1 - In the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, when wine was before him, I picked up the wine, and gave it to the king. Now I had not been sad before in his presence.
2 - The king said to me, "Why is your face sad, since you are not sick? This is nothing else but sorrow of heart."Then I was very much afraid.
3 - I said to the king, "Let the king live forever! Why shouldn't my face be sad, when the city, the place of my fathers' tombs, lies waste, and its gates have been consumed with fire?"
4 - Then the king said to me, "What is your request?"So I prayed to the God of heaven.
5 - I said to the king, "If it pleases the king, and if your servant has found favor in your sight, that you would send me to Judah, to the city of my fathers' tombs, that I may build it."
6 - The king said to me (the queen was also sitting by him), "How long will your journey be? When will you return?"So it pleased the king to send me, and I set a time for him.
7 - Moreover I said to the king, "If it pleases the king, let letters be given me to the governors beyond the River, that they may let me pass through until I come to Judah;
8 - and a letter to Asaph the keeper of the king's forest, that he may give me timber to make beams for the gates of the citadel by the temple, for the wall of the city, and for the house that I will occupy."The king granted my requests, because of the good hand of my God on me.
9 - Then I came to the governors beyond the River, and gave them the king's letters. Now the king had sent captains of the army and horsemen with me.
10 - When Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, heard of it, it grieved them exceedingly, because a man had come to seek the welfare of the children of Israel.
11 - So I came to Jerusalem, and was there three days.
12 - I arose in the night, I and a few men with me. I didn't tell anyone what my God put into my heart to do for Jerusalem. There wasn't any animal with me, except the animal that I rode on.
13 - I went out by night by the valley gate, even toward the jackal's well, then to the dung gate, and inspected the walls of Jerusalem, which were broken down, and its gates were consumed with fire.
14 - Then I went on to the spring gate and to the king's pool, but there was no place for the animal that was under me to pass.
15 - Then went I up in the night by the brook, and inspected the wall; and I turned back, and entered by the valley gate, and so returned.
16 - The rulers didn't know where I went, or what I did. I had not as yet told it to the Jews, nor to the priests, nor to the nobles, nor to the rulers, nor to the rest who did the work.
17 - Then I said to them, "You see the bad situation that we are in, how Jerusalem lies waste, and its gates are burned with fire. Come, let us build up the wall of Jerusalem, that we won't be disgraced."
18 - I told them of the hand of my God which was good on me, as also of the king's words that he had spoken to me.They said, "Let's rise up and build." So they strengthened their hands for the good work.
19 - But when Sanballat the Horonite, Tobiah the Ammontite servant, and Geshem the Arabian, heard it, they ridiculed us, and despised us, and said, "What is this thing that you are doing? Will you rebel against the king?"
20 - Then I answered them, and said to them, "The God of heaven will prosper us. Therefore we, his servants, will arise and build; but you have no portion, nor right, nor memorial, in Jerusalem."
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The Book of Nehemiah
Nehemiah 1:7-9 - The words of Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah.
And it came to pass in the month Chisleu, in the twentieth year,
as I was in Shushan the palace, That Hanani, one of my brethren,
came, he and [certain] men of Judah; and I asked them concerning
the Jews that had escaped, which were left of the captivity, and
concerning Jerusalem. And they said unto me, The remnant that
are left of the captivity there in the province [are] in great
affliction and reproach: the wall of Jerusalem also [is] broken
down, and the gates thereof are burned with fire.
Nehemiah 13:1-3 - On that day they read in the book of Moses
in the audience of the people; and therein was found written,
that the Ammonite and the Moabite should not come into the
congregation of God for ever; Because they met not the children
of Israel with bread and with water, but hired Balaam against
them, that he should curse them: howbeit our God turned the
curse into a blessing. Now it came to pass, when they had heard
the law, that they separated from Israel all the mixed
The Old Testament - A Brief Overview
Bible Survey - Nehemiah
Hebrew Name -
Greek Name -
(Greek form of the Hebrew)
Author - Nehemiah (Ezra and Nehemiah were treated as one book in Jewish Tradition)
Date - From 455-420 BC Approximately
Theme of Nehemiah - The rebuilding of Jerusalem
Types and Shadows - In Nehemiah Jesus is the one who led the captives out
Tomb of Cyrus the
Great at Pasargadae
"O man, whoever you are and
wherever you come from, for I know that you will come--I
am Cyrus, son of Cambyses, who founded the Empire of the
Persians and was king of the East. Do not grudge me this
spot of earth which covers my body." - Cyrus
This tomb of the great
Persian ruler, Cyrus, was discovered in 1951 at the
ruins of Pasargadae (south-central Iran). Over 2500
years old, the tomb is in decent condition, made of
white limestone and stands a total of 36 feet high. The
tomb itself is 18 feet high resting on a 6 level base,
also 18 feet high. It was built like a Ziggurat with
Ionian and Lydian features. There is a small entrance
and double doors leading to a room with no windows which
once contained the "golden sarcophagus" of Cyrus, it is
now an empty shell. Five huge stones make up its roof,
which was slanted (gabled) to shed heavy rains. These
Nordic gables were the architectural style of lands far
to the north. The inscription was seen and recorded by
Plutarch in AD 90.
Summary of The Book of Nehemiah
In Jewish tradition the books of Ezra and Nehemiah are
regarded as one book, and it appears that they were originally
two books because of the identical material in Ezra 2 and
Nehemiah 7. Nehemiah made his journey to Jerusalem in about 445
BC, and he was not a priest or a scribe like Ezra was but he was
a governor with authority given to him by the Persian king
Artaxerxes to rebuild the walls and the city of Jerusalem for
the Jewish people. He was originally cupbearer for the king of
Persia (Nehemiah 2:1). Nehemiah completed the task in 52 days
despite all the opposition from the foreigners who it settled in
the land of Judah during the captivity.
The book of Nehemiah shows how God fulfilled his words written by the
prophets concerning the return of the people of Israel from 70 years of
captivity, and returned again to the land of their inheritance. In order to
accomplish his divine will he change the hearts of the great kings of the
ancient world, Cyrus Darius and Artaxerxes of Persia. He also worked through
leaders like Joshua Zerubbabel Haggai Zechariah Ezra and Nehemiah in order to
rebuild the wall of the city of Jerusalem and reestablish the law of Moses. The
books of Ezra and Nehemiah reveal to us the history of the Jews between 536 BC
and 430 BC. The book of Nehemiah covers the period from 445 BC for the next 12
Quick Reference Map
Map of Jerusalem Restored by
Nehemiah (Click to Enlarge)
The contents of the two books may be analyzed as follows :
Outline of the Book of Nehemiah
1 ) Nehemiah's journey to Jerusalem, made possible by Artaxerxes, for the
purpose of re-building the wall (Nehemiah 1-2).
2 ) A list of the builders and the repairing of the gate (Nehemiah 3).
3 ) The rebuilding of the wall in spite of op-position led by Sanballat, Tobiah
and Geshem (Nehemiah 4:1-7:4).
4 ) The register of those who returned with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 7).
5 ) The public reading and exposition of the book of the Law (Nehemiah 8).
6 ) The national repentance and the covenant of obedience (Nehemiah 9:1-10 :39).
7 ) Lists of inhabitants (Nehemiah 11:1-12:26).
8 ) Dedication of the wall and organization of the temple services (Nehemiah 12:27-47).
9 ) Nehemiah's reforms of abuses connected with tithes, the sabbath and mixed
marriages (Nehemiah 13).
In order to gain a complete picture of the history of this period, these two
books should be examined also with the writings of the prophets Haggai, Zechariah
Quick Reference Maps -
Jerusalem Rebuilt by Nehemiah - The book of Nehemiah records
in the third chapter a description of the course of the walls,
beginning on the northeast side of Jerusalem and moving
counterclockwise. His intention was not to be too exhaustive in
Zerubbabel and Ezra's Journey to Restore Jerusalem -
Zerubbabel, of the house of David heeded the decree of Cyrus to
allow the Jews to return and restore Jerusalem and later more
Jews including Ezra and Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem.
The Persian Empire in the 6th Century BC - The great rulers
of the Persian Empire during the 6th century BC were Cyrus the
Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great.
The Persian Empire in the 5th Century BC - During the 5th
centuries BC the Persian Empire expanded under various rulers:
Darius I, Xerxes I (Ahasuerus), and Artaxerxes I.
The Return From Babylon
More About the Book of
Nehemiah in the Picture
Timeline of the Ancient
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