Burrell, Roy. Oxford First Ancient History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Chisholm, Jane and Anne Millard. Early Civilization. London: Usborne, 1991.

Dalley, Stephanie. Mari and Karana: Two Old Babylonian Cities. Longman, 1984. Well-documented and illustrated study of history and culture of Old Babylonian period.

Hallo, William W. and Simpson, William K. Ancient Near East: A History. Harcourt, 1971. Good basic introduction.

Knapp, A. Bernard. The History and Culture of Ancient Western Asia and Egypt. Wadsworth, 1988. Broad overview of history with recent specialized references.

Landau, Elaine. The Assyrians. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1997.

Landau, Elaine. The Babylonians. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1997.

Landau, Elaine. The Sumerians. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1997.

Martell, Hazel Mary. The Kingfisher Book of the Ancient World: From the Ice Age to the Fall of Rome. New York: Kingfisher, 1995.

Mesopotamia: The Mighty Kings. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1995.

Millard, Anne. The First Civilisations: From 10,000 B.C. to 1500. London: Usborne, 1990.

Nissen, Hans J. The Early History of the Ancient Near East, 9000-2000 B.C. Tr. by E. Lutzeier and K. J. Northcott. Chicago, 1988. Detailed study of historical and cultural development in Mesopotamia.

Oates, Joan. Babylon. Thames & Hudson, 1979; 1986. Splendid re-creation of the city and its culture, from minor village to leading center.

Pritchard, James B., ed. The Ancient Near East in Pictures. 2v. Princeton, 2d ed., 1969. Important anthology of texts and pictures.

Roaf, Michael. Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East. New York: Facts on File, 1990.

Roux, George. Ancient Iraq. Viking-Penguin, 3d ed., 1993. Helpful historical outline.

Saggs, H. W. F. Everyday Life in Babylonia and Assyria. Batsford, 1965; Dorset, 1987. Illustrated survey of life placed in historical context.

Saggs, H. W. F. The Greatness That Was Babylon. St. Martin's, 1991. "A Sketch of the Ancient Civilization of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley" (subtitle).

Saggs, H. W. F. The Might That Was Assyria. St. Martin's Press, 1990. Excellent survey.

The Visual Dictionary of Ancient Civilizations. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1994.


PC Study Bible BibleSoft: https://www.biblesoft.com


Cradles of Civilization, CD-ROM Society for Visual Education, 1996.

Time Machine Trivia, CD-ROM Instructional Fair, 1997.

Ancient Babylonia
Ancient Babylonia
by R. Russell

2 Kin 24:13-14 "And Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon carried out from there all the treasures of the house of the LORD and the treasures of the king's house, and he cut in pieces all the articles of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the LORD, as the LORD had said. Also he carried into captivity all Jerusalem: all the captains and all the mighty men of valor, ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths. None remained except the poorest people of the land."

Also see: Ancient Babylonia Map

Fall of Babylon Heart Message




History of Babylonia

Old Babylonian Period (2000 - 1595 BC)

The Amorites, Isin and Larsa, Hammurapi of Babylon, Classical Period, The Language, Religion Law Science and the Arts, Babylon, The KassitesThe People of the Sealand, The Hittite Kingdom

Middle Babylonian Period (1595 - 1000 BC)

The Kassite Dynasty, Kadashman-Enlil I and Burnaburiash II, Kurigalzu II, Elam and Assyria, Dur Kurigalzu a New Capital, The Kudurru, Nebuchadnezzar I, The Aramaeans, The Culture

Neo Babylonian Period (1000 - 539 BC)

Assyria, Nabu-nasir, Tiglath pileser III, The Babylonian Chronicles, The Chaldeans, Sennacherib, Ashurbanipal, Nabopolassar, Nebuchadnezzar II, The Fall of Babylon


Sumerian Origins, Schools of Scribes, Numbering Tablets, Aramaic and Greek, Poetry, Music, Myths, The Gilgamesh Epic, The Babylonian Flood Myth, Biblical Flood, Prayers and Hymns, Wisdom Literature, Prophecy, Cuneiform


Marduk and his son Nabu, Babylonian Gods, Temples and Rituals, Priests, Personal Idols, Divination, Astrology, Extispicy, The New Year's Festival, Morality, Prayers and Hymns, Prophecy

Law and Justice

Shamash the Sun God, Civil Law, Law Codes, Hammurapi and Retaliation, Code of Hammurapi Text, Legal Disputes, Labor, Criminal Law, Prisons Slaves and Women, Legal Documents

King and State

Monarchy, The King's Palace, The King's Harem, Communication, Roads, Scribes, Nebuchadnezzar II

Economy and Social Structure

Houses and Farms, Irrigation, Artisans, Manufacturing, Trade, Social Hierarchy, Family and Tribe, Domestic Relations, Schools


Scientific Knowledge, Astronomy, The Calendar, Mathematics, Medicine, Nature


Gilgamesh Tablet, The Hammurapi Stele, Ancient Map, Clay Model of a Sheep's Liver, Mathematics Tablet, Sheeps Liver Cuneiform, Seal Impression, Israelite Seal to Pedaiah, Clay Cylinder of Nabopolassar, The Striding Lion, The Ishtar Gate, The Dragon of Marduk, Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon, The Babylonian Chronicles, Basalt Block Inscription, The Ziggurats, Nabonidus Stele, Cyrus Cylinder

Biblical History

David Anoints Solomon, Solomon's Choice, Solomon's Temple, God's Ideal King, The Divided Kingdom, The Northern Kingdom Israel, The Southern Kingdom Judah, Judah's Kings, Hezekiah, The Destruction of Jerusalem, The Babylonian Captivity, Daniel and the Prophets, Nebuchadnezzar, The Return from Babylon

Questions about Babylon Answered in the Bible



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Ancient Babylonia

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