1. Aaron's third son by Elisheba, Amininadab's daughter, descended from Judah through Pharez (Exodus 6:23; Exodus 6:25; Exodus 28:1; Genesis 38:29; Genesis 46:12; Rth 4:18; Rth 4:20). On the death of Nadab and Abihu without children (Leviticus 10:1; Numbers 3:4) Eleazar had the oversight of the chief Levites, who kept the charge of the sanctuary (Numbers 3:32). With Ithamar his brother he ministered as a priest in his father's lifetime, and was invested in Aaron's high-priestly garments as his successor, on mount Her, just before his death (Numbers 20:25-28).
With Moses he superintended the census (Numbers 26:3), inaugurated Joshua whom Moses set before him (for Joshua was in this inferior to Moses, who had direct intercourse with God; Joshua must ask divine counsel through the high priest), and divided the Midianite spoil (Numbers 27:22; Numbers 31:21). He took part in dividing Canaan (Joshua 14:1). He was buried in "the hill of Phinehas his son, ... mount Ephraim" (Joshua 24:33). The high priesthood passed to Ithamar's line in the person of Eli, but for the sin of Eli's sons reverted to Eleazar's line in the person of Zadok (1 Samuel 2:27; 1 Chronicles 6:8; 1 Chronicles 24:3; 1 Kings 2:27).
2. Abinadab's son, of the "hill" of Kirjath Jearim; appointed by its inhabitants to take care of the ark on its return from the Philistines (1 Samuel 7:1).
3. Dodo the Ahohite's son, one of the three chief strongmen of David; perhaps descended from Ahoah of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 8:4; 2 Samuel 23:9; 1 Chronicles 11:12).
4. A Merarite Levite, son of Mahli, having daughters married to their "brethren" (cousins) (1 Chronicles 23:21-22; 1 Chronicles 24:28).
5. A priest at Nehemiah's feast of dedication (Nehemiah 12:42).
6. Son of Parosh, who married arid put away an alien wife (Ezra 10:25).
7. Phinehas' son, a Levite (Ezra 8:33).
8. Eliud's son, three generations above Joseph, husband of the Virgin Mary (Matthew 1:15). The name means "helped by God," and is the same as Lazarus (Luke 16:19-25).
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