Ancient Documents, Writers, and Classics


Rabbinical Works


Texts
The Mishnah - A Brief Explaination. The Hebrew root "ShNH" means "to repeat," and refers to memorization by repetition. Mishnah can refer in a general way to the full tradition of the Oral Torah, as formulated by the Rabbis in the first centuries of the Common Era. These traditions could not be written down, but had to be transmitted and learned by word of mouth.

The Gemara (Talmud) - A Brief Explaination. The Gemara (Tamud) both are synonymous and derive from words meaning "study" or "learning." "Talmud" is Hebrew, whereas "Gemara" (in the present sense) is found only in the Aramaic dialect of the Babylonian Talmud. The Talmud is composed in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic (which was the spoken vernacular of Babylonian Jews). The Talmud is a commentary on the Mishnah.

Commentaries
Rashi (1040-1105) - A Brief Explaination of Rashi's Commentary on the Talmud. Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (or: Shlomo Yitzhaki) is known by the acronym: RaSh"I

Tosafot suppliment to Rashi - A Brief Explaination. The Tosafot were composed by many scholars in different schools throughout the 12th and 13th centuries. The word "Tosafot" translates as "additions" or "supplements."

Other Commentaries
Rabbenu Hananel 990-1050
Sefer Ha-Mafteah 1020-1050
Tosafot Yeshanim the 13th century
Rabbenu Gershom (Mainz Commentary) 1000-1010
Tosefot RI"D 13th century
Shittah Mequbbetzet 16th century

Codes of law
Maimonides' Mishneh Torah
Rabbi Moses of Coucy's Sefer Mitzvot Gadol
Rabbi Jacob ben Asher's Arba'ah Turim
Rabbi Joseph Caro's Shulhan Arukh

Terms for the Navigation of the Talmud
Page Number
Tractate Name
Chapter Number
Chapter Name
Mesoret Ha-Sha"S
Ein Mishpat/Ner Mitzvah
Torah Or

The Complete Rabbinic Writings

The Mishnah
Zera'im ("Seeds") (Complete Text) (Hebrew Fonts required)
Mo'ed ("Festivals") (Complete Text) (Hebrew Fonts required)
Nashim ("Women") (Complete Text) (Hebrew Fonts required)
Neziqin ("Torts") (Complete Text) (Hebrew Fonts required)
Qodashim ("Sacred Things") (Complete Text) (Hebrew Fonts required)
Tohorot ("Purity") (Complete Text) (Hebrew Fonts required)

The Tosephta
The Tosephta (Complete Text) (Hebrew Fonts required)

The Babylonian Talmud
The Babylonian Talmud (Complete Text) (Hebrew Fonts required)

The Jerusalem Talmud
The Jerusalem Talmud (Complete Text) (Hebrew Fonts required)


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