the Ancient World
Hugh Elton bibliography from Greece to Rome to Byzantine.
Catapult Museum Online
The use of the catapult to the present day.
E-Hawk Cadre Main
Page - The Central Military Archive
This is the place for the student of military history and scholars alike. Combines all
periods from Pre-Modern to Modern. An On-Line Military History Library with Sources,
Reference Materials, Bibliographies, Articles, Book Reviews. Access them by time period,
History of the Greek fighting ships following the development of the ram as a weapon in
about 800 BC.
The Ancient Greek
World - History of Warfare
Before the early 5th century warfare wreaked only as much havoc as needed for political
concessions. The Persian conflict brought total war. Amphora pictures of soldiers
The Ancient Greek
World - Weapons and Armor
The basic soldiering equipment (panoply) cost the equivalent of a modern car. Pictures of
bronze helmets and perfume container that looks like a helmet with warrior's head.
Relying on Tacitus, Beowulf, and the Finnesburh Fragment, this Angelcynn (living history
society) site describes the Anglo-Saxons fyrdsman.
Archaeological Museum at Olympia
Images of breastplate, helmet of Miltiades, and bronze battering ram.
Beginner's guide to Roman military equipment. Includes FAQ. Find out what the well dressed
1st Century Roman legionnaire wore.
Article by Caroline L. Falkner, from Ancient History Bulletin evaluating the importance of
Spartan victory at the Ionian island of Syme as described by Thucydides.
the Roman Republic
Summaries of the following battles: Cannae, Zama, Cynoscephalae, Pharsalus, & Actium;
written as the result of a class project. Includes images of Hannibal and the elephants,
busts of Caesar, Augustus, and Scipio.
Catapaults of the Roman
Romans developed the cheiroballista and the onager. Site discusses the Siege of Maiden
Castle, nomenclature, and methods of procurement of siege engines.
Polybius and Livy on the subject.
Cronologia De La
Epoca De Las Guerras Punicas
Almost yearly timeline of events leading up to and through the Second Punic War. In
Ancient Siege Warfare
Explains the purposes of siege engines before describing specific sieges at Miletus, Thebes, Halicarnassus, Tyre, and Perinthus.
The Landings of Caesar in
Britain, 55 and 54 BC
After Caesar finally established a camp in Britain, he had to leave. Maps of his troops'
paths between Gaul and Britain.
De Roma Entre 264 Y 133
Roman War timeline from 264 to 133 BC. Includes Punic, Macedonian and wars in Spain. In
Laws of War in
the Roman Empire 350 to 380 AD
Laws of hospitality protected envoys. Military movements ceased during negotiations.
Dediticii, those who had surrendered, were employed within the army were assigned to
distant parts of the empire.
History of the Roman State
Bibliography relevant to Regnal Rome, Pyrrhus, punic Wars, Jugurthine War, Caesar in Gaul,
Civil Wars, Jewish Revolt, Huns, Vandals, and many other campaigns.
of the Roman Legion
By Gary Brueggeman. If you've ever wondered how the Roman legions were arranged, you'll
appreciate the graphics on this site. Excellent bibliography.
Warfare in Ancient India
Article by Prithwis Chandra Chakravarti, from 1930 Indian Historical Quarterly includes
literary evidence and conquests of Ceylon.
by Arther Ferrill
Fascinating, long article discounting popular misconceptions about early warfare,
including the idea that slings require a good deal of space and that populations were too
small for warfare on a modern scale.
Article with accompanying maps of alliances of and schematics of the Peloponnesian Wars
which began with Sparta and her allies laid seige to Periclean Athens in 431 BC.
The Persian Wars
Kent Factora's site, containing Persian War topical definitions, maps, timeline, and a
seven item bibliography.
Greg Ong's answer to an exam question. Primarily concerns Marius' military reforms which
created a professional military.
The Roman Army: A
Extensive list, including sections on Campaigns, Battles & Military Areas, Officers,
Centurions & Optiones, Legions, Recruitment, Finance, and the Navy.
Roman History in
Second, sixth and twentieth Roman legions were stationed in Cumbria. Supplemental aid was
found by recruiting locals into the Auxiliary forces.
Legionary Forces in Sicily
Edward D. Clark's article on Livy's account of the number of legions stationed on Sicily
from 214 - 210 BC (during Punic War II).
Military Organisation until 104 BC
Before the military reorganization of Marius, the Roman army went through 3 phases with
the legion reduced from 8400 men to 4000.
Roman Military Sites in Britain
Glossary, bibliography, summary of military events, introduction to forts and camps built
by the Roman army.
Homepage for the Society of Ancient Military Historians. Accepts members interested in
promoting and sharing in the study of Ancient Military History.
Sargon's Eighth Campaign
Anthony Garia points out what we know about the Assyrian army from letters about Sargon's
campaign in 714 BC.
Siege of Syracuse
Introduction, map, and relevant passages from Livy, Polybius, and Plutarch.
Tzu on the Art of War
Lionel Giles' 1910 translation from the Chinese of the oldest military treatise in the
world. Includes explanation of the treatise and legends about the military leader.
Athens attacked the Spartan colony in Sicily in 425 and then again, under the influence of
Alcibiades, in 415. Although in the first wave of battle, Athens gained the upper hand,
ultimately, it lost not only the war but its political supremacy.
Tension Artllery in the
1995 article on Gastraphetes. Composite belly bow, whose research was commissioned by
Dionysus I in 399 BC, made a welcome addition to seige warfare. Related section on the
Sythians is unfinished.
Succinct article on the Athenian fighting ship. Includes specifications and consequences
of owning a fleet of the state-of-the-art, polis financed ships.
Using Latin letters for Greek in the html, brief article describes the context based
meaning of Greek military vocabulary.
in the Greek World
Bibliography on topics of strategy, logistics, siege warfare, mercenaries, equipment,
Historical games. Also a page of free downloadable goodies from Warhorse