism founded by Siddhartha 553 Belshazzar becomes regent in Babylon 550 Cyrus becomes king of Persia The temple of Artemis erected at Ephesus 550 Confucius begins to teach 539 Babylon falls to the Medes and Persians Darius the Mede rules in Babylon 538 Zerubbabel and Joshua lead a small party of Jewish repatriates back to Palestine 536 The Temple started in Jerusalem 530 Cambyses becomes king of Persia 521 Smerdis becomes king of Persia Darius I Hystapses becomes king of Persia 520 Zechariah begins to prophesy Haggai begins to prophesy Construction of the Jerusalem Temple resumed 516 The Temple completed 509 The Roman Republic founded 486 Xerxes becomes king of Persia 484 Herodotus the historian born 480 The Greeks defeat Xerxes at Salamis 479 The Greeks defeat Xerxes at Thermopalye 478 Esther becomes queen of Persia and later saves the Jews of the empire from extermination 473 The Feast of Purim started 469 Socrates born 464 Artaxerxes Longimanus becomes king of Persia 458 Ezra takes a small contingent of Jews back to Palestine 447 The building of the Parthenon commenced 445 Nehemiah takes a small contingent of Jews back to Palestine 443 Nehemiah and Ezra read the Scriptures to the Jews and help them understand them; the first delicate roots of the Midrash begin to sprout; the Sopherim (Scribes) flourish 436 Malachi begins to prophesy 423 Darius II becomes king of Persia 404 Artaxerxes II becomes king of Persia 400 The Midrash begins to develop 399 Socrates condemned to death 359 Artaxerxes III becomes king of Persia Philip becomes king of Macedonia 342 Epicurius teaches his philosophy 336 Darius III Codomannus becomes king of Persia Alexander the Great becomes king of Greece 335 Aristotle teaches at Athens 333 The Battle of Issus fought; Alexander defeats the Persians Alexander takes Egypt 332 Alexander destroys Tyre 331 Alexander seizes Babylon 330 Darius III of Persia slain 329 Alexander marries Roxana in a symbolic gesture of uniting East and West 327 Alexander invades India 323 Alexander claims to be the son of Zeus Alexander dies Alexander's empire divided between his four chief generals Ptolemy I Soter takes Egypt 320 Ptolemy I seizes Palestine 311 Seleucus I Nicator takes Babylon 300 Rome becomes a major world power in the western Mediterranean Seleucus I adds Syria to his realm 285 Ptolemy II Philadelphius becomes king of Egypt Between 285 and 130 the Septuagint translated 280 Antiochus I Soter becomes king of Syria 276 The first Syro-Egyptian war begins 275 Ptolemy of Egypt invades Syria 274 Hinduism codified in India 264 Rome's first Punic war against Carthage begins 261 Antiochus II Theos (the God) becomes king of Syria 260 The second Syro-Egyptian war begins 252 Antiochus II marries Bernice, daughter of Ptolemy II 250 The Parthian kingdom founded 246 Seleucus II Callinicus becomes king of Syria Ptolemy III Euergetes becomes king of Egypt The third Syro-Egyptian war begins 245 Ptolemy invades Syria 240 Seleucus invades Egypt 223 Antiochus III (the Great) becomes king of Syria 221 Ptolemy IV Philopater becomes king of Egypt The fourth Syro-Egyptian war begins 219 Antiochus the Great invades Egypt 218 Rome's second Punic war against Carthage begins 217 Hannibal invades Italy Ptolemy IV invades Syria; Battle of Raphia 215 Rome's first Macedonian war begins 206 Rome drives Carthage out of Spain 203 Ptolemy V ( Epiphanes ) becomes king of Egypt 201 The fifth Syro-Egyptian war begins Carthage surrenders to Rome 200 Rome's second Macedonian war begins 200 The Mishna begins to appear among the Jews 193 Ptolemy V marries Cleopatra, daughter of Antiochus III 190 Antiochus III defeated by Romans at Magnesia 187 Seleucus IV Philopator becomes king of Syria 181 Ptolemy VI Philomater becomes king of Egypt 175 Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes king of Syria 171 Ptolemy VII becomes co-regent of Egypt with Ptolemy VI Rome's third Macedonian war begins Mithridates I begins the conquest of Babylonia and Media, adding those countries to Elam, Persia, and Bactra to form the Parthian Empire 169 Antiochus Epiphanes captures Jerusalem 168 The Romans interfere in Antiochus's war with Egypt and prevent his capturing Alexandria Antiochus pollutes the Temple in Jerusalem and suspends the sacrifices of the Jews 166 Matthias leads the Jews in revolt against Antiochus Epiphanes 165 The Jerusalem Temple repaired and cleansed 164 Antiochus Epiphanes dies 154 The Jews in Egypt build a temple at Leontopolis 149 Rome's third Punic war against Carthage begins Rome's fourth Macedonian war begins 146 The Romans destroy Carthage 135 John Hyrcanus becomes high priest in Jerusalem 133 Rome begins to expand her empire eastward 130 The Pharisees begin to emerge as a sect 124 Mithridates II (the Great) conquers Scythia, adds it to the Parthian Empire, and makes a treaty with Rome 120 Hyrcanus repudiates the Pharisees and declares himself a Sadducee 106 Cicero born 88 Rome's first Mithridatic war begins 83 Rome's second Mithridatic war begins 74 Rome's third Mithridatic war begins 64 Pompey captures Jerusalem; leaves the Maccabean high priest Hyrcanus in power with Antipater as civil adviser 60 The first Triumvirate at Rome (Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey ) 59 Julius Caesar becomes proconsul; Pompey marries Julia, daughter of Caesar 58 Caesar conquers Gaul 54 Caesar invades Britain 49 Caesar crosses the Rubicon 48 Pompey slain in Egypt Caesar makes Cleopatra queen of Egypt 44 Caesar becomes dictator of Rome for life Caesar assassinated 43 The second Triumvirate at Rome (Anthony, Lepidus, and Octavian ) 40 Herod appointed king 37 Herod captures Jerusalem 31 Battle of Actium, Anthony slain, Octavian becomes master of the Roman world, the final triumph of Empire 30 Egypt becomes a Roman province 30 Shammai fourished Hillel flourished Philo of Alexandria fourished 21 Octavian assumed the title of Augustus 20 Herod begins to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple 4 Herod dies 4 THE BIRTH OF JESUS A.D. 14 Augustus dies Tiberius becomes Roman emperor 26 Jesus begins to teach; He characterizes rabbinic teaching (the Mishna) as "vain tradition' 30 Jesus crucified and raised from the dead Pentecost; the Christian church is born 37 Caligula becomes Roman emperor 40 Gentiles are added to the church with the conversion of Cornelius 41 Claudius becomes Roman emperor Antioch becomes the new center of church activity 43 Theudas claims to be Messiah and is executed 54 Nero becomes Roman emperor 59 The apostle Paul is imprisoned at Caesarea 60 Paul appears before Agrippa 61 Paul a prisoner at Rome 66 The Jews of Judea revolt against Rome 68 Paul martyred at Rome 69 Jerusalem beseiged by the Romans Jochanan ben Zakkai seeks an audience with Vespasian Vespasian becomes Roman emperor 70 Jerusalem falls; the Temple burned; the Jews deported 73 The last stand of the Jewish rebels at Masada 79 Titus becomes Roman emperor 81 Domitian becomes Roman emperor 96 Nerva becomes Roman emperor 98 Trajan becomes Roman emperor 113 Rome goes to war with Parthia 116 A further Jewish revolt against Rome is suppressed with great severity 117 Hadrian becomes Roman emperor 132 Bar Kochba claims to be Messiah and leads a revolt against Rome Judea depopulated and the Jews denationalized by the Romans 138 Antoninus Pius becomes Roman emperor 150 Tertullian born
The Life of Jesus
"I marvel that whereas the ambitious dreams of myself, Caesar, and Alexander should have vanished into thin air, a Judean peasant - Jesus should be able to stretch his hands across the centuries and control the destinies of men and nations." - Napoleon I Bonaparte (1809)
The Birth of John the Baptist
The History of the Birth of Jesus
NazarethGabriel Announces to Mary (Lk 1:26-38).
BethlehemThe Decree of Augustus Caesar and the Birth of Christ (Lk 2:1-7). The Second Visitors - Magi (Mat 2:1-12).
JerusalemJesus is Circumcised and Presented in the Temple (Lk 2:21-38).
EgyptOut of Egypt (Mat 2:13-23).
Jesus' Early YearsJerusalem
The JordanJesus is Baptized in the Jordan (Mat 3:13-17; Mk 1:9-11; Lk 3:21-23).
The WildernessThe Temptation in the Wilderness (Mat 4:1-11; Mk 1:12, 13; Lk 4:1-13). The Testimony of John (Jn 1:19-34).
The First PassoverJerusalem A House of Merchandise (Jn 2:13-25). Jesus Baptizes (Jn 3:22, with 4:2).
GalileeHe Departed Again to Galilee (Mat 4:12; Mk 1:14; Lk 4:14; Jn 4:1-3).
SamariaThe Woman at the Well (Jn 4:4-42). Physician, Heal Yourself! (Mat 4:13-16; Lk 4:16-31).
Sea of GalileePeter, Andrew, James, and John (Mat 4:18-22; Mk 1:16-20; Lk 5:1-11).
GalileeAnd Jesus Went About All Galilee . . Teaching (Mat 4:23-25; Mk 1:35-39, Lk 4:42-44). Then a Leper Came to Him (Mat 8:2-4; Mk 1:40-45; Lk 5:12- 16).
JerusalemHealing at the Pool of Bethesda on the Sabbath Day (Jn 5:1-47). And in His Name Gentiles Will Trust (Mat 12:15-21; Mk 3:7-12) The Sermon on the Mount (Mat 5-7; Lk 6:20-49). My Yoke is Easy and My Burden is Light (Mat 11:20-30).
CapernaumThe Woman With the Alabaster Flask (Lk 7:36-50). The Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (Mat 12:22-37; Mk 3: 19-30; Lk 11:14-20). Woe to You, Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites (Lk 11:37-54). Parable of the Fig Tree (Lk 13:6-9). Many Such Parables (Mat 13:24-53; Mk 4:26-34).
Sea of GalileeJesus Rebukes the Storm (Mat 8:18-27; Mk 4:35-41; Lk 8:22-25). The Herd of Many Swine (Mat 8:28-33; Mk 5:1-21; Lk 8:26-40).
NazarethHe Came Again to His Own City (Mat 9:1; Mk 5:21 Lk 8:40). Jairus' Daughter and the Woman With the Flow of Blood (Mat 9:18-26; Mk 5:22-43; Lk 8:41-56). A Prophet is Not Without Honor Except in His Own Country (Mat 13:53-58; Mk 6:1-6). Sent His Disciples Out With Power and Authority (Mat 10; Mk 6:6-13, Lk 9:1-6).
MachaerusJohn the Baptist is Beheaded (Mat 14:1, 2, 6-12, Mk 6:14-16, 21-29; Lk 9:7-9).
Near BethsaidaThe Disciples Return, Feeding Five Thousand (Mat 14:13-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:10-17, Jn 6:1-14).
Sea of GalileeThey Saw Him Walking on the Sea (Mat 14:22-36; Mk 6:45-56; Jn 6:15-21).
Do you also want to go away? (Jn 6:66-71). A Woman of Canaan (Mat 15:21-28; Mk 7:24-30). Feeding Four Thousand (Mat 15:32-39; Mk 8:1-9). And He Was Transfigured (Mat 17:1-13; Mk 9:2-13; Lk 9:28-36). Speaks Again of His Death (Mat 17:22, 23; Mk 9:30-32; Lk 9:43-45).
CapernaumMiracle of the Coin in the Fish's Mouth (Mat 17:24-27). He Who is Not Against Us is On Our Side (Mk 9:38, 39; Lk 9:49, 50).
The Feast of TabernaclesJerusalem The Lord Appointed Seventy Others (Lk 10:1-16). Teaches in the Temple at the Feast of Tabernacles (Jn 7:14-53; 8:1-59). The Report of the Seventy (Lk 10:17-24).
BethanyThe House of Mary and Martha (Lk 10:38-42).
JerusalemI Was Blind, Now I See (Jn 9:1-41). They Picked Up Stones To Stone Him (Jn 10:22-39).
BethabaraBeyond the Jordan (Jn 10:40-42; 11:3-16).
BethanyJesus Raises Lazarus from the Dead (Jn 11:1-46).
EphraimThe Declaration of Caiaphas (Jn 11:47-54).
JudeaThe Woman Who Was Bent Over (Mat 19:1, 2; Mk 10:1; Lk 13:10-35). Count the Cost (Lk 14:25-35). Exposes the Hypocrisy of the Pharisees (Lk 16:14-18). Increase Our Faith (Lk 17:1-10). Marriage and Divorce (Mat 19:3-12; Mk 10:2-12). Rich Young Ruler (Mat 19:16-22; Mk 10:17-22; Lk 18:18-24). Again Foretelling His Death (Mat 20:17-19; Mk 10:32-34; Lk 18:31-34). Zacchaeus who was a Chief Tax Collector (Lk 19:1-10). Jesus Enters the Temple (Mat 21:12, Mk 11:11; Lk 19:45). The Blind and Lame Came to Him (Mat 21:14). The Withered Fig Tree (Mat 21:17-22; Mk 11:12-14, 20-22). The Parable of the Vinedressers (Mat 21:33-46; Mk 12:1-12; Lk 20:9-19); The Parable of the Great Supper (Mat 22:1-14; Lk 14:16-24). Tested By the Sadducees (Mat 22:23-33; Mk 12:18-27; Lk 20:27-40); Beware of the Scribes and the Pharisees (Mat 23; Mk 12:38-40; Lk 20:45-47). The Prophecy of Isaiah About their Blindness (Jn 12:37-50). He Saw the City and Wept Over It (Mat 23:37; Lk 19:41-44). The Sheep and the Goats (Mat 25:31-46).
JerusalemThe Last Passover (Mat 26:17-30; Mk 14:12-25; Lk 22:7-20). The Hand of My Betrayer is With Me (Mat 26:23; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21; Jn 13:18). What You Do . . Do Quickly (Mat 26:21-25; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21-23; Jn 13:21-30). Jesus' Intercession (Jn 17). Betrayed and Taken (Mat 26:47-56; Mk 14:43-54, 66-72; Lk 22:47-53; Jn 18:2-12). He Sent Him to Herod (Lk 23:6-12).
CrucifixionJoseph of Arimathea (Mat 27:57-66; Mk 15:42-47; Lk 23:50-56; Jn 19:31-42).
The ResurrectionHas Appeared to Simon (Lk 24:34; 1Cor 15:5).
Road to EmmausAppears to Two Disciples on the Road to Emmaus (Mk 16:12, 13: Lk 24:13-35).
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