- The Italian peninsula is a rocky, mountainous land.
- 600 miles long x 150 miles wide
- The Apennine Mountains are 850 miles long reaching from north to south
- The great harbors are located on the western and southern coasts
- Greece lies 50 miles to the east across the Adriatic Sea
- Africa is 100 miles from the west coast of Sicily
- There are 3 plains on the western coast which were main areas of settlement for the invaders from Europe
- The Tuscan Plain in the north central, drained by the Po River is a fertile farming region
- Latium in the middle of the west coast, drained by the Tiber River was a trading center for merchants from the north and south
- The Campanian Plain, southwestern coast (where Naples is now) had Italy's best harbor
- It was in Latium that an Indo-European group, the Latins, (ancestors of the Romans) migrated
- Their first city Alba Longa, was built about 1000 BC.
- Their most important city, Rome, was founded in 753 BC by Romulus
The Legend of Romulus and Remus
According to legend, the Greeks had laid siege to the city of Troy (near the coast of modern Turkey) and killed almost everyone. One Trojan prince named Aeneas, escaped by sea and sailed to Italy. He landed at Laurentum on the west coast of Italy. He formed an alliance with Latinus the king of the Latins and married his daughter Lavinia. Aeneas' son Ascanius founded a city called Alba Longa. He was the first of a long line of kings who ruled for about 400 years. When the last king was overthrown, his twin grandsons Romulus and Remus were left to die by the River Tiber. A wolf found them and looked after them. When the twins grew up they decided to set up a new city on the spot where they had been left to die. They held a sacred ceremony and Remus mocked it so Romulus killed his brother and named the city after his own name and became its first ruler.
- The followers of Romulus were shepherds, hunters, farmers, and merchants who lived in small huts scattered on the seven hills on which the city was built.
- The Latins were strongly influenced by the Greeks and the Etruscans
- The Etruscans, a hard and warlike people, settled in Tuscany (first civilized people in Italy)
- In Tuscany they built cities, developed law codes, established trade and were into art
- In the 8th century BC they controlled north and central Italy through a chain of city-states
- They also had colonies on Corsica and traded with the Carthaginians living in Sardinia
- In southern Italy and eastern Sicily were Greek colonists (centers of culture and commerce)
- They wanted to civilize (rather than conquer) the Latin tribes and teach them skills and fine craftsmanship of the East, the Greek alphabet, and Greek religion.
- There were also the Carthaginians (Sicily and Sardinia) who were commercial rivals of Rome that exercised control over many city-states.
- The Romans fought them in the Punic Wars for commercial and political control of the western Med.
- Little is known about where the Etruscans migrated from (Asia Minor or modern Turkey)
- The Etruscans were the first civilized people to settle in Italy and they greatly influenced the Romans.
- Extensive iron ore deposits near them in north central Italy they became very rich from trade.
- In the 6th cent. BC. they occupied and ruled Rome for 100 years.
- The Etruscan and Roman civilizations were put together from bits and pieces from Greece, Phoenicia, Israel, Egypt, and Persia. (They flourished from 800-400 BC.)
- The Etruscans were fanatically religious with a primitive theology. They offered many libations to their gods, examining entrails, or studying storms for omens.
- They are the reason the Romans became such a highly superstitious people always seeking good or evil omens in everyday happenings.
- They spent a great deal of time preparing for death (if properly cared for a man's spirit would live on.
- They built elaborate tombs (supplied them with wealth and articles necessary
for life) including weapons, pots, jewelry, etc., scenes of earthly pleasures
painted on the walls (like a man and wife sitting on a couch).
Etruscan Weapons and Armor
- Etruria also expanded because its armies were well trained and very disciplined.
- Because of their skill at working with metals they had weapons far superior to their opponents.
- The Romans adopted all their fighting techniques, weapons and armor designs of the Etruscans and conquered them in the 4th Cent. BC.
- Etruscan Women were considered equal to their men. This was the same with Roman women.
- An Etruscan noblewoman, hair elegantly curled, rich clothing and much jewelry
- The Romans adopted their elegance and pleasure seeking qualities from the Etruscans.
- Reclining on couches at banquets (slaves serving fine food & drink), watching dancers, & entertainers
The Life of Jesus
"I marvel that whereas the ambitious dreams of myself, Caesar, and Alexander should have vanished into thin air, a Judean peasant - Jesus should be able to stretch his hands across the centuries and control the destinies of men and nations." - Napoleon I Bonaparte (1809)
The Birth of John the Baptist
The History of the Birth of Jesus
NazarethGabriel Announces to Mary (Lk 1:26-38).
BethlehemThe Decree of Augustus Caesar and the Birth of Christ (Lk 2:1-7). The Second Visitors - Magi (Mat 2:1-12).
JerusalemJesus is Circumcised and Presented in the Temple (Lk 2:21-38).
EgyptOut of Egypt (Mat 2:13-23).
Jesus' Early YearsJerusalem
The JordanJesus is Baptized in the Jordan (Mat 3:13-17; Mk 1:9-11; Lk 3:21-23).
The WildernessThe Temptation in the Wilderness (Mat 4:1-11; Mk 1:12, 13; Lk 4:1-13). The Testimony of John (Jn 1:19-34).
The First PassoverJerusalem A House of Merchandise (Jn 2:13-25). Jesus Baptizes (Jn 3:22, with 4:2).
GalileeHe Departed Again to Galilee (Mat 4:12; Mk 1:14; Lk 4:14; Jn 4:1-3).
SamariaThe Woman at the Well (Jn 4:4-42). Physician, Heal Yourself! (Mat 4:13-16; Lk 4:16-31).
Sea of GalileePeter, Andrew, James, and John (Mat 4:18-22; Mk 1:16-20; Lk 5:1-11).
GalileeAnd Jesus Went About All Galilee . . Teaching (Mat 4:23-25; Mk 1:35-39, Lk 4:42-44). Then a Leper Came to Him (Mat 8:2-4; Mk 1:40-45; Lk 5:12- 16).
JerusalemHealing at the Pool of Bethesda on the Sabbath Day (Jn 5:1-47). And in His Name Gentiles Will Trust (Mat 12:15-21; Mk 3:7-12) The Sermon on the Mount (Mat 5-7; Lk 6:20-49). My Yoke is Easy and My Burden is Light (Mat 11:20-30).
CapernaumThe Woman With the Alabaster Flask (Lk 7:36-50). The Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (Mat 12:22-37; Mk 3: 19-30; Lk 11:14-20). Woe to You, Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites (Lk 11:37-54). Parable of the Fig Tree (Lk 13:6-9). Many Such Parables (Mat 13:24-53; Mk 4:26-34).
Sea of GalileeJesus Rebukes the Storm (Mat 8:18-27; Mk 4:35-41; Lk 8:22-25). The Herd of Many Swine (Mat 8:28-33; Mk 5:1-21; Lk 8:26-40).
NazarethHe Came Again to His Own City (Mat 9:1; Mk 5:21 Lk 8:40). Jairus' Daughter and the Woman With the Flow of Blood (Mat 9:18-26; Mk 5:22-43; Lk 8:41-56). A Prophet is Not Without Honor Except in His Own Country (Mat 13:53-58; Mk 6:1-6). Sent His Disciples Out With Power and Authority (Mat 10; Mk 6:6-13, Lk 9:1-6).
MachaerusJohn the Baptist is Beheaded (Mat 14:1, 2, 6-12, Mk 6:14-16, 21-29; Lk 9:7-9).
Near BethsaidaThe Disciples Return, Feeding Five Thousand (Mat 14:13-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:10-17, Jn 6:1-14).
Sea of GalileeThey Saw Him Walking on the Sea (Mat 14:22-36; Mk 6:45-56; Jn 6:15-21).
Do you also want to go away? (Jn 6:66-71). A Woman of Canaan (Mat 15:21-28; Mk 7:24-30). Feeding Four Thousand (Mat 15:32-39; Mk 8:1-9). And He Was Transfigured (Mat 17:1-13; Mk 9:2-13; Lk 9:28-36). Speaks Again of His Death (Mat 17:22, 23; Mk 9:30-32; Lk 9:43-45).
CapernaumMiracle of the Coin in the Fish's Mouth (Mat 17:24-27). He Who is Not Against Us is On Our Side (Mk 9:38, 39; Lk 9:49, 50).
The Feast of TabernaclesJerusalem The Lord Appointed Seventy Others (Lk 10:1-16). Teaches in the Temple at the Feast of Tabernacles (Jn 7:14-53; 8:1-59). The Report of the Seventy (Lk 10:17-24).
BethanyThe House of Mary and Martha (Lk 10:38-42).
JerusalemI Was Blind, Now I See (Jn 9:1-41). They Picked Up Stones To Stone Him (Jn 10:22-39).
BethabaraBeyond the Jordan (Jn 10:40-42; 11:3-16).
BethanyJesus Raises Lazarus from the Dead (Jn 11:1-46).
EphraimThe Declaration of Caiaphas (Jn 11:47-54).
JudeaThe Woman Who Was Bent Over (Mat 19:1, 2; Mk 10:1; Lk 13:10-35). Count the Cost (Lk 14:25-35). Exposes the Hypocrisy of the Pharisees (Lk 16:14-18). Increase Our Faith (Lk 17:1-10). Marriage and Divorce (Mat 19:3-12; Mk 10:2-12). Rich Young Ruler (Mat 19:16-22; Mk 10:17-22; Lk 18:18-24). Again Foretelling His Death (Mat 20:17-19; Mk 10:32-34; Lk 18:31-34). Zacchaeus who was a Chief Tax Collector (Lk 19:1-10). Jesus Enters the Temple (Mat 21:12, Mk 11:11; Lk 19:45). The Blind and Lame Came to Him (Mat 21:14). The Withered Fig Tree (Mat 21:17-22; Mk 11:12-14, 20-22). The Parable of the Vinedressers (Mat 21:33-46; Mk 12:1-12; Lk 20:9-19); The Parable of the Great Supper (Mat 22:1-14; Lk 14:16-24). Tested By the Sadducees (Mat 22:23-33; Mk 12:18-27; Lk 20:27-40); Beware of the Scribes and the Pharisees (Mat 23; Mk 12:38-40; Lk 20:45-47). The Prophecy of Isaiah About their Blindness (Jn 12:37-50). He Saw the City and Wept Over It (Mat 23:37; Lk 19:41-44). The Sheep and the Goats (Mat 25:31-46).
JerusalemThe Last Passover (Mat 26:17-30; Mk 14:12-25; Lk 22:7-20). The Hand of My Betrayer is With Me (Mat 26:23; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21; Jn 13:18). What You Do . . Do Quickly (Mat 26:21-25; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21-23; Jn 13:21-30). Jesus' Intercession (Jn 17). Betrayed and Taken (Mat 26:47-56; Mk 14:43-54, 66-72; Lk 22:47-53; Jn 18:2-12). He Sent Him to Herod (Lk 23:6-12).
CrucifixionJoseph of Arimathea (Mat 27:57-66; Mk 15:42-47; Lk 23:50-56; Jn 19:31-42).
The ResurrectionHas Appeared to Simon (Lk 24:34; 1Cor 15:5).
Road to EmmausAppears to Two Disciples on the Road to Emmaus (Mk 16:12, 13: Lk 24:13-35).
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