The Assyrian Empire
This map reveals the Assyrian
Empire in 671 BC under its greatest rulers: Tiglath-Pileser III
(745-727 BC), Sargon II (722-705 BC), Sennacherib (705-681 BC),
Esarhaddon (680-669 BC), and Ashurbanipal (669-627 BC). After
Ashurbanipal died in 627 BC the Assyrian Empire was doomed and it
was not long before Babylon would set its sights for world
for Print) (Freely Distributed)
Map of the Assyrian
Empire at its Greatest Extant (900-607 BC.)
The Empire of Assyria
Under Ashurbanipal (669-627 BC) the boundaries of the Assyrian
Empire reached as far as the Caucasus Mountains in the north to
Egypt, Arabia, and down to Nubia in the south, and from Cyprus and
Antioch in the west to Persia in the east.
The largest boundaries of the
Empire of Assyria around 671 BC were as follows:
1. The Northern Boundary were the cities of Kanish and Tushpa
in the Caucasus Mountains.
2. The Western Boundary was the Mediterranean Sea which included
the cities of Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, Gaza, all the way to Cyprus. In the south the
western boundary extended past Memphis in Egypt.
3. The Eastern Boundary were the cities of Susa and Ecbatana
4. The Southern Boundary went all the way to Nubia past
Thebes and Jeb.
History of the Assyrian Empire
The Assyrian Empire began to arise around
1270 BC, in the area far north on the Tigris River after the fall of Chaldea. The first
capital of Assyria was Assur, and after that Nimrod became the
capital of ancient Assyria. Later in 702 BC Nineveh became capital,
and this was during the reign of
king Sennacherib. Nineveh soon became one of the largest cities of the
ancient Near East.
At the height the Assyrian Empire the kingdom embraced the lands of
the northern Tigris, Armenia, Media,
Babylonia, Elam, Mesopotamia, Syria, Israel, Judah, and the northern
portion of Egypt. The greatest Assyrian Kings were Shalmaneser, Sargon,
Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon. The city of Nineveh was
finally destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians who came against them
at once, and the
Kingdom of Assyria was defeated and came to an end in 625 BC.
Note on the ancient
Chaldean Empire: The Early Chaldean Empire was founded in 2300 BC at
Ur, south of the Euphrates. It was at its height in the time of
Abraham, under Chedorlaomer, and continued, with varying fortunes,
for about one thousand years.
Kings of Assyria
2234 First authentic date in Chaldaean history
1250 Chaldsean subjection and Assyrian independence
1130 Age of Tiglath-pileser
747 Era of Nabonassar
745 Assyrian revival under Tiglath-pileser II
625 Overthrow of Assyria by the Medes under Cyaxares
(From 885-607 BC)
(885-860 B.C.) A cruel warrior king, he made Assyria into the most
fierce fighting machine of ancient world.
Shalmaneser III (860-825 B.C.) His reign was
marked by almost constant war. He was the first Assyrian king to
come into conflict with Israel. King Ahab fought against him, and
king Jehu paid him tribute in 841 BC. His royal inscriptions were
more detailed and more numerous than any other king. His building
works were massive just like his father Assurnasirpal II.
Shamsi-Adad V (825-808 B.C.) Most of his reign
was focused on Babylonia and his own internal conflicts.
Adad-nirari III (808-783 B.C.) The little
information about his reign mentions his building projects at Calah
and Nineveh, as well as a conflict at Der in Babylonia and
collecting tribute in Damascus, Syria.
Shalmaneser IV (783-771 B.C.) The limited
knowledge of his reign reveal some conflicts in Damascus and a
period of decline in Assyria.
Assur-dayan III (771-753 B.C.) The little
information about this ruler reveals Assyria being in a period of
Assur-nirari V (753-747 B.C.) There is very
little information about his reign. The king of Urartu boasted of a
victory over this king of Assyria in an inscription.
Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) (747-727 B.C.) He
restored Assyria to a major world power. He is the "Pul" mentioned
in the Bible and the one who began to destroy Samaria, the capital
of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. He carried many away into
captivity. This captivity is mentioned in his own inscriptions, the
Babylonian Chronicle, and the Bible.
Shalmaneser V (727-722 B.C.) He besieged
Samaria, the capital of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. He died
during the siege after imposing taxation on the holy city (Asshur),
and his son Sargon came to power.
Sargon II (722-705 B.C.) He completed the
destruction of Samaria and the captivity of Israel. He was also
famous for his magnificent palace with his colossal winged
Sennacherib (705-681 B.C.) He was the most
famous of the Assyrian kings. He mentions the name of Hezekiah on
his prism during his war campaigns, he claimed to have "Hezekiah
captured in his own royal city (Jerusalem) like a caged bird." His
army was defeated at the gates of Jerusalem by the Angel of the
Lord. Sennacherib returned back to Nineveh and was killed violently
by his own son, as mentioned in the Babylonian Chronicle, The Bible,
and various other inscriptions. He also conquered Babylon.
Esar-haddon (681-668 B.C.) He rebuilt Babylon,
invaded and conquered Egypt by crossing over the Sinai Desert with
Arab camels carrying water for his army, and was one of Assyria's
greatest kings. He died fighting Egypt.
Assur-banipal (668-626 B.C.) He destroyed the
Thebes in Egypt and collected a great library, innumerable clay
tablets were found.
Assur-etil-ilani (626-607 B.C.) It was under
his reign that the Assyrian Empire fell.
The vast empire of Assyria was
never more than a loosely tied bundle of petty states. The records
of the kings, engraved on slabs and cylinders, reveal a constant
succession of revolts, wars, subjugations, and deportations of whole
populations. Thus Assyria had no inherent strength, and after
culminating in the 7th century it began rapidly to fall in pieces.
Some Scriptures Mentioning
Jeremiah 2:18 - And now what hast thou to do in the way of
Egypt, to drink the waters of Sihor? or what hast thou to do in the
way of Assyria, to drink the waters of the river?
16:10 - And king Ahaz went to Damascus to meet
Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and saw an altar that
[was] at Damascus: and king Ahaz sent to Urijah the priest the
fashion of the altar, and the pattern of it, according to all the
19:4 - It may be the LORD thy God will hear all the words of
Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath
sent to reproach the living God; and will reprove the words which
the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift up [thy] prayer for the
remnant that are left.
- It may be the LORD thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh, whom
the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach
the living God, and will reprove the words which the LORD thy God
hath heard: wherefore lift up [thy] prayer for the remnant that is
2:36 - Why gaddest thou about so much to change thy way?
thou also shalt be ashamed of Egypt, as thou wast ashamed of
Chronicles 32:9 - After this did Sennacherib king of
Assyria send his servants to Jerusalem, (but he [himself
laid siege] against Lachish, and all his power with him,) unto
Hezekiah king of Judah, and unto all Judah that [were] at Jerusalem,
Chronicles 30:6 - So the posts went with the letters from
the king and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah, and
according to the commandment of the king, saying, Ye children of
Israel, turn again unto the LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel,
and he will return to the remnant of you, that are escaped out of
the hand of the kings of Assyria.
16:7 - So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglathpileser king of
Assyria, saying, I [am] thy servant and thy son: come up,
and save me out of the hand of the king of Syria, and out of the
hand of the king of Israel, which rise up against me.
18:9 - And it came to pass in the fourth year of king
Hezekiah, which [was] the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of
Israel, [that] Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up
against Samaria, and besieged it.
18:17 - And the king of Assyria sent Tartan
and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a
great host against Jerusalem. And they went up and came to
Jerusalem. And when they were come up, they came and stood by the
conduit of the upper pool, which [is] in the highway of the fuller's
17:26 - Wherefore they spake to the king of Assyria,
saying, The nations which thou hast removed, and placed in the
cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the God of the land:
therefore he hath sent lions among them, and, behold, they slay
them, because they know not the manner of the God of the land.
17:24 - And the king of Assyria brought [men]
from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and
from Sepharvaim, and placed [them] in the cities of Samaria instead
of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in
the cities thereof.
20:6 - And I will add unto thy days fifteen years; and I
will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of
Assyria; and I will defend this city for mine own sake,
and for my servant David's sake.
Chronicles 28:21 - For Ahaz took away a portion [out] of the
house of the LORD, and [out] of the house of the king, and of the
princes, and gave [it] unto the king of Assyria: but
he helped him not.
Zechariah 10:10 - I will bring them again also out of the
land of Egypt, and gather them out of Assyria; and I
will bring them into the land of Gilead and Lebanon; and [place]
shall not be found for them.
50:17 - Israel [is] a scattered sheep; the lions have driven
[him] away: first the king of Assyria hath devoured
him; and last this Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath broken his
18:16 - At that time did Hezekiah cut off [the gold from]
the doors of the temple of the LORD, and [from] the pillars which
Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid, and gave it to the king of
- Now therefore give pledges, I pray thee, to my master the king of
Assyria, and I will give thee two thousand horses, if
thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them.
9:32 - Now therefore, our God, the great, the mighty, and
the terrible God, who keepest covenant and mercy, let not all the
trouble seem little before thee, that hath come upon us, on our
kings, on our princes, and on our priests, and on our prophets, and
on our fathers, and on all thy people, since the time of the kings
of Assyria unto this day.
- And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the
sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof: thus shall
he deliver [us] from the Assyrian, when he cometh into
our land, and when he treadeth within our borders.
23:29 - In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt went up
against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates:
and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when
he had seen him.
27:13 - And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] the
great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready
to perish in the land of Assyria, and the outcasts in
the land of Egypt, and shall worship the LORD in the holy mount at
- And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish
to Jerusalem unto king Hezekiah with a great army. And he stood by
the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field.
18:23 - Now therefore, I pray thee, give pledges to my lord
the king of Assyria, and I will deliver thee two
thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon
18:28 - Then Rabshakeh stood and cried with a loud voice in
the Jews' language, and spake, saying, Hear the word of the great
king, the king of Assyria:
19:10 - Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah,
saying, Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee, saying,
Jerusalem shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of
36:13 - Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in
the Jews' language, and said, Hear ye the words of the great king,
the king of Assyria.
15:19 - [And] Pul the king of Assyria came
against the land: and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver,
that his hand might be with him to confirm the kingdom in his hand.
16:8 - And Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found in
the house of the LORD, and in the treasures of the king's house, and
sent [it for] a present to the king of Assyria.
18:30 - Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the LORD,
saying, The LORD will surely deliver us, and this city shall not be
delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria.
Nineveh in Easton's Bible Dictionary
mentioned in Gen. 10:11, which is rendered in the Revised Version,
"He [i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh." It
is not again noticed till the days of Jonah, when it is described
(Jonah 3:3; 4:11) as a great and populous city, the flourishing
capital of the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 19:36; Isa. 37:37). The book
of the prophet Nahum is almost exclusively taken up with prophetic
denunciations against this city. Its ruin and utter desolation are
foretold (Nah.1:14; 3:19, etc.). Zephaniah also (2:13-15) predicts
its destruction along with the fall of the empire of which it was
the capital. From this time there is no mention of it in Scripture
till it is named in gospel history (Matt. 12:41; Luke 11:32). This
"exceeding great city" lay on the eastern or left bank of the river
Tigris, along which it stretched for some 30 miles, having an
average breadth of 10 miles or more from the river back toward the
eastern hills. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of
ruins. Occupying a central position on the great highway between the
Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the
West, wealth flowed into it from many sources, so that it became the
greatest of all ancient cities. About B.C. 633 the Assyrian empire
began to show signs of weakness, and Nineveh was attacked by the
Medes, who subsequently, about B.C. 625, being joined by the
Babylonians and Susianians, again attacked it, when it fell, and was
razed to the ground. The Assyrian empire then came to an end, the
Medes and Babylonians dividing its provinces between them. "After
having ruled for more than six hundred years with hideous tyranny
and violence, from the Caucasus and the Caspian to the Persian Gulf,
and from beyond the Tigris to...
Nineveh in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Nimrod builded Nineveh (Genesis 10:11); Herodotus (i. 7) makes Ninus
founder of Nineveh. and grandson of Belus founder of Babylon; which
implies that it was from Babylon, as Scripture says, that Nineveh's
founder came. Nin is the Assyrian Hercules. Their mythology also
makes Ninus son of Nimrod. Jonah is the next Scripture after Genesis
10 that mentions Nineveh. (See JONAH.) Sennacherib after his host's
destruction "went and dwelt at Nineveh" (2 Kings 19:36). Jonah
(Jonah 3:3) describes it as an "exceeding great city of three days'
journey" round (i.e. 60 miles, at 20 miles per day) with 120,000
children "who knew not their right hand from their left" (Jonah
4:11), which would make a population in all of 600,000 or even one
million. Diodorus Siculus (ii. 3), agreeing with Jonah's "three
days' journey," makes the circumference 55 miles, pastures and
pleasure grounds being included within, from whence Jonah appositely
(Jonah 4:11) mentions "much cattle." G. Smith thinks that the ridges
enclosing Nebi Yunus and Koyunjik (the mounds called "tels" opposite
Mosul) were only the walls of inner Nineveh, the city itself
extending beyond to the mound Yarenijah. The parallelogram in
Assyria covered with remains has Khorsabad N.E.; Koyunjik and Nebi
Yunus (Nineveh in the narrow sense) near the Tigris N.W.; Nimrud and
Athur between the Tigris and Zab, N.W.; and Karamles at a distance
inward from the Zab S.E. From Koyunjik to Nimrud is 18 miles; from
Khorsabad to Karamles 18; from Koyunjik to Khorsabad 13 or 14; from
Nimrud to Karamles 14. The length was greater than the breadth; so
Jonah 3:4 "entered into the city a day's journey." The longer sides
were 150 furlongs each, the shorter 90 furlongs, the whole circuit
480 or 460 miles. Babylon had a circuit of only 385 miles (Clitarchus
in Diod. ii. 7, Strabo xvi. 737). The walls were 100 ft. high, with
1,500 towers, and broad enough for three chariots abreast. Shereef
Khan is the northern extremity of the collection of mounds on the
eastern bank of the Tigris, and is five and a half miles N. of
Koyunjik. There is also an enclosure, 5,000 yards in circuit, once
enclosed by a moat at Selamivah three miles N. of Nimrud. Nimrud in
inscriptions is called Kalkhu or Calah in Genesis 10:11; Khorsabad
is called Sargina from Sargon. At Kileh Sherghat is the presumed
original capital," Asshur," 60 miles S. of Mosul, on the right or
western bank of the Tigris. Sennacherib first made Nineveh the
capital. Nineveh was at first only a fort to keep the Babylonian
conquests around. It subsequently, with Rehoboth, Ir, Calah, and
Resen, formed one great city, "Nineveh" in the larger sense.
Thothmes III of Egypt is mentioned in inscriptions as capturing
Nineveh. Phraortes the Mede perished in attempting to do so
(Herodotus i. 102). Cyaxares his successor, after at first raising
the siege owing to a Scythic invasion (Herodotus i. 103, 106) 625
B.C., finally succeeded in concert with the Babylonian Nabopolassar,
606 B.C., Saracus the last king, Esarhaddon's grandson, set fire to
the palace and perished in the flames, as Ctesias states, and as the
marks of fire on the walls still confirm. So Nahum 3:13; Nahum 3:15,
"fire shall devour thy bars." Charred wood, calcined alabaster, and
heat splintered figures abound. Nahum (Nahum 2) and Zephaniah
(Zephaniah 2:13-15) foretold its doom; and Ezekiel (Ezekiel 31)
shortly after attests the completeness of its overthrow, as a
warning of the fatal issue of pride, Isaiah 10:7-14; Diodorus (ii.
27) says there...
Nineveh in Hitchcock's Bible Names
Nineveh in Naves Topical Bible
Capitol of the Assyrian Empire Ge 10:11,12 -Contained a population
of upwards of one-hundred and twenty thousand people, when Jonah
preached Jon 4:11 -Extent of Jon 3:4 -Sennacherib in 2Ki 19:36,37;
Isa 37:37,38 -Jonah preaches to Jon 1:1,2; 3 -Nahum prophesies
against Na 1; 2; 3 -Zephaniah foretells the desolation of Zep
Nineveh in Smiths Bible Dictionary
(abode of Ninus), the capital of the ancient kingdom and empire of
Assyria. The name appears to be compounded from that of an Assyrian
deity "Nin," corresponding, it is conjectured, with the Greek
Hercules, and occurring in the names of several Assyrian kings, as
in "Ninus," the mythic founder, according to Greek tradition of the
city. Nineveh is situated on the eastern bank of the river Tigris,
50 miles from its mouth and 250 miles north of Babylon. It is first
mentioned in the Old Testament in connection with the primitive
dispersement and migrations of the human race. Asshur, or according
to the marginal reading, which is generally preferred, Nimrod is
there described, Ge 10:11 as extending his kingdom from the land of
Shinar or Babylonia, in the south, to Assyria in the north and
founding four cities, of which the most famous was Nineveh. Hence
Assyria was subsequently known to the Jews as "the land of Nimrod,"
cf. Mic 5:6 and was believed to have been first peopled by a colony
from Babylon. The kingdom of Assyria and of the Assyrians is
referred to in the Old Testament as connected with the Jews at a
very early period, as in Nu 24:22,24 and Psal 83:8 but after the
notice of the foundation of Nineveh in Genesis no further mention is
made of the city until the time of the book of Jonah, or the eighth
century B.C. In this book no mention is made of Assyria or the
Assyrians, the king to whom the prophet was sent being termed the
"king of Nineveh," and his subjects "the people of Nineveh." Assyria
is first called a kingdom in the time of Menahem, about B.C. 770.
Nahum (? B.C. 645) directs his prophecies against Nineveh; only once
against the king of Assyria. ch. Na 3:18 In 2Ki 19:36 and Isai 37:37
the city is first distinctly mentioned as the residence of the
monarch. Sennacherib was slain there when worshipping in the temple
of Nisroch his god. Zephaniah, about B.C. 630, couples the capital
and the kingdom together, Zep 2:13 and this is the last mention of
Nineveh as an existing city. The destruction of Nineveh occurred
B.C. 606. The city was then laid waste, its monuments destroyed and
its inhabitants scattered or carried away into captivity. It never
rose again from its ruins. This total disappearance of Nineveh is
fully confirmed by the records of profane history. The political
history of Nineveh is that of Assyria, of which a sketch has already
been given. [ASSYRIA] Previous to recent excavations and researches,
the ruins which occupied the presumed site of Nineveh seemed to
consist of mere shapeless heaps or mounds of earth and rubbish.
Unlike the vast masses of brick masonry which mark the site of
Babylon, they showed externally no signs of artificial construction,
except perhaps here and there the traces of a rude wall of sun-dried
bricks. Some of these mounds were of enormous dimensions, looking in
the distance rather like natural elevations than the work of men's
hands. They differ greatly in form, size and height. Some are mere
conical heaps, varying from 50 to 150 feet high; others have a broad
flat summit, and very precipitous cliff-like sites furrowed by deep
ravines worn by the winter rains. The principal ruins are-- (1) the
group immediately opposite Mosul, including the great mounds of
Kouyunjik and Nebbi Yunus; (2) that near the junction of the Tigris
and Zab comprising the mounds of Nimroud and Athur; (3) Khorsabad,
about ten miles...
Nineveh in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
nin'-e-ve (nineweh; Nineue, Nineui; Greek and Roman writers, Ninos):
I. BEGINNINGS, NAME, POSITION 1. First Biblical Mention 2. Etymology
of the Name 3. Position on the Tigris II. NINEVEH AND ITS
SURROUNDINGS 1. Its Walls 2. Principal Mounds and Gateways 3. Extent
and Population within the Walls 4. Extent outside the Walls 5.
Calah, Resen and Rehoboth-Ir 6. Khorsabad 7. Sherif Khan and
Selamieh 8. Nimroud III. PALACES AT NINEVEH PROPER 1. The Palace of
Sennacherib 2. The Palace of Assur-bani-apli IV. SENNACHERIB'S
DESCRIPTION OF NINEVEH 1. The Walls 2. The Gates--Northwest 3. The
Gates--South and East 4. The Gates--West 5. The Outer Wall: the
Plantations 6. The Water-Supply, etc. 7. How the Bas-Reliefs
Illustrate the King's Description 8. Nineveh the Later Capital V.
LAST DAYS AND FALL OF NINEVEH LITERATURE I. Beginnings, Name,
Position. 1. First Biblical Mention: The first Biblical mention of
Nineveh is in Gen 10:11, where it is stated that NIMROD (which see)
or Asshur went out into Assyria, and builded Nineveh and Rehoboth-Ir,
and Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah, with the addition,
"the same is the great city." Everything indicates that these
statements are correct, for Nineveh was certainly at one time under
Babylonian rule, and was at first not governed by Assyrian kings,
but by issake or viceroys of Assur, the old capital. To all
appearance Nineveh took its name from the Babylonian Nina near Lagas
in South Babylonia, on the Euphrates, from which early foundation it
was probably colonized. The native name appears as Ninua or Nina (Ninaa),
written with the character for "water enclosure" with that for
"fish" inside, implying a connection between Nina and the Semitic
nun, "fish." 2. Etymology of the Name: The Babylonian Nina was a
place where fish were very abundant, and Ishtar or Nina, the goddess
of the city, was associated with Nin-mah, Merodach's spouse, as
goddess of reproduction. Fish are also plentiful in the Tigris at
Mosul, the modern town on the other side of the river, and this may
have influenced the choice of the site by the Babylonian settlers,
and the foundation there of the great temple of Ishtar or Nina. The
date of this foundation is unknown, but it may have taken place
about 3OOO BC. 3. Position on the Tigris: Nineveh lay on the eastern
bank of the Tigris, at the point where the Khosr falls into that
stream. The outline of the wall is rectangular on the West, but of
an irregular shape on the East. The western fortifications run from
Northwest to Southeast, following, roughly, the course of the river,
which now flows about 1,500 yards from the walls, instead of close
to them, as in ancient times. II. Nineveh and Its Surroundings.
According to the late G. Smith, the southwestern wall has a length
of about 2 1/2 miles, and is joined at its western corner by the
northwestern wall, which runs in a northeasterly direction for about
1 1/3 miles. 1. Its Walls: The northeastern wall, starting here,
runs at first in a southeasterly direction, but turns southward,
gradually approaching the southwestern wall, to which, at the end of
about 3 1/4 miles, it is joined by a short wall, facing nearly
South, rather more than half a mile long. 2. Principal Mounds and
Gateways: The principal mounds are Kouyunjik, a little Northeast of
the village of `Amusiyeh, and Nebi-Yunas, about 1,500 yards to the
Southeast. Both of these lie just within the Southwest wall.
Extensive remains of buildings occupy the fortified area. Numerous
openings occur in the walls, many of them ancient, though some seem
to have been made after the abandonment of the site. The principal
gate on the Northwest was guarded by winged bulls (see Layard,
Monuments of Nineveh, 2nd series, plural 3; Nineveh and Babylon,
120). Other gates gave access to the various commercial roads of the
country, those on the East passing through the curved outworks and
the double line of fortifications which protected the northeastern
wall from attack on that side, where the Ninevites evidently
considered that they had most to fear. 3. Extent and Population
within the Walls: According to G. Smith, the circuit of the inner
wall is about 8 miles, and Captain Jones, who made a trigonometrical
survey in 1854, estimated that, allotting to each inhabitant 50
square yards, the city may have contained...