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Map of the Roman Empire - Side
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Ancient Side - In the ancient Roman world Side was a coastal city with a good harbour on the coast of Pamphylia about 10 miles east of Seleucia and just west of the river Melas. It was originally a Greek colony founded by Cumae in Aeolis in 750 B.C. with the earliest name of Polemonium. There have been many excavations in the area.
Sida, Sidé (Σίδη). Now Eski Adalia; a city of Pamphylia, on the coast, a little west of the river Melas. It was an Aeolian colony from Cyme in Aeolis, and was a chief seat of the worship of Athené, who is represented on its coins holding a pomegranate (s?d?) as the emblem of the city. - Harry Thurston Peck. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. New York. Harper and Brothers. 1898.
Side (Greek: Σίδη Side, Turkish: Side) was an ancient Luvi city in Anatolia, in the region of Pamphylia, in what is now Antalya province, on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. It is now a resort town and one of the best-known classical sites in Turkey, near Manavgat and the village of Selimiye, 75 km from Antalya) in the province of Antalya. It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the Eurymedon River. Today, as in antiquity, the ancient city is situated on a small north-south peninsula about 1 km long and 400 m across.
Roman History of Side. In the 1st century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cilician pirates established their chief naval base and a centre for their slave-trade. The consul Servilius Vatia defeated these brigands in 78 BC and later the Roman general Pompey in 67 BC, bringing Side under the control of Rome and beginning its second period of ascendancy, when it established and maintained a good working relationship with the Roman Empire. Emperor Augustus reformed the state administration and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatia in 25 BC, after the short reign of Amyntas of Galatia between 36 and 25 BC. Side began another prosperous period as a commercial center in Asia Minor through its trade in olive oil. Its population grew to 60,000 inhabitants. This period would last well into the 3rd century AD. Side also established itself as a slave-trading center in the Mediterranean. Its large commercial fleet engaged in acts of piracy, while wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works, monuments, and competitions as well as the games and gladiator fights. Most of the extant ruins at Side date from this period of prosperity. - Wikipedia
Side, A maritime town of Pamphylia, 10 m. E. from Seleucia. A colony of Cumseans from jEolis. Sacred to Minerva. The chief harbour and emporium of the Pamphylian and Cilician pirates. Later, the metropolis of Pamphylia. Eski Adalia. - Classical Gazetteer
Maps are essential for any serious study, they help students of Roman history understand the geographical locations and historical backgrounds of the places mentioned in historical sources.
SIDE (Σίδη: Eth. S?d?t??), a town with a good harbour on the coast of Pamphylia, 50 stadia to the west of the river Melas, and 350 east of Attaleia. (Stud. Mar. Mag. § 214, fell.) The town was founded by Cumae in Aeolis. (Scylax, Peripl. p. 40; Strab. xiv. p.667, comp. p. 664; Steph. B. sub voce Pomp. Mela, 1.15.) Arrian (Arr. Anab. 1.26), who admits the Cumaean origin of the place, relates a tradition current at Side itself, according to which the Sidetae were the most ancient colonists sent out from Cumae, but soon after their establishment in their new home forgot the Greek language, and formed a peculiar idiom for themselves, which was not understood even by the neighbouring barbarians. When Alexander appeared before Side, it surrendered and received a Macedonian garrison. In the time of Antiochus the Great, a naval engagement took place off Side between the fleet of Antiochus, commanded by Hannibal, and that of the Rhodians, in which the former was defeated. (Liv. 35.13, 18, 37.23, 24.) Polybius (5.73) states that there existed great enmity between the people of Side and Aspendus. At the time when the pirates had reached their highest power in the Mediterranean, they made Side their principal port, and used it as a market to dispose of their prisoners and booty by auction. (Strab. xiv. p.664.) Side continued to be a town of considerable importance under the Roman emperors, and in the ultimate division of the province it became the metropolis of Pamphylia Prima. (Hierocl. [2.995] p. 682; Concil. Const. ii. p. 240.) The chief divinity of this city was Athena, who is therefore seen represented on its coins, holding a pomegranate (s?d?) in her hand. (Sestini, Num. Vet. p. 392, foil.; comp. Xenoph. Anab. 1.2.12; Cicero, Cic. Fam. 3.6; Athen. 8.350; Paus. 8.28.2; Ptol. 5.5.2, 8.17.31.) The exact site of ancient Side, which is now called Esky Adalia, as well as its remains, have been described by modern travellers. Beaufort (Karamania, p. 146, foll), who gives an excellent plan of the present condition of the place, states that the city stood on a low peninsula, and was surrounded by walls; the part facing the land was of excellent workmanship, and much of it is still perfect. There were four gates, one from the country and three from the sea. The agora, 180 feet in diameter, was surrounded by a double row of columns. One side of the square is at present occupied by the ruins of a temple and portico. The theatre appears like a lofty acropolis rising from the centre of the town, and is by far the largest and best preserved of any seen in Asia Minor. The harbour consisted of two small moles, connected with the quay and principal sea gate. At the extremity of the peninsula were two artificial harbours for larger vessels. Both are now almost filled with sand and stones, which have been borne in by the swell. The earliest coins of Side are extremely ancient; the inscriptions are in very barbarous characters, resembling the Phoenician, and the imperial coins exhibit the proud titles of ?aµp??t?t? and ??d????. (Eckhel, vol. iii. pp. 44, 161; Spanheim, De Usu et Praest. Num. p. 879; Fellows, Asia Minor, p. 201; Leake, Asia Minor, p. 195, foll.) Respecting Side, the ancient name of Polemonium, see POLEMONIUM - Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.
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