Ancient Empires and Cities

 


Babylon and Mesopotamia


GENERAL
Survey of Old Testament History-The Christian Resource Institute
The Bible Knowledge Accelerator #2-Brief Survey of the Old Testament
Iraq History
NM's Creative Impulse..Mesopotamia
Ancient Mesopotamia
The Code of Hammurabi
Hammurabi Title Page
Hammurabic Code
Hammurabi: Ruler of Babylon By Adel Beshara
Gilgamesh Summary
Abzu Regional Index: Mesopotamia
The Sumerians of Ancient Mesopotamia
Akkadian language (Babylonian and Assyrian cuneiform texts)
Proverbs in Sumerian Cuneiform
The Ziggurats
The History of Plumbing (Babylonia)
Mesopotamia Lesson Plans and Activities
Mesopotamian Timeline
The Sumerian King List
Ancient Mesopotamia Unit
Mesopotamia Map
Mesopotamia The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
Mesopotamia
Emergence of Civilization in Ancient Near East [At UNT][Modern Account]
The Near East 3000-1200 BCE [At UNT][Modern Account]
The Near East 1250-500 BCE [At UNT][Modern Account]
The Origin and Development of Writing in Mesopotamia: An Economic Interpretation [At Teleport][Modern Illustrated Account]
Southern Mesopotamia from Space [At NASA]
Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia [Website -St Olaf]]
Art of Mesopotamia
Near East Image Index [At EAWC]
Music of the Ancient Near East [At AOL] The world's oldest written music, with a MIDI transcription of Hurrian Hymn H6.
Babylonian and Egyptian Mathematics [At St. Andrews] Illustrations and modern presentations of the calculation methods.
For Women: see Diotima
Ancient Near East Laws Concerning Kinship and Marriage [At Creighton]
Old Assyrian Marriage Contract 19th Cent. BCE [At Creighton]
For Gender variants: See WEB People With a History: Near East and Egypt
The Code of the Nesilim, c. 1650-1500 BCE Excerpts on sex and gender matters.
The Code of the Assyrians, c. 1075 BCE Excerpts on sex and gender matters.
The Advice of an Akkadian Father to His Son, c. 2200 BCE
Survey of Regional Prehistory: Egypt and the Near East: Chronology [At NYU]  absolute and relative chronology.
Problems with Greek and Roman Calendars [At Atrium]
Dating Problems in Aegean History [At Dartmouth]
Review of Robert Drews, The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 BC [At NCSU]
Mediterranean Dating and the Chronology of Kemet [At WHA]
Are the Bible's Stories True?, TIME Magazine, December 18, 1995 Volume 146, No. 25 [At Millersville] Reviews Archeological finds in recent years..
Ancient & Biblical Chronology & Genealogies [At WOL] A critical work against Biblical chronology
Centuries of Darkness:Update [At British Archeology]
A Chronological Revolution, [At British Archeology] review of Centuries of Darkness, showing its appeal to Biblical literalists. Here is another Summary [At BCS].
Review of Centuries of Darkness

Sumeria (c. 3100-c. 2000 BCE)
Map: Ancient Near East, c. 2500 BCE [At Northpark]
Map: Sumerian Archeological Sites [At Seagoat]
The Emergence of Kingship: Inscription of Umma and Lagash, c. 2500BCE [At Northpark]
The Sumerian King List [At CSUN]
Proverbs from Ki-en-gir (Sumer), c. 2000 BCE [At this Site]
Penitential Prayer to God [At Northpark]
Inanna Texts [At CSUN]
Enki and the World Order: A Sumerian High God
A Sumero-Akkadian prayer to Every God
Shamash Hymn [At Enteract.com]
The justice of the god.

The Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh [At WSU][Extended Summary]
Gilgamesh Tablet [At St Olaf]
Epic of Gilgamesh [At UNT][Outline]
Epic of Gilgamesh, extracts, [At Clinch Valley College]
Gilgamesh in Search of Immortality [At enteract.com]
Epic of Gilgamesh, entire text, [At Akkad.com]
Somewhat hard to read in this format.
Sumerian Prologue to Gilgamesh [At UPenn]
Domestication of Enkidu [At Creighton]
Enkidu's Dream [At CCNY]
Gilgamesh Flood Story [At Creighton]
Gilgamesh Flood Story Genesis Comparison
Gilgamesh Flood Story [At SCU][Short text]
Gilgamesh Flood Story
Storytelling, the Meaning of Life, and The Epic of Gilgamesh [At EAWC]
The Worm and the Toothache [At Creighton]
The Creation of the Pickax [At Creighton]
Sumerian Mythology FAQ [At UNH]

Sumerian Language
Proverbs in Sumerian Cuneiform [At Seagoat]
Sumerian Language Page [At Seagoat]
Sumerian Text Archive [At Leiden]Texts in Sumerian. 

Art
Sumerian Images in the Louvre [At the Louvre] Includes image of Hammarabi stele.

India and Sumeria
Harrapa The Indus valley culture which had some interaction with Mesopotamia.
Harrapa Images [from the Indus Valley][At Northpark]

Akkadia (c.2350-2200 BCE)
Birth Legend of Sargon (c. 2240 BCE)[At Crieghton]
The Legend of Sargon of AkkadÍ, c. 2300 BCE
Enheduanna's Hymns (c.2280-2200 BCE)[At Angelfire] The first writings ascribed to an author were ascribed to this woman, a daughter of Sargon.
Enheduanna Page [At Anglefire]
En hedu'anna, Priestess of the Moon Goddess (c. 2354 BCE)[Modern Account]
The Advice of an Akkadian Father to His Son, c. 2200 BCE
Akkadian Linguistics

Babylonia (c.2000-1600 BCE)

Amorite Expansion (2100-1900 BCE)

Code of Hammarabi
Code of Hammarabi c.1780 BCE [This Site][Full Text, with introductions]
Code of Hammarabi c.1780 BCE [At EAWC][Full Text]
Code of Hammarabi c.1780 BCE extracts [At WSU]
Code of Hammarabi

Cities
Map of Nippur [At Northpark]
Nippur Expedition [Website-Chicago]

Creation Myths
Babylonian Creation Myth [At Northpark]
A 12th century BCE version of a Sumerian account.
The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At Creighton]
The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE and Notes [At CSUN]
The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At SJU]
The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At Gilgamesh]
The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At Akkadian Language Page]
The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At AOL-Wiccan Site]
The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At enteract.com]
Atrahasis: Human Creation [At Creighton]
Atrahasis: Human Rebellion [At Creighton]
Myth of Adapa [At Creighton]
Adapa: The First Man [At AOL-Wiccan Site]

Religion
Ishtar's Descent into the Underworld [At AOL-Wiccan Site]
The Descent of Ishtar into the Netherworld [At enteract.com]
The Marriage of Nergal and Ereshkigal [At AOL-Wiccan Site]
Bablonian and Assyrian Mythology FAQ [At UNH]

See Assyria

Chaldea/Neo-Babylonia (612-539 BCE)
Inscription of   Nebuchadnezzar (r. 604-561 BCE) [At M Univ]
Ishtar Gate Inscription c.600 BCE [At St. Olaf]
Treaty between Mursilis and Duppi-Tessub ANET 203-5 [At Creighton]
Court of Nebuchadnezzar: Daniel I
Greek Reports of Babylonia, Chaldea, and Assyria Includes accounts of Semiramis and Nitocris, Marriage customs, and the Persian conquest.

See Other for Syria, Phoenicia, Carthage, etc.


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