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ENVY

en'-vi (qin'ah; zelos, phthonos): "Envy," from Latin in, "against," and video, "to look," "to look with ill-will," etc., toward another, is an evil strongly condemned in both the Old Testament and the New Testament. It is to be distinguished from jealousy. "We are jealous of our own; we are envious of another man's possessions. Jealousy fears to lose what it has; envy is pained at seeing another have" (Crabb's English Synonyms). In the Old Testament it is the translation of qin'ah from kana', "to redden," "to glow" (Job 5:2, the Revised Version (British and American) "jealousy," margin "indignation"; in Isa 26:11 the Revised Version (British and American) renders "see thy zeal for the people"; Prov 27:4, etc.); the verb occurs in Gen 26:14, etc.; Nu 11:29 the King James Version; Ps 106:16; Prov 3:31, etc.; in the New Testament it is the translation of phthonos, "envy" (Mt 27:18; Rom 1:29; Gal 5:21, "envyings," etc.); of zelos, "zeal, "jealousy," "envy" (Acts 13:45), translated "envying," the Revised Version (British and American) "jealousy" (Rom 13:13; 1 Cor 3:3; 2 Cor 12:20; Jas 3:14,16); the verb phthoneo occurs in Gal 5:26; zeloo in Acts 7:9; 17:5, the Revised Version (British and American) "moved with jealousy"; 1 Cor 13:4, "charity (the Revised Version (British and American) "love") envieth not."
The power of envy is stated in Prov 27:4: "Who is able to stand before envy?" (the Revised Version (British and American) "jealousy"); its evil effects are depicted in Job 5:2 (the Revised Version (British and American) "jealousy"), in Prov 14:30 (the Revised Version, margin "jealousy"); it led to the crucifixion of Christ (Mt 27:18; Mk 15:10); it is one of "the works of the flesh" (Gal 5:21; compare Rom 1:29; 1 Tim 6:4); Christian believers are earnestly warned against it (Rom 13:13 the King James Version; 1 Cor 3:3 the King James Version; Gal 5:26; 1 Pet 2:1). In Jas 4:5 "envy" is used in a good sense, akin to the jealousy ascribed to God. Where the King James Version has "The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy," the Revised Version (British and American) reads "Doth the spirit which he made to dwell in us long unto envying?"; the American Revised Version, margin "The spirit which he made to dwell in us he yearneth for even unto jealous envy"; compare Jer 3:14; Hos 2:19 f; or the English Revised Version, margin "That spirit which he made to dwell in us yearneth (for us) even unto jealous envy." This last seems to give the sense; compare "Ye adulteresses" (Hos 2:4), the American Revised Version, margin "That is, who break your marriage vow to God."
W. L. Walker
Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Definition for 'envy'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". bible-history.com - ISBE; 1915.

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