Map of the Roman Empire - Zeugma

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Ancient Zeugma (Greek for a bridge of boats): A city on the western bank of the Euphrates in the province of Cyrrhestica, in Syria.

Zeugma (Ζεῦγμα). Probably Rumkaleh; a city of Syria, on the borders of Commagené and Cyrrhesticé, built by Seleucus Nicator on the western bank of the Euphrates, at a point where the river was crossed by a bridge of boats, which had been constructed by Alexander the Great (Polyb. v. 43). - Harry Thurston Peck. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. New York. Harper and Brothers.

Zeugma (Greek: Ζεύγμα) is an ancient city of Commagene; currently located in the Gaziantep Province of Turkey. It is a historical settlement which is considered among the four most important settlement areas under the reign of the kingdom of Commagene. It was named for the bridge of boats, or zeugma, which crossed the Euphrates there.

History of Zeugma. The ancient city of Zeugma was originally founded as a Greek settlement by Seleucus I Nicator, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, in 300 BC. King Seleucus almost certainly named the city Seleucia after himself; whether this city is, or can be, the city known as Seleucia on the Euphrates or Seleucia at the Zeugma is disputed. The population in the city at its peak was approximately 80,000. In 64 BC Zeugma was conquered and ruled by the Roman Empire and with this shift the name of the city was changed into Zeugma, meaning "bridge-passage" or "bridge of boats". During Roman rule, the city became one of the attractions in the region, due to its commercial potential originating from its geo-strategic location because the city was on the Silk Road connecting Antioch to China with a quay or pontoon bridge across the river Euphrates which was the border with the Persian Empire until the late 2nd century. During the Roman Era, the Legio IV Scythica was camped in Zeugma. For about two centuries the city was home to high ranking officials and officers of the Roman Empire, who transferred their cultural understanding and sophisticated life style into the region.

Zeugma, a town of Cyrrhestica, on the Euphrates, bet. Europus and Urima, opposite Apamea, with which it communicates by a bridge, whence its name. Zetjme. - Classical Gazetteer

ZEUGMA (Σεῦγμα, Ptol. 5.15.14), a town founded by Seleucus Nicator, in the province of Cyrrhestica, in Syria. It derived its name from a bridge of boats which was here laid across the Euphrates, and which in the course of time became the sole passage over the river, when the older one at Thapsacus, 2000 stadia to the S., had become impracticable, or at all events very dangerous, owing to the spreading of the Arabian hordes. (Plin. Nat. 5.24. s. 21; Strab. xvi. p.746; Steph. B. sub voce Zeugma lay on the right bank of the Euphrates, opposite to Apamea, 72 miles SW. of Samosata, 175 miles NE. of the maritime Seleucia, and 36 miles N. of Hierapolis. (Plin l.c., and 5.12. s. 13; Strab. xvi. p.749; Tab. Peut.) It was therefore opposite to the modern Bir or Biredsjik, which occupies the site of the ancient Apamea. (Cf. Ritter, Erdkunde, x. p. 944, seq.) In the time of Justinian, Zeugma had fallen into decay, but was restored by that emperor. Procop. de Aed. 2.9, p. 237, ed. Bonn.)  - Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.

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