Ancient Manners and Customs, Daily Life,
Cultures, Bible Lands
Crucifixion was commonly practiced
among the ancient Romans
Crucifixion was not a
punishment that originated with the Jews or their judicial laws.
Crucifixion was a brutal form of punishment that was common among
the Romans. The Romans chose this mode of capital punishment to put
fear in everyone who would stand against Rome and Roman laws.
Crucifixion was common in first century Israel and this fact is well
documented in the writings of Josephus. The Romans would choose a
popular place in clear view, lest anyone else violate Roman law.
What was abstract horror was the fact
that scourging almost always preceded crucifixion, where the
Centurion would order his Lictors to scourge the prisoner to the
point of "near death" using the brutal flagrum which was designed to
speedily remove flesh, even with a single lash across bare flesh.
Crucifixion in Biblical Times
Once the condemned prisoner was
scourged he was brought naked to his cross beam, which he would
carry publicly to the place of execution. Nails would then be
pounded into his hands and feet and he would be raised up to an
upright position, usually around 10 feet above ground.
Jesus was brought outside the city
gate and crucified at a place known in first century Israel as
13:12 - Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people
with his own blood, suffered without the gate.
Crucified Victim on Ancient Amulet
History of Crucifixion
Crucifixion did not begin with the
Romans, but it was a method of execution that had developed
centuries earlier in the ancient near East. The Medes and the
Persians practiced this gruesome torture method as well as the
Carthaginians and the Egyptians, and later it was adopted among the
Greeks and finally the Romans in the first century. Crucifixion was
mentioned in history from about the 6th century BC to the 4th
In 519 BC Darius I, king of Persia,
crucified 3,000 political opponents in Babylon;
The Roman Cross
The Romans called it by its Latin
word crucifixus which means to "fix on a cross". The first
century Roman cross consisted of two large wooden beams, a stake and
a crossbeam (patibulum). The crossbeam was locked into place at the
very top of the perpendicular stake, or near the top.
Since the body needed air in the
lungs, and blood circulating in the heart the victim would have to
push himself up with his nailed feet, and pulled himself up with his
Breaking the Legs
To hasten a prisoner's death the
Roman soldier would break the prisoner's legs with an iron club (crurifragium).
This would also assure that the prisoner was indeed dead.
The Place of Execution
The place of crucifixion was
usually in a very public place where the bodies were left to rot. In
Israel crucified prisoners were taken down in observance of the
Announcement of the Crime
As the condemned prisoner was led
bearing a crossbeam to his place of execution, he would be preceded
by a public crier who would announce his crime. His primary charge
was written on a tablet (titulus) which also preceded him and
finally fixed to the cross that he was crucified on.
It was indeed the Romans who
practiced crucifixion as a common method of execution. According to
Roman law a Roman citizen could not be crucified, crucifixion was
for slaves and extreme criminals, political or religious agitators,
pirates, or those who had no civil rights.
Julius Caesar and Crucifixion
Julius Caesar in his youth was
captured by pirates, being held for ransom. He later found them and
crucified them all, but he also slit their throats first to hasten
Augustus Caesar and Crucifixion
The Emperor Augustus once made a
boast that he had captured 30,000 runaway slaves and crucified them,
or at least the ones who were not vouched for by their master. Their
are many accounts of the Romans crucifying their victims, mass
public crucifixions. When Spartacus led his rebellion against Rome,
once they were captured over 6,000 slaves were captured by crucified
on the main road to Capua (Appian Way) by the order of Crassus.
Their bodies remained there is a token of Roman justice to all who
would attempt to rebel.
Crucifixion in the Colosseum
It was a common sight in the
Flavian Amphitheatre to crucify deserters, prisoners-of-war, and
criminals from the lower classes.
Martial records one crucifixion, a
version of the mime Laureolus by Catullus, in which a notorious
bandit was executed by crucifixion and filleted by a wild bear for
the amusement of the crowd:
"As Prometheus, bound on a
Scythian crag, fed the tireless bird with his too abundant breast,
so did Laureolus, hanging on no sham cross, give his naked flesh to
a Caledonian bear. His lacerated limbs lived on, dripping gore, and
in all his body, body there was none. Finally he met with the
punishment he deserved; the guilty wretch had plunged a sword into
his father’s throat or his master’s, or in his madness had robbed a
temple of its secret gold, or laid a cruel torch to Rome. The
criminal had outdone the misdeeds of ancient story; in him, what had
been a play became an execution."
Crucifixion and the Jews
In Israel a man named Judas
rebelled against Rome and he captured the city of Sepphoris and made
it his headquarters. The legions of Rome finally defeated them under
Varus, and the Romans crucified 2,000 Jews.
In 88 BC Alexander Jannaeus, the
king and high priest of Judaea, crucified 800 Pharisees.
Crucifixion and Jesus
In Judaea on Passover at about 31
AD Pontius Pilate* (Rom. Gov. of Judaea 26-36 AD) had Jesus of
Nazareth crucified as a criminal of Rome. Although the death of
Jesus is mentioned in ancient sources outside of the Bible, the
details of the crucifixion and the events surrounding his death and
resurrection are mentioned only in the Bible. The Bible reveals that
Jesus ' death was planned by the Jewish authorities, and because
they did not have power to put to death a condemned criminal they
turned him over to the Romans for execution. Pontius Pilate the
Roman governor of Judea made the final decision to have Jesus
crucified. The Romans first scourged Jesus, then the Romans mocked
him by placing a purple robe on his body and hailed him as the "King
of the Jews", then the Roman soldiers made a crown of thorns and
placed it on his head. Next the Romans led Jesus to his place of
execution, he was made to bear his own cross but when he could not
carry it any longer he was assisted by a man named Simon of Cyrene.
When Jesus arrived to a place outside the city walls called Golgotha
his place of execution, the Roman soldiers nailed his hands and his
feet to the cross and a tablet was placed above his head announcing
his crime of proclaiming himself King of the Jews, the tablet
recorded this in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. Jesus was crucified with
two other criminals and he hung there for three hours. The Roman
soldiers divided his garments and cast lots for his robe, and people
who passed by wagged their heads in disgust, and mocking him they
stated "he saved others but he cannot save himself". When the Roman
soldiers were ordered to break the prisoner's legs Jesus was already
dead and his bones were never broken, but instead the soldier
pierced him in the side with a spear. Jesus' body was removed and he
was buried in a tomb nearby. After three days and three nights he
rose from the dead.
* Pontius Pilate was the fifth
Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under the Emperor
Tiberius from 26–36 AD
For External Sources of Jesus' Crucifixion See:
Josephus on Jesus and
Tacitus on Christ
Painting of Jesus Crucified
Painting Champaigne La
Crucifixion and the Christians
The Emperor Nero who was much
younger than many people imagine, crucified an immense number of
Christians for his own insane pleasure. He had actually blamed the
Christians for the great fire of Rome. According to tradition
(Origen) the apostle Peter was crucified upside down. Throughout the
history of the Roman Empire Christians were martyred and crucified.
Crucifixion came to an end under
the Emperor Constantine in 337 AD who had a supposed vision of the
sign of the cross. He abolished crucifixion throughout the Roman
Empire as a means of punishment.
The Symbol of the Cross
The empty cross became a symbol for
Christians of Jesus conquering death once and for all.
Crucifixion in Smith's Bible Dictionary
Crucifixion was used among the
Egyptians, Ge 40:19 the Carthaginians, the Persians, Es 7:10 the
Assyrians, Scythains, Indians, Germans, and from the earliest times
among the Greeks and Romans. Whether this mode of execution was
known to the ancient Jews is a matter of dispute. Probably the Jews
borrowed it from the Romans. It was unanimously considered the most
horrible form of death. Among the Romans the degradation was also a
part of the infliction, and the punishment if applied to freemen was
only used in the case of the vilest criminals. The one to be
crucified was stripped naked of all his clothes, and then followed
the most awful moment of all. He was laid down upon the implement of
torture. His arms were stretched along the cross-beams, and at the
centre of the open palms the point of a huge iron nail was placed,
which, by the blow of a mallet, was driven home into the wood. Then
through either foot separately, or possibly through both together,
as they were placed one over the other, another huge nail tore its
way through the quivering flesh. Whether the sufferer was also bound
to the cross we do not know; but, to prevent the hands and feet
being torn away by the weight of the body, which could not "rest
upon nothing but four great wounds," there was, about the centre of
the cross, a wooden projection strong enough to support, at least in
part, a human body, which soon became a weight of agony. Then the
"accursed tree" with its living human burden was slowly heaved up
and the end fixed firmly in a hole in the ground. The feet were but
a little raised above the earth. The victim was in full reach of
every hand that might choose to strike. A death by crucifixion seems
to include all that pain and death can have of the horrible and
ghastly, --dizziness, cramp, thirst, starvation, sleeplessness,
traumatic fever, tetanus, publicity of shame, long continuance of
torment, horror of anticipation, mortification of untended wounds,
all intensified just up to the point at which they can be endured at
all, but all stopping just short of the point which would give to
the sufferer the relief of unconsciousness. The unnatural position
made every movement painful; the lacerated veins and crushed tendons
throbbed with incessant anguish; the wounds, inflamed by exposure,
gradually gangrened; the arteries, especially of the head and
stomach, became swollen and oppressed with surcharged blood; and,
while each variety of misery went on gradually increasing, there was
added to them the intolerable pang of a burning and raging thirst.
Such was the death to which Christ was doomed. --Farrar's "Life of
Christ." The crucified was watched, according to custom, by a party
of four soldiers, Joh 19:23 with their centurion, Mt 27:66 whose
express office was to prevent the stealing of the body. This was
necessary from the lingering character of the death, which sometimes
did not supervene even for three days, and was at last the result of
gradual benumbing and starvation. But for this guard, the persons
might have been taken down and recovered, as was actually done in
the case of a friend of Josephus. Fracture of the legs was
especially adopted by the Jews to hasten death. Joh 19:31 In most
cases the body was suffered to rot on the cross by the action of sun
and rain, or to be devoured by birds and beasts. Sepulture was
generally therefore forbidden; but in consequence of De 21:22,23 an
express national exception was made in favor of the Jews. Mt 27:58
This accursed and awful mode of punishment was happily abolished by
Roman Crucifixion in Wikipedia
Crucifixion was used for
slaves, pirates, and enemies of the state. It was considered a most
shameful and disgraceful way to die. Condemned Roman citizens were
usually exempt from crucifixion (like feudal nobles from hanging,
dying more honorably by decapitation) except for major crimes
against the state, such as high treason.Notorious mass crucifixions
followed the Third Servile War in 73–71 BC (the slave rebellion
under Spartacus), other Roman civil wars in the 2nd and 1st
centuries BC, and the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. To frighten
other slaves from revolting, Crassus crucified 6,000 of Spartacus'
men along the Appian Way from Capua to Rome.
Josephus tells a story of the Romans crucifying people along the
walls of Jerusalem. He also says that the Roman soldiers would amuse
themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions. In
Roman-style crucifixion, the condemned could take up to a few days
to die. The dead body was left up for vultures and other birds to
consume.Under ancient Roman penal practice, crucifixion was also a
means of exhibiting the criminal’s low social status. It was the
most dishonourable death imaginable, originally reserved for slaves,
hence still called "supplicium servile" by Seneca, later extended to
provincial freedmen of obscure station ('humiles').
The citizen class of Roman society were almost never subject to
capital punishments; instead, they were fined or exiled. Josephus
mentions Jews of high rank who were crucified, but this was to point
out that their status had been taken away from them. The Romans
often broke the prisoner's legs to hasten death and usually forbade
burial. A cruel prelude was occasionally scourging, which would
cause the condemned to lose a large amount of blood, and approach a
state of shock. The convict then usually had to carry the horizontal
beam (patibulum in Latin) to the place of execution, but not
necessarily the whole cross. Crucifixion was
typically carried out by specialized teams, consisting of a
commanding centurion and four soldiers. When it was
done in an established place of execution, the vertical beam (stipes)
could even be permanently embedded in the ground.
The condemned was usually stripped naked—all the New Testament
gospels describe soldiers gambling for the robes of Jesus. The
'nails' were tapered iron spikes approximately 5 to 7 inches (13 to
18 cm) long, with a square shaft 3/8 inches (10 mm) across. In some
cases, the nails were gathered afterward and used as healing
amulets. Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor,
abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire in 337 out of veneration
for Jesus Christ, its most famous victim.
Read Full Article
Crucifixion of Jesus
Crucifixion in the ISBE Bible
Crucifixion: As an instrument
of death the cross was detested by the Jews. "Cursed is everyone
that hangeth on a tree" (Gal 3:13; compare Dt 21:23), hence, it
became a stumbling-block to them, for how could one accursed of God
be their Messiah? Nor was the cross differently considered by the
Romans. "Let the very name of the cross be far away not only from
the body of a Roman citizen, but even from his thoughts, his eyes,
his ears" (Cicero Pro Rabirio 5). The earliest mode of crucifixion
seems to have been by impalation, the transfixion of the body
lengthwise and crosswise by sharpened stakes, a mode of
death-punishment still well known among the Mongol race. The usual
mode of crucifixion was familiar to the Greeks, the Romans, the
Egyptians, Persians and Babylonians (Thuc. 1, 110; Herod. iii.125,
159). Alexander the Great executed two thousand Tyrian captives in
this way, after the fall of the city. The Jews received this form of
punishment from the Syrians and Romans (Ant., XII, v, 4; XX, vi, 2;
BJ, I, iv, 6). The Roman citizen was exempt from this form of death,
it being considered the death of a slave (Cicero In Verrem i. 5, 66;
Quint. viii.4). The punishment was meted out for such crimes as
treason, desertion in the face of the enemy, robbery, piracy,
assassination, sedition, etc. It continued in vogue in the Roman
empire till the day of Constantine, when it was abolished as an
insult to Christianity. Among the Romans crucifixion was preceded by
scourging, undoubtedly to hasten impending death. The victim then
bore his own cross, or at least the upright beam, to the place of
execution. This in itself proves that the structure was less
ponderous than is commonly supposed. When he was tied to the cross
nothing further was done and he was left to die from starvation. If
he was nailed to the cross, at least in Judea, a stupefying drink
was given him to deaden the agony. The number of nails used seems to
have been indeterminate. A tablet, on which the feet rested or on
which the body was partly supported, seems to have been a part of
the cross to keep the wounds from tearing through the transfixed
members (Iren., Adv. haer., ii.42). The suffering of death by
crucifixion was intense, especially in hot climates. Severe local
inflammation, coupled with an insignificant bleeding of the jagged
wounds, produced traumatic fever, which was aggravated the exposure
to the heat of the sun, the strained of the body and insufferable
thirst. The swelled about the rough nails and the torn lacerated
tendons and nerves caused excruciating agony. The arteries of the
head and stomach were surcharged with blood and a terrific throbbing
headache ensued. The mind was confused and filled with anxiety and
dread foreboding. The victim of crucifixion literally died a
thousand deaths. Tetanus not rarely supervened and the rigors of the
attending convulsions would tear at the wounds and add to the burden
of pain, till at last the bodily forces were exhausted and the
victim sank to unconsciousness and death. The sufferings were so
frightful that "even among the raging passions of war pity was
sometimes excited" (BJ, V, xi, 1). The length of this agony was
wholly determined by the constitution of the victim, but death
rarely ensued before thirty-six hours had elapsed. Instances are on
record of victims of the cross who survived their terrible injuries
when taken down from the cross after many hours of suspension
(Josephus, Vita, 75). Death was sometimes hastened by breaking the
legs of the victims and by a hard blow delivered under the armpit
before crucifixion. Crura fracta was a well-known Roman term (Cicero
Phil. xiii.12). The sudden death of Christ evidently was a matter of
astonishment (Mk 15:44). The peculiar symptoms mentioned by John
(19:34) would seem to point to a rupture of the heart, of which the
Saviour died, independent of the cross itself, or perhaps hastened
by its agony.
Crucifixion in Easton's Bible
Crucifixion was a common mode of punishment among heathen nations in
early times. It is not certain whether it was known among the
ancient Jews; probably it was not. The modes of capital punishment
according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword (Ex. 21), strangling,
fire (Lev. 20), and stoning (Deut. 21). This was regarded as the
most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater
horror from the curse in Deut. 21:23. This punishment began by
subjecting the sufferer to scourging. In the case of our Lord,
however, his scourging was rather before the sentence was passed
upon him, and was inflicted by Pilate for the purpose, probably, of
exciting pity and procuring his escape from further punishment (Luke
23:22; John 19:1). The condemned one carried his own cross to the
place of execution, which was outside the city, in some conspicuous
place set apart for the purpose. Before the nailing to the cross
took place, a medicated cup of vinegar mixed with gall and myrrh
(the sopor) was given, for the purpose of deadening the pangs of the
sufferer. Our Lord refused this cup, that his senses might be clear
(Matt. 27:34). The spongeful of vinegar, sour wine, posca, the
common drink of the Roman soldiers, which was put on a hyssop stalk
and offered to our Lord in contemptuous pity (Matt. 27:48; Luke
23:36), he tasted to allay the agonies of his thirst (John 19:29).
The accounts given of the crucifixion of our Lord are in entire
agreement with the customs and practices of the Roman in such cases.
He was crucified between two "malefactors" (Isa. 53:12; Luke 23:32),
and was watched by a party of four soldiers (John 19:23; Matt.
27:36, 54), with their centurion. The "breaking of the legs" of the
malefactors was intended to hasten death, and put them out of misery
(John 19:31); but the unusual rapidity of our Lord's death (19:33)
was due to his previous sufferings and his great mental anguish. The
omission of the breaking of his legs was the fulfilment of a type
(Ex. 12:46). He literally died of a broken heart, a ruptured heart,
and hence the flowing of blood and water from the wound made by the
soldier's spear (John 19:34). Our Lord uttered seven memorable words
from the cross, namely, (1) Luke 23:34; (2) 23:43; (3) John 19:26;
(4) Matt. 27:46, Mark 15:34; (5) John 19:28; (6) 19:30; (7) Luke
The Cross in Fausset's Bible
The Cross was the instrument of a slave's death, associated with the
ideas of pain, guilt, and ignominy. "The very name," writes Cicero
(Pro Rab., 5), "ought to be excluded not merely from the body, but
from the thought, eyes, and ears of Roman citizens." The Hebrew,
having no term for it as not being a punishment in their nation,
called it "warp and woof." Scourging generally preceded crucifixion:
so Jesus (Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:15; foretold in Isaiah 50:6; Isaiah
53:5). Pilate had probably hoped the Jews would be content with this
scourging, and still let Him escape crucifixion (Luke 23:22; John
19:1). Jesus bore His own cross toward Golgotha outside the city
(Hebrews 13:12; so Stephen, Acts 7:58), but sinking exhausted
probably He was relieved, and it was transferred to Simon of Cyrene;
prefigured in Isaac carrying the wood (Genesis 22:6; contrast Isaiah
9:6, "the government shall be upon His shoulder".)
Jesus' sacred and lacerated body was raised aloft, the hands nailed
to the transverse beam, the feet separately nailed to the lower part
of the upright beam so as to be a foot or two above the ground
(others think the two feet were pierced by one and the same nail).
Stupefying drink, vinegar mixed with gall and myrrh, was first
offered to Him and refused (Matthew 27:34), for He would meet
suffering consciously. Near death, to fulfill Psalm 69:21, He drank
of the sour wine or vinegar kindly offered Him on a sponge. His
death was hastened by rupture of the heart (See BLOOD; also Mark
15:23; compare John 19:28; Matthew 27:48.)
The sour wine called posca was the common drink of the Roman
soldiers. Pilate marveled at His speedy death, crucifixion often not
terminating in death for days. The approach of the Passover sabbath,
one of peculiar solemnity, led to his permitting the Jewish law to
be carried out which forbids bodies to hang after sunset
(Deuteronomy 21:22-23). His legs could not be broken, because the
Passover type must be fulfilled (Exodus 12:46). Constantine when
converted abolished crucifixion. The agony consisted in:
(1) the unnatural position of the body, causing pain at the least
(2) the nails being driven through the hands and feet, which are
full of nerves and tendons, yet without a vital part being directly
(3) the wounds so long exposed bringing on acute inflammation and
(4) the distended parts causing more blood to flow through the
arteries than can be carried back through the veins;
(5) the lingering anguish and burning thirst.
After Constantine's vision of the cross in the air and the
inscription, "Under this standard thou shalt conquer," a new
standard was adopted, the Labarum, with a pendent cross and
embroidered monogram of Christ, the first two Greek letters of His
name, and Alpha and Omega (Revelation 1:8). The Andrew's cross is
shaped like an X, through Hippolytus says he was crucified upright.
The Anthony cross (embroidered on his cope) was shaped as a T. The
pagan Egyptians, Copts, Indians, and Persians, all have the same
sacred emblem. Tradition, and the inscription over our Lord's head,
make it likely that the form of His cross was +. The pole on which
the brazen serpent was lifted by Moses was the type (John 3:14;
The fathers regarded its four limbs pointing above, below, and to
both sides, as typifying" the height, depth, length, and breadth" of
the love of Christ, extending salvation to all (Ephesians 3:18). The
harmlessness of cruciform flowers is another suggested type in
nature. Christ's cross transforms the curse into a blessing
(Galatians 3:13-14); the inscription was written with letters of
black on a white gypsum ground. By a striking retribution in kind,
the Jewish people, whose cry was "crucify Him," were crucified in
such numbers by Titus "that there was not room enough for the
crosses, nor crosses enough for their bodies" (Joseptius, B. J.,
6:28). The piercing of Jesus' hands was foretold in Psalm 22:16;
The story of "the invention of the cross," A.D. 326, is: Helena the
empress, mother of Constantine, then nearly 80 years old, made a
pilgrimage to the holy places, and there, by help of a Jew who
understood her superstitious tastes, found three crosses, among
which Christ's cross was recognized by its power of working
miracles, at the suggestion of Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem. Bits
of this real cross were distributed as relics throughout
Christendom. To supply the enormous demand, they were alleged to
have been miraculously multiplied! In the church of the Holy
Jerusalem Cross at Rome, relics of the top of the cross with the
inscription are annually exhibited to the people for veneration. The
falsity of the whole story appears from the fact that the Jews' law
required the cross to be burnt; Eusebius is silent as to the alleged
discovery of it.
A symbol or emblem merely at first, it soon began to have the notion
of spiritual and supernatural efficacy attached to it. In the 6th
century the crucifix image was introduced, and worship (latria) to
it was sanctioned by the Church of Rome. Figuratively, the cross and
crucifixion are used for spiritually mortifying the flesh, in union
spiritually by faith with Christ crucified, not self-imposed
austerities (Matthew 16:24; Philemon 3:18; Galatians 6:14;
Colossians 2:20-23). Our will and God's will are as two separate
pieces of wood; so long as both lie side by side there is no cross;
but put them across one another, then there is a cross. We must take
up the cross Christ lays on us if we would be His disciples.
Crucifixion in Naves Topical Bible
-The reproach of
Ga 3:13; 5:11
See JESUS, HISTORY OF
-Of two criminals
-Of disciples, foretold
Ro 6:6; Ga 2:20; 5:24; 6:14
See CROSS, FIGURATIVE
The Bible Mentions Crucifixion:
- Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest
thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have
power to release thee?
23:34 - Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and
wise men, and scribes: and [some] of them ye shall kill and
crucify; and [some] of them shall ye scourge in your
synagogues, and persecute [them] from city to city:
- If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance;
seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God
afresh, and put [him] to an open shame.
20:19 - And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and
to scourge, and to crucify [him]: and the third day he
shall rise again.
- Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they
cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him.
27:31 - And after that they had mocked him, they took the
robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away
to crucify [him].
- And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him,
and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify
- And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on
his right hand, and the other on his left.
- And they cried out again, Crucify him.
- But they cried, saying, Crucify [him], crucify
- But they cried out, Away with [him], away with [him],
crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify
your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.
- When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried
out, saying, Crucify [him], crucify
[him]. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify
[him]: for I find no fault in him.
27:35 - And they crucified him, and parted his
garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken
by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my
vesture did they cast lots.
2:20 - I am crucified with Christ:
nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the
life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of
God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.
- Now in the place where he was crucified there was a
garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet
Corinthians 1:13 - Is Christ divided? was Paul
crucified for you? or were ye baptized in the name of Paul?
- Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus,
took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and
also [his] coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top
3:1 - O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye
should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been
evidently set forth, crucified among you?
Corinthians 13:4 - For though he was crucified
through weakness, yet he liveth by the power of God. For we also are
weak in him, but we shall live with him by the power of God toward
6:14 - But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross
of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified
unto me, and I unto the world.
- And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be
crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief
- This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus
was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written
in Hebrew, [and] Greek, [and] Latin.
Revelation 11:8 - And their dead bodies [shall lie] in the
street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and
Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified.
- And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of
Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not
here: behold the place where they laid him.
- Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by
the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified,
whom God raised from the dead, [even] by him doth this man stand
here before you whole.
- And [so] Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas
unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged [him], to be
- Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God
hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified,
both Lord and Christ.
- Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge
of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified
28:5 - And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear
not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified.
- Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we
may see and believe. And they that were crucified with
him reviled him.
- And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary,
there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on
the right hand, and the other on the left.
- And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be
condemned to death, and have crucified him.
Corinthians 1:23 - But we preach Christ crucified,
unto the Jews a stumblingblock, and unto the Greeks foolishness;
27:22 - Pilate saith unto them, What shall I do then with
Jesus which is called Christ? [They] all say unto him, Let him be
27:26 - Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had
scourged Jesus, he delivered [him] to be crucified.
- Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with
[him], that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we
should not serve sin.
Corinthians 2:2 - For I determined not to know any thing
among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified.
Corinthians 2:8 - Which none of the princes of this world
knew: for had they known [it], they would not have crucified
the Lord of glory.
26:2 - Ye know that after two days is [the feast of] the
passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.
27:23 - And the governor said, Why, what evil hath he done?
But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified.
- And when they had crucified him, they parted his
garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.
- Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful
men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.
The Bible Mentions The Cross:
- And he bearing his cross went forth into a place
called [the place] of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew
- Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing
thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the
poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the
cross, and follow me.
Colossians 1:20 - And, having made peace through the blood
of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto
himself; by him, [I say], whether [they be] things in earth, or
things in heaven.
- The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the
bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath
day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that
their legs might be broken, and [that] they might be taken away.
Philippians 2:8 - And being found in fashion as a man, he
humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of
- Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother,
and his mother's sister, Mary the [wife] of Cleophas, and Mary
- And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a
Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the
cross, that he might bear [it] after Jesus.
Corinthians 1:17 - For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to
preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross
of Christ should be made of none effect.
6:14 - But God forbid that I should glory, save in the
cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is
crucified unto me, and I unto the world.
27:40 - And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and
buildest [it] in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of
God, come down from the cross.
- And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of
the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his
6:12 - As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh,
they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer
persecution for the cross of Christ.
12:2 - Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of [our]
faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the
cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right
hand of the throne of God.
- And Pilate wrote a title, and put [it] on the cross.
And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.
5:11 - And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do
I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross
- And when he had called the people [unto him] with his disciples
also, he said unto them, Whosoever will come after me, let him deny
himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.
- Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross,
that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him
27:32 - And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene,
Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross.
Corinthians 1:18 - For the preaching of the cross
is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it
is the power of God.
Philippians 3:18 - (For many walk, of whom I have told you
often, and now tell you even weeping, [that they are] the enemies of
the cross of Christ:
Colossians 2:14 - Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances
that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of
the way, nailing it to his cross;
16:24 - Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any [man]
will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his
cross, and follow me.
27:42 - He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be
the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross,
and we will believe him.
- And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come
after me, cannot be my disciple.
2:16 - And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body
by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby:
10:38 - And he that taketh not his cross, and
followeth after me, is not worthy of me.
- And he said to [them] all, If any [man] will come after me, let
him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and
- Save thyself, and come down from the cross.
Bible Study and Faith
"The Bible is the most priceless possession of the human race." -
Henry H. Halley
"This handbook is dedicated to the proposition that every
Christian should be a constant and devoted reader of the Bible, and
that the primary business of the church and ministry is to lead,
foster, and encourage their people in the habit."
"The vigor of our spiritual life will
be in exact proportion to the place held by the Bible in our life
"Great has been the blessing from
consecutive, diligent, daily study. I look upon it as a lost day
when I have not had a good time over the word of God." - George
"I prayed for faith, and thought that
some day faith would come down and strike me like lightning. But
faith did not seem to come. One day I read in the 10th chapter of
Romans, 'Now faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of
God.' I had closed my Bible, and prayed for faith. I now opened my
Bible, and began to study, and faith has been growing ever since." -
D. L. Moody
-H. H. Halley "Halley's Bible
Handbook" (Grand Rapids: Zondervan,
1960) p. 4, 6
Archaeological Study of the Bible
"A substantial proof for the accuracy of the Old Testament text has
come from archaeology. Numerous discoveries have confirmed the
historical accuracy of the biblical documents, even down to the
obsolete names of foreign kings... Rather than a manifestation of
complete ignorance of the facts of its day, the biblical record thus
reflects a great knowledge by the writer of his day, as well as
precision in textual transmission."
-Norman L. Geisler, William Nix "A General Introduction to the
Bible" 5th Edition (Chicago: Moody Press 1983) p. 253
Bibliography on Ancient Images
The Art of Ancient Egypt, Revised
by Robins, 272 Pages, Pub. 2008
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