An Egyptian name in the time of Rameses II.
1. Eleazar's son; Aaron's grandson (Exodus 6:25). His mother was of Putiel's daughters. By his zeal in avenging the Lord's cause on the Simeonitc prince Zimri, and Cosbi his Midianite paramour, Phinehas turned away Jehovah's wrath, making an atonement for Israel, and was given Jehovah's covenant of peace, an everlasting priesthood (Numbers 25; Psalm 106:30-31). Phinehas, with the holy instruments and trumpets to blow, accompanied the expedition which avenged Jehovah and Israel on Midian (Numbers 31:6, etc.). Phinehas, as ambassador with ten princes, was delegated by Israel to remonstrate with the two and a half tribes as to the altar the latter built at Jordan; these satisfied the delegates and Israel as to their intentions. Thus was Phinehas a mediator of Israel's brotherly unity, as before he had vindicated Israel's purity (Joshua 22:13-34).
Lastly Phinehas stood before the ark inquiring of Jehovah for Israel, "shall I go yet again ... against Benjamin my brother?" (Judges 20:23; Judges 20:28.) The same zeal for the purity yet brotherhood of Israel characterized him now in old age as in his youth. His zeal, i.e. the faith that prompted it, "was counted unto him for righteousness unto all generations for evermore" (compare Genesis 15:6; Romans 4:3). Phinehas had an allotment in Mount Ephraim; here on a hill bearing his name his father Eleazar was buried (Joshua 24:33). The closing verses, concerning Joshua's death, etc., are ascribed to Phinehas (Baba barbra, in Fabricius, 893.) Eli of Ithamar's line interrupted the succession of the line of Phinehas; Zadok resumed it under Solomon. The tomb of Phinehas is shown at Awertah, four miles S.E. of Nablus, in the center of the village, within an area overshadowed by an old vine.
2. Second son of Eli, killed with Hophni, in battle with the Philistines (1 Samuel 1:3); according to the prophecy: 1 Samuel 2:34; 1 Samuel 4:4; 1 Samuel 4:11; 1 Samuel 4:17; 1 Samuel 4:19; 1 Samuel 14:3. (See ELI; HOPHNI.)
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