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Biblical Archaeological Discoveries

Archaeologists and Expeditions

Timeline of Significant Dates of Archaeological Expeditions and Discoveries

1879 - Rassam Excavates Many Tablets in Babylon Ruins with a Possible Location of the Hanging Gardens

1878 - Campaigns of Sennacherib, Annals of Ashurbanipal and Many Tablets are Excavated by Rassam

1877 - Archaeology of Ancient Sumer is Awakened by Louvre Treasures

1877 - Victory Stele of Eannatum is Discovered by Frenchman Ernest de Sarzec at Lagash Site

1873 - George Smith Identifies Wreckless Looting By Layard and Ruthless Quarrying By Mosul Bridge Builders 

1873 - British Museum Sends George Smith to Further Excavate at Nimrud and Koujunjik

1872 - Britain Sends Conder and Kitchener for Inch to Mile Survey of Sites in Western Israel

1871 - The Jerusalem Temple Warning Inscription Stone Was Discovered by Ganneau

1870 - The Moabite Stone (Mesha Stele) is Discovered by Ganneau

1867 - France Sends the Brilliant Charles Clermont-Ganneau to Israel

1867 - Britain Sends Lieutenant Charles Warren to Investigate Jerusalem

1865 - Western Israel is Surveyed Because of Palestine Exploration Fund Foundation

1865 - The Immense Temple of Artemis is Discovered by  J.T. Wood Because of a Roman Inscription

1864 - The Study of the Roman Catacombs is Examined Thoroughly by Giovanni De Rossi

1863 - Britain Sends J.T. Wood to Explore the Ancient Site of Ephesus

1860 - The Temple of Edfu in Egypt is Excavated by Mariette

1859 - The Codex Sinaiticus is Discovered by Constantin Tischendorf

1858 - The Temple of Hatshepsut in Egypt is Excavated by Mariette 

1858 - Mariette is Recognized for Locating 15,000 Monuments at 37 Egyptian Sites From Memphis to Karnak

1853 - Ashurbanipal's Library Opened the Door for a Detailed Study of Assyrian and Babylonian History
Note: Because of the many tablets discovered by archaeologists we are now certain that written records of important events were documented from the beginning of history. The Bible itself was believed by scholars to have been written long after the events they describe, and that the Old Testament was based on oral tradition at best.

1851 - Massive Assyrian Shipments were Lost in The Tigris River on Their Way to France

1850 - Excavations at the Ancient Area of Erech (Uruk) in the Land of Shinar by W.F. Loftus

1850 - The Sarapeum is Discovered in Egypt by Marriette and the National Museum is Established at Cairo

1850 - The Science of Assyriology is Underway with Many Historians in Disbelief of Biblical Accuracy
Note: The  new treasures found in the British Museum and the Louvre brought scores of expeditions to the Tigris and Euphrates Valley, Britain, France, Germany, America, and pretty much the whole world was impressed with the findings and wanted to see more, and learn more about the early days of the human race. Although hundreds of thousands of archaeological discoveries have been unearthed, the work still goes on.

1849 - Layard's Book "Nineveh and Its Remains" is Published

1849 - Innumerable Clay Tablets are Unearthed at the Royal Library of Nineveh

1849 - Sennacherib's Palace at Koujunjik is Discovered by Layard

1849 - A 12 Volume Word is Published About Prussian Expeditions in Egypt by Karl Richard Lepsius

1848 - Tombs of the Kings is Discovered in Jerusalem by F. de Saulcy

1848 - Massive Shipment of Layards Discoveries are Shipped to Britain

1847 - The Famous Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II is Discovered by Layard

1846 - The Palaces of Ashurnasirpal, Shalmaneser II, Tiglath-pileser II, Adadnirari and Essarhaddon are Discovered.

1845 - Excavation at Nimrud (Ancient Calah) Began By Austin Henry Layard
Note: Austen Henry Layard was an Englishman who was referred to as the "father of a Assyriology." From 1845-1851 he excavated the mounds of Nineveh and Nimrud. He discovered the palaces of five Assyrian kings who were all mentioned in the Bible. He also discovered the great library of Ashurbanipal which contained over 100,000 clay tablets.

1845 - The Foundation is Laid for the Interpretation of Cuneiform and Mesopotamian History

1844 - The Ancient Site of Nineveh is Discovered

1843 - Khorsabad and the Palace of Sargon II are Discovered by Botta on Another Mound
Note: Botta spent nearly 10 years excavating the magnificent Palace of King Sargon

1842 - Excavations of Ancient Assyrian Mounds Began at Koujunjik With Frenchman Paul Emile Botta

1842 - The Behistun Rock Inscription of Darius I is Deciphered and Copied at Considerable Risk
Note: Sir Henry Rawlinson was a British army officer in 1835 when he noticed on Behistun Mountain, about 200 miles to the northeast of ancient Babylon, a huge 1700 foot rock standing out in the open plain. The strange perpendicular cliff contained a very smooth surface with strange carvings. After careful investigation Rawlinson determined that the engraved inscription was made in 516 BC by Darius, king of Persia. It was the same Darius who gave orders to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem. The book of Ezra in the Bible records this event and the fact that in the same year the Temple was completed. The full inscription recorded the conquests of Darius in Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian languages. Because of these Rawlinson was able to decipher the ancient Babylonian language within a 14 year period.

1837 - Discoveries in Persia are Examined by Colonel Henry Rawlinson

1828 - An Exhaustive Topography of Ancient Sites in the Holy Land is Created by Edward Robinson and Eli Smith

1822 - Egyptian Hieroglyphics Are Finally Deciphered by Jean Francois Champollion

1820 - Claude James Rich Visits Mosul and Tries to Identify the Site of Ancient Nineveh

1817 - The Search for the Egyptian Pharaohs Begins

1817 - The Temple of Ramesses I is Discovered at Abu Simbel by Italian Archaeologist Giovanni Belzoni

1815 - Lady Stanhope Devotes Her Life to Excavating Statuary from Askelon

1812 - Petra is Discovered by Swiss Explorer Johan Ludwig Burckhardt

1811 - Babylon is Excavated in Part by Claude James Rich and Interest is Awakened
Note: The scattered mounds invited much attention among travelers and explorers, and many of the local natives believed these mounds were somehow cursed. Claude James Rich was a British agent living in Baghdad, after reviewing some minor discoveries he visited the mounds that made up the site of ancient Babylon in 1811. He began a small excavation with some locals and found some cuneiform tablets which he brought back to Baghdad.

1805 - Caesarea Philippi, Ammon and Ancient Jerash (Gerasa) are Discovered by Ulrich Seetzen

1799 - The Rosetta Stone was Discovered and the key to Egyptian Hieroglyphics Decipherment

1798 - Interest in Egypt is Awakened with Napoleon's Occupation

1770 - Archeologia Journal is Released in London

1717 - The Society  of Antiquaries is Established in London

1173 - The Site of Babylon is Identified by Jewish Scholar Benjamin of Tudela

Note: The scattered mounds throughout the Euphrates Valley reveal where man's earliest inhabitants built cities. Cities were built upon older cities until the mounds grew to over 100 feet tall and had peculiar shapes.



Psalms 93:1 - The LORD reigneth, he is clothed with majesty; the LORD is clothed with strength, wherewith he hath girded himself: the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.

Psalms 56:10 - In God will I praise his word: in the LORD will I praise his word.

Psalms 90:17 - And let the beauty of the LORD our God be upon us: and establish thou the work of our hands upon us; yea, the work of our hands establish thou it.


"Little by little, one city after another, one civilization after another, one culture after another, whose memories were enshrined only in the Bible, were restored to their proper places in ancient history by the studies of archaeologists... Contemporary records of biblical events emphasized by contrast and comparison... Nowhere has archaeological discovery refuted the Bible as history."

-John Elder "Prophets, idols and Diggers" (New York: Bobbs Merrill, 1960) p. 16


"A substantial proof for the accuracy of the Old Testament text has come from archaeology. Numerous discoveries have confirmed the historical accuracy of the biblical documents, even down to the obsolete names of foreign kings... Rather than a manifestation of complete ignorance of the facts of its day, the biblical record thus reflects a great knowledge by the writer of his day, as well as precision in textual transmission."

-Norman L. Geisler, William Nix "A General Introduction to the Bible" 5th Edition (Chicago: Moody Press 1983) p. 253


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