The Book of John

John 1:14 - And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.

John 20:31 - But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name.

John in The New Testament - A Brief Overview

The New Testament - A Brief Overview

Outline of the Book of John
Scriptures and Topics Covered:
The Word of God - Chapter 1:1-51
His Public Ministry - Chapters 2:1-12:50
His Private Ministry - Chapters 13:1-17:26
His Death and Resurrection - Chapters 18:1-20:31
John's Conclusion - Chapter 21:1-25


St. John the Evangelist by Guido Reni
Painting of St. John the Evangelist by Reni - 1620

Introduction to The Gospel of John

The Word Gospel. The fourth book of the New Testament is the Gospel of John. John is the fourth of the four gospel writings, yet there is only one gospel about Jesus Christ and there are four different writers: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The word "Gospel" means "good news", and the good news is about Jesus Christ dying on the cross and then 3 days later conquering death and rising from the dead, offering salvation to all mankind, this is the Gospel.

Summary of The Book of John

Brief Summary. Jesus was Jehovah God, the eternal Word made flesh. He came to His home, Israel, and He was rejected. He came to this world, and the world rejected Him, but anyone who would believe and receive Him would have life through His name, and be given authority to call themselves a "son of god."

Purpose. John makes one thing clear in John 20:30, 31 - "these ( things) are written that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ; and that believing ye may have life in his name." John sought to lead men to eternal life by first convincing them of His deity, the miracles were actually recorded as "signs" to confirm His deity, that He was Jehovah God, the incarnate Word made flesh. John called Jesus the bread of life, the light of the world, the good shepherd, the way the truth and the life, the true vine, all clearly pointing to the deity of Jesus. In fact John points to everything in His life and teachings as a sign that Jesus of Nazareth was truly the Eternal Word of God who "became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth" (John 1: 14).

John Compared to the Other Gospel Accounts. The "Synoptic Gospels" - Matthew, Mark and Luke all have their unique perspective of the life of Jesus Christ, as well as John's approach. John is always emphasizing the deity of Jesus as well as His divine miracles. John also gives us a bit more information about Jesus' ministry in Jerusalem, where Matthew, Mark and Luke focus more on His Galilean ministry. There is also a difference regarding the chronology of the last week (Passion Week) of Christ's life. It is important to note that the Gospel accounts do not necessarily place their focus on chronology and orderly biography of the ministry of Jesus with names, places, and dates, but rather a full perspective of their unique portrayal of Jesus Christ.

Authorship. The author of the Gospel of John is identified in John 21:20 as "The disciple whom Jesus loved" who leaned on Jesus' breast. It is clear that John was that disciple and he did not wish to use his own name directly as the author, possibly for reasons of humility. Early church historical writings from early second century AD recognize the Gospel of John as a sacred book. Theophilus of Antioch (170 AD) was the first to write the name John as the author. Shortly after this Irenaeus identified John as the disciple who had leaned on Jesus' breast. This is especially important because Irenaeus was a disciple of Polycarp, who had known the man John personally. Clement of Alexandria mentions John as having composed a "spiritual gospel."

Critics of John as the Author. There is a statement that was made by Papias that there were actually two men named John in Ephesus at the same time, and John the Apostle was referred to as "John the Elder". Many opponents of the apostle John's authorship give credit to the other John as the writer of the fourth Gospel. Although the answer cannot be positively determined by history, tradition and internal evidence definitely point to John the apostle as the author.

Date. It is worthy to consider the words of the most famous archaeologist of all time that according to archaeological evidence there is "no longer any solid basis for dating any book of the New Testament after about A.D. 80." Most scholars conclude that the book of John was written around 85 or 90 AD probably before the exile to Patmos. It is also important to consider John 5:2 when it mentions "Now there is in Jerusalem by the sheep [market] a pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, having five porches." This verse would indicate that this existed at the current time that the Gospel of John was written. This would place the written work before the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. There is also no evidence as to whether John wrote the Gospel before or after his return to Ephesus from the Island of Patmos.

The Man John. John's book attributes the work to "the disciple whom Jesus loved." This say a lot about the man John, and the fact that Jesus left his mother Mary in John's care, having spoken the words from the cross, is very significant. Another indicator of John's character is found in the book of 1 John, he continually talks about love, loving one another, and that God is love, etc. It is also safe to say that John was a Jew, this can be clearly seen by his accuracy about Jewish customs, Jewish way of thinking, and by his quotations from the Hebrew Old Testament. He knew the topography of the land of Israel from a Jewish perspective quite well. It is easy to see in his writings that he was a close disciple of Jesus, an eyewitness of the events surrounding Jesus' ministry. One can determine by process of elimination, that the author is not just any John but John the apostle, the son of Zebedee, who is prominently mentioned in the Gospel accounts.

John and Church History. Church tradition records that John came to Ephesus after Paul's work was finished there. Later, during the reign of the Emperor Domitian, he was banished to the Island of Patmos where he wrote the book of Revelation. Shortly thereafter he was released and returned to the city of Ephesus.

Archaeology. The Rylands Papyrus Fragment was discovered in 1920 in Egypt containing a few verses from John 18 dating back to about 120-135 AD.

Outline of the Book of John

The Word of God - Chapter 1:1-51
His Public Ministry - Chapters 2:1-12:50
His Private Ministry - Chapters 13:1-17:26
His Death and Resurrection - Chapters 18:1-20:31
John's Conclusion - Chapter 21:1-25

Jesus written in Hebrew
The Name Jesus In Ancient Hebrew Text
"Yeshua" in First Century Hebrew Text. This is how the name "Jesus" would have been written in ancient Hebrew documents. The four letters or consonants from right to left are Yod, Shin, Vav, Ayin (Y, SH, OO, A). Jesus is the Greek name for the Hebrew name Joshua or Y'shua which means "The LORD or Yahweh is Salvation".

John Resources

Outline of the Life of Jesus in Harmony
Simple Map of First Century Israel
Topographical Map of First Century Israel
Map of the Ministry of Jesus
Map of the Roads in Ancient Israel
Map of the Roman Empire

 

The New Testament
Charts
Maps
Birth of John the Baptist
Birth of Jesus
Childhood of Jesus
John the Baptist Appears
Baptism of Jesus
Temptation of Jesus
Jesus Begins His Work
Jesus Cleanses the Temple
Jesus Meets Nicodemus
Imprisonment of John
Sermon on the Mount
The Twelve are Chosen
Raising of the Widow's Son
John's Inquiry from Prison
Jesus Calms the Storm
Jesus Raises Jairus' Daughter
Death of John the Baptist
Feeding the Multitudes
The Transfiguration
Jesus Leaves Galilee
Jesus Rejected at Samaria
Jesus Raises Lazarus
Mission of the Seventy
The Feast at Bethany
The Last Supper
The Betrayal
The Crucifixion
The Resurrection
The Ascension
The Holy Spirit is Given
The Church is Established
The First Persecutions
Philip at Samaria
Conversion of Saul
First Gentile Converted
The Church at Antioch
James Killed by Herod
Paul's Conversion
Paul's 1st Missionary Journey
Council at Jerusalem
Paul's 2nd Missionary Journey
Paul's 3rd Missionary Journey
Paul's Arrest at Jerusalem
Paul at Caesarea
Paul's Journey to Rome
Paul Arrives at Rome
Paul's Imprisonment at Rome
Paul is Acquitted
Paul Visits Various Places
Paul's 2nd Prison at Rome
Martyrdom of Paul
Destruction of Jerusalem


The Story of the Bible

The New Testament
About
Divisions
Timeline
NT Charts
NT Maps

The Birth of John the Baptist
The Birth of Jesus
The Childhood of Jesus
Beginning of John the Baptist's Ministry
The Baptism of Jesus
The Temptation of Christ
Jesus Begins His Public Ministry
Jesus Cleanses the Temple
Jesus Meets Nicodemus
The Imprisonment of John the Baptist
The Sermon on the Mount
The Twelve Disciples are Chosen
The Raising of the Widow's Son
John the Baptist's Inquiry from Prison
Jesus Calming the Storm
Jesus Raises Jairus' Daughter
The Death of John the Baptist
The Feeding of the Multitudes
The Transfiguration of Jesus
Jesus Leaves Galilee for the Last Time
Jesus is Rejected at Samaria
Jesus Raises Lazarus from the Dead
The Mission of the Seventy
The Feast at Bethany
The Last Supper with His Disciples
The Betrayal by Judas
The Crucifixion of Jesus
The Resurrection of Jesus
The Ascension of Jesus
The Holy Spirit is Poured Out
The Church is Established
The First Persecutions of the Christians
Philip at Samaria
The Conversion of Saul
The First Gentile is Converted
The Founding of the Church at Antioch
The Gospel of Matthew is Written
James is Killed by Herod
Paul's Conversion on the Road to Damascus
Paul's First Missionary Journey Begins
The Council at Jerusalem
Paul's Second Missionary Journey Begins
I Thessalonians is Written
II Thessalonians is Written
Paul's Third Missionary Journey Begins
I Corinthians is Written
Galatians is Written
II Corinthians is Written
Romans is Written
The Gospel of Luke is Written

Paul's Arrest at Jerusalem
Paul at Caesarea
Paul's Journey to Rome
Paul Reaches Rome
Paul's Imprisonment at Rome
Ephesians is Written
Philippians is Written
Colossians is Written
Philemon is Written
James is Written
I Peter is Written
Acts is Written

Paul is Acquitted
He Visits Various Places
Hebrews is Written
I Timothy is Written
Titus is Written
The Gospel of Mark is Written
II Peter is Written

Paul's 2d Imprisonment at Rome
2 Timothy is Written
Martyrdom of Paul
Jude is Written
Destruction of Jerusalem
John's Writings

Conclusion
Bibliography and Credits

Summary of the New Testament Books

Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Romans
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation


The Old Testament - Brief Overview
The New Testament - Brief Overview
Bible History Online

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