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Map of the Roman Empire - Philippopolis
M-4 on the Map
Philippopolis. A city in Thrace established by Philip II of Macedon. The modern name is Plovdiv.
Philippopolis. (Philippoupolis (Φιλιππούπολις). Now Philippopoli; an
important town in Thrace, founded by Philip of Macedon, was situated in a large
plain, southeast of the Hebrus, on a hill with three summits, whence it was
sometimes called Trimontium. Under the Roman Empire it was the capital of the
province of Thracia. - Harry Thurston Peck. Harpers Dictionary
of Classical Antiquities. New York. Harper and Brothers. 1898.
Plovdiv (Bulgarian: Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria with a population of 381,738. Plovdiv's history spans some 6,000 years, with traces of a Neolithic settlement dating to roughly 4000 BC. It is the administrative center of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria and three municipalities (Plovdiv, Maritsa and Rodopi) and Bulgaria's Yuzhen tsentralen planning region (NUTS II), as well as the largest and most important city in Northern Thrace and the wider international historical region of Thrace. The city is an important economic, transport, cultural and educational center. Known in the West for most of its history by the Greek name Philippopolis, it was originally a Thracian settlement before becoming a major Roman city. In the Middle Ages, it retained its strategic regional importance, changing hands between the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires. It came under Ottoman rule in the 14th century. In 1878, Plovdiv was made the capital of the autonomous Ottoman region of Eastern Rumelia; in 1885, it became part of Bulgaria with the unification of that region and the Principality of Bulgaria. Plovdiv is situated in the southern part of the Plovdiv Plain on the two banks of the Maritsa River. The city has historically developed on seven syenite hills, some of which are 250 m (820.21 ft) high. Because of these seven hills, Plovdiv is often referred to in Bulgaria as "The City of the Seven Hills".
The Name Plovdiv was given various names throughout its long history. It was originally a Thracian settlement by the name of Eumolpias. Philip II of Macedon conquered the area in 342-341 BC and renamed the city Philippoupolis (Greek: Φιλιππούπολις), of which the later Thracian name for the city, Pulpudeva, is a translation. After the Romans took control of the area, the city was named Latin: Trimontium, meaning the Three Hills. - Wikipedia
Maps are essential for any serious study, they help students of Roman history understand the geographical locations and historical backgrounds of the places mentioned in historical sources.
Ancient Plovdiv. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Plovdiv's written post-Bronze Age history lists it as a Thracian fortified settlement named Eumolpias. In 4th century BC the city was a centre of a trade fair (called panegyreis). In 342 BC, it was conquered by Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, who renamed it "Φιλιππόπολις", Philippopolis or "the city of Philip" in his own honour. Later, it was reconquered by the Thracians who called it Pulpudeva (a reconstructed translation of Philipopolis). In 72 AD it was seized by the Roman general Terentius Varo Lukulus and was incorporated into the Roman Empire, where it was called Trimontium (City of Three Hills) and served as metropolis (capital) of the province of Thrace. It gained a city status in late 1st century. Trimontium was an important crossroad for the Roman Empire and was called "The largest and most beautiful of all cities" by Lucian. Although it was not the capital of the Province of Thrace, the city was the largest and most important centre in the province. In those times, the Via Militaris (or Via Diagonalis), the most important military road in the Balkans, passed through the city. The Roman times were a period of growth and cultural excellence. The ancient ruins tell a story of a vibrant, growing city with numerous public buildings, shrines, baths, and theatres. The city had an advanced water system and sewerage. It was defended with a double wall. Many of those are still preserved and can be seen by tourists. Today only a small part of the ancient city has been excavated. - Wikipedia
PHILIPPO´POLIS (Φιλιππούπολις) Ptol. 3.11.12; Plb. 5.100; Steph. B. sub voce a town of Thrace, founded by Philip of Macedon, on the site of a previously existing town, called Eumolpias or Poneropolis. (Ammian. 26.10.4; Plin. Nat. 4.11. s. 18.) From its situation on a hill with three peaks or summits, it was also called Trimontium. (Plin. l.c.; Ptol. l.c.) It lay on the SE. side of the Hebrus. The Thracians, however, regained possession of it (Polyb. l.c.; Liv. 39.53), and it remained in their hands till they were subdued by the Romans. Its size maybe inferred from the fact of the Goths having slaughtered 100,000 persons in it (Ammian. 31.5.17), though doubtless many persons from the environs had taken refuge there. The assumption that it likewise bore the name of Hadrianopolis, rests only on an interpolation in Ptolemy. It is still called Philippopoli, and continues to be one of the most considerable towns of Thrace. (Tac. Ann. 3.38; Itin. Ant. p. 136; Hierool. p. 635.) [T.H.D] - Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.
Map of the Roman Empire - Places