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se (yam; thalassa; in Acts 27:5 pelagos): The Mediterranean is called ha-yam ha-gadhol, "the great sea" (Nu 34:6; Josh 1:4; Ezek 47:10, etc.); ha-yam ha-'acharon, "the hinder," or "western sea" (Dt 11:24; 34:2; Joel 2:20; Zec 14:8); yam pelishtim, "the sea of the Philis" (Ex 23:31); the King James Version translates yam yapho' in Ezr 3:7 by "sea of Joppa," perhaps rightly.
The Dead Sea is called yam ha-melach, "the Salt Sea" (Nu 34:3; Dt 3:17; Josh 3:16, etc.); ha-yam ha-qadhmoni, "the east sea" (Ezek 47:18; Joel 2:20; Zec 14:8); yam ha-`arabhah,"the sea of the Arabah" (Dt 3:17; Josh 3:16; 12:3; 2 Ki 14:25).
The Red Sea is called yam cuph, literally, "sea of weeds" (Ex 10:19; Nu 14:25; Dt 1:1; Josh 2:10; Jdg 11:16; 1 Ki 9:26; Neh 9:9; Ps 106:7; Jer 49:21, etc.); (eruthra thalassa), literally, "red sea" (The Wisdom of Solomon 19:7; Acts 7:36; Heb 11:29); yam mitsrayim, "the Egyptian sea" (Isa 11:15).
Yam is used of the Nile in Nah 3:8 and probably also in Isa 19:5, as in modern Arabic bachr, "sea," is used of the Nile and its affluents. Yam is often used for "west" or "westward," as "look from the place where thou art, .... westward" (Gen 13:14); "western border" (Nu 34:6). Yam is used for "sea" in general (Ex 20:11); also for "molten sea" of the temple (1 Ki 7:23).
The Sea of Galilee is called kinnereth, "Chinnereth" (Nu 34:11); kinaroth, "Chinneroth" (Josh 11:2); kinneroth, "Chinneroth" (1 Ki 15:20); yam kinnereth, "the sea of Chinnereth" (Nu 34:11; Josh 13:27); yam kinneroth, "the sea of Chinneroth (Josh 12:3); (he limne Gennesaret), "the lake of Gennesaret" (Lk 5:1); and (to hudor Gennesar), "the water of Gennesar" (1 Macc 11:67), from late Hebrew ginecar, or (genecar; he thalassa tes Galilaias), "the sea of Galilee" (Mt 4:18; 15:29; Mk 1:16; 7:31; Jn 6:1); (he thalassa tes Tiberiados), "the sea of Tiberias" (Jn 21:1; compare Jn 6:1).
In Jer 48:32 we have yam ya`zer, "the sea of Jazer." Jazer is a site East of the Jordan, not satisfactorily identified (Nu 21:32; 32:1,3,15; Josh 13:25; 21:39; 2 Sam 24:5; 1 Ch 6:81; 26:31; Isa 16:8,9).
In midhbar yam, "the wilderness of the sea" (Isa 21:1), there may perhaps be a reference to the Persian Gulf.
Alfred Ely Day
Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Definition for 'sea'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". - ISBE; 1915.

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