The Destruction of the Southern Kingdom of Judah



Introduction to the Fall of Judah


BKA 272 Map of the Fall of Judah


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Brief History of Jerusalem from David to Jesus to her Destruction in 70 AD
David conquered the city of Jerusalem about 1046 BC and made it his capital. King David later fortified Jerusalem and enlarged it. Later David's son Solomon made the city of Jerusalem famous, he built beautiful buildings, including the temple.  Later in 886 BC Jerusalem was conquered by the Philistines and Arabians during the reign of Jehoram. Later in 826 BC the northern Israelites conquered Jerusalem during the reign of Amaziah. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon conquered the city of Jerusalem three times, in 607, 597 and 586 BC. During the last invasion in 586 BC on Av 9 the city of Jerusalem and the Temple was completely destroyed, as predicted by Jeremiah the prophet. Later in 538 BC Cyrus, King of the Persian Empire, ordered the rebuilding of Jerusalem. The rebuilding of Jerusalem was completed under King Artaxerxes I, who commissioned Ezra in 457 BC, and Nehemiah in 445 BC.  Later in 332 BC Jerusalem was captured by Alexander the Great, and after he died the Ptolemies and the Seleucids made the city wealthy and powerful. Then Antiochus Epiphanes conquered the city of Jerusalem in 170 BC and committed many atrocities against the Jews. As a result of his tyranny, the Jewish Maccabees rose up and made Jerusalem independent. This lasted until the city was captured by the Romans under Pompey in 63 BC. Soon after the Jerusalem temple was plundered by Crassus in 45 BC, and the city was plundered by the Parthians in 40 BC. Around that time Herod the Great took up his residence in Jerusalem being made king by the Romans. He restored the temple and beautified it making the Temple in Jerusalem a wonder of the world. When Herod died Jerusalem became under the control of the Roman procurators, who oversaw affairs from the fortress of Antonia. Jesus visited Jerusalem and the Temple several times in his life. Later in 70 AD Titus of Rome came and laid a terrible siege against Jersualem. The city withstood the siege for about 5 months until it completely fell in 70 AD and was completely destroyed.


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The Events Surrounding the Destruction of Jerusalem

Map of the Fall of Judah

"And I will wipe Jerusalem as one wipes a dish, wiping it
and turning it upside down" (2 Kings 21:13)


The Destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC.

babylonian_chronicle_thumb.jpg Revival came during the reign of Hezekiah but it was immediately swept aside by his son Manasseh, who was Judah's most wicked and longest ruling king. The nation never fully recovered from the effects of this evil king. Manasseh's son Amon continued in his father's depravity, but he soon was murdered. His successor Josiah (about 640-609 B.C.) restored traditional covenant religion, which was based on the Book of the Law newly discovered in a Temple storeroom (2 Chr. 34:14). Many did not follow Josiah's example, however, and the prophet Zephaniah foretold disaster for the nation. By 610 B.C. the Assyrian Empire had collapsed under Babylonian attacks, and Babylon prepared to march against Egypt, which had been helping the Assyrians. Against Jeremiah's advice, Josiah intervened and was killed at Megiddo.


After Josiah there was no hope for Judah, the last 3 kings were all evil. The Babylonians swept down upon Jerusalem in 597 B.C. and captured it. A second attack led to Jerusalem's second defeat in 586 B.C. Captives from both campaigns were taken to Babylonia to mark the captivity of the Southern Kingdom.




Fall of Jerusalem


Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Timeline of Events


1 - Babylonian Forces Approaching

2 - Capture of Judean Cities

3 - The Siege of Jerusalem

4 - Edomites Raid Judah

5 - Rumor of Approaching Egyptian Forces

6 - Jerusalem is Captured

7 - King Zedekiah Tries to Flee

8 - Jews Deported to Babylon from Ramah

Jeremiah's Prophecies



The Fall of Judah

Bible History Online

The Story of the Bible

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