Map of Alexander the Great (Decisive
This map reveals the route of
Alexander the Great and his decisive battles at Granicus, Issus,
Gaugamela, and Hydaspes.
Map of Alexander's
Campaigns of Conquest
“For I myself believe that there was at that time no race of mankind, no city, no single individual, to which the name of Alexander had not reached.”
Soldier, statesman, conquering general, King of
Greece, Pharaoh of Egypt, Lord of Asia.
Alexander III of Macedon, better known to us as Alexander the
Great, was all of these and much more. Although the mists of antiquity have clouded a full and complete understanding regarding all the details of Alexander the Great’s life and conquests, nonetheless we must depend upon the ancient sources in order to reconstruct at least a reliable overview of his brief but significant life. Amidst the jumbled and oft times contradictory accounts of the ancient historians Diodorus, Curtius, Plutarch, and Arrian, there lies virtually untouched the Old Testament prophetic announcements concerning God’s sovereign election of Alexander’s Empire for His own higher purposes.
There exists a body of evidence concerning Alexander the Great which is most often ignored by students of his reign. This evidence consists of four important prophetic references in the Biblical book of Daniel each written centuries before Alexander’s birth.
Alexander III the Great in Smith's Bible Dictionary
(helper of men--brave) king of Macedon, surnamed the Great, the son
of Philip and Olympias, was born at Pella B.C. 356, and succeeded
his father B.C. 336. Two years afterwards he crossed the Hellespont
(B.C. 334) to carry out the plans of his fathers and execute the
mission of (Greece to the civilized world. He subjugated Syria and
Palestine B.C. 334-332. Egypt next submitted to him B.C. 332, and in
this year he founded Alexandria. In the same year he finally
defeated Darius at Gaugamela, who in B.C. 330 was murdered. The next
two years were occupied by Alexander in the consolidation of his
Persian conquests and the reduction of Bactria. In B.C. 327 he
crossed the Indus; turning westward he reached Susa B.C. 325, and
proceeded to Babylon B.C. 324, which he chose as the capital of his
empire. In the next year (B.C. 323) he died there of intemperance,
at the early age of 32, in the midst of his gigantic plans; and
those who inherited his conquests left his designs unachieved and
unattempted. cf. Da 7:6; 8:5, 11:3 Alexander is intended in Da 2:39
and also Dani 7:6; 8:5-7; 11:3,4
the latter indicating the rapidity of his conquests and his power.
He ruled with great dominion, and did according to his will, Da 11:3
"and there was none that could deliver .... out of his hand." Da 8:7
Alexander the Great in Wikipedia
Alexander the Great (Greek: λέξανδρος Μέγας or Μέγας
λέξανδρος, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20, 356 BC – June 10 or June 11,
323 BC), also known as Alexander III of Macedon (λέξανδρος Γ'
Μακεδών) was an ancient Greek king (basileus) of Macedon (336–323
BC). He was one of the most successful military commanders of all
time and is presumed undefeated in battle. By the time of his death,
he had conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks.
Alexander assumed the kingship of Macedon following the death of his
father Philip II, who had unified most of the city-states of
mainland Greece under Macedonian hegemony in a federation called the
League of Corinth. After reconfirming Macedonian rule by quashing a
rebellion of southern Greek city-states and staging a short but
bloody excursion against Macedon's northern neighbours, Alexander
set out east against the Achaemenid Persian Empire, which he
defeated and overthrew. His conquests included Anatolia, Syria,
Phoenicia, Judea, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria and Mesopotamia, and he
extended the boundaries of his own empire as far as Punjab, India.
Alexander had already made plans prior to his death for military and
mercantile expansions into the Arabian peninsula, after which he was
to turn his armies to the west (Carthage, Rome and the Iberian
Peninsula). His original vision, however, had been to the east, to
the ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea, as is described by
his boyhood tutor and mentor Aristotle.
Alexander integrated many foreigners into his army, leading some
scholars to credit him with a "policy of fusion". He also encouraged
marriages between his soldiers and foreigners, and he himself went
on to marry two foreign princesses.
Alexander died after twelve years of constant military campaigning,
possibly a result of malaria, poisoning, typhoid fever, viral
encephalitis or the consequences of alcoholism. His legacy and
conquests lived on long after him and ushered in centuries of Greek
settlement and cultural influence over distant areas. This period is
known as the Hellenistic period, which featured a combination of
Greek, Middle Eastern and Indian culture. Alexander himself featured
prominently in the history and myth of both Greek and non-Greek
cultures. His exploits inspired a literary tradition in which he
appeared as a legendary hero in the tradition of Achilles.