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February 22    Scripture

Second Temple: Archaeology
Archaeological remains testify to the historicity of the Second Temple.

Arch of Titus Frieze of Artifacts Taken from Herod's temple This frieze from the Arch of Titus in Rome depicts the triumphant Roman soldiers carrying off the seven-branched menorah, the Table of the Shewbread and other spoils captured from the Temple in Jerusalem. It reveals the dreadful crushing of the Jewish revolt in 70 A.D. by Titus. [Arch of Titus Relief Image]
http://www.bible-history.com/jewishtemple/JEWISH_TEMPLEArchaeology.htm


Archaeological Findings from the Second Temple - Wikipedia After 1967, archaeologists found that the wall extended all the way around the Temple Mount and is part of the city wall near the Lion's Gate. Thus, the Western Wall is not the only remaining part of the Temple Mount. Currently, Robinson's Arch (named after American Edward Robinson) remains as the beginning of an arch that spanned the gap between the top of the platform and the higher ground farther away. This had been used by the priests as an entrance. Commoners had entered through the still-extant, but now plugged, gates on the southern side which led through beautiful colonnades to the top of the platform. One of these colonnades is still extant and reachable through the Temple Mount. The Southern wall was designed as a grand entrance. Recent archeological digs have found thousands of mikvehs (ceremonial bathtubs) for the ritual purification of the worshipers, as well as a grand stairway leading to the now blocked entrance. Inside the walls, the platform was supported by a series of vaulted archways, now called Solomon's Stables, which still exist and whose current renovation by the Waqf is extremely controversial. The temple itself was constructed of imported white marble that gleamed in the daylight. On September 25, 2007 Yuval Baruch, archaeologist with the Israeli Antiquities Authority announced the discovery of a quarry compound which may have provided King Herod with the stones to build his Temple on the Temple Mount. Coins, pottery and an iron stake found proved the date of the quarrying to be about 19 BCE. Archaeologist Ehud Netzer confirmed that the large outlines of the stone cuts is evidence that it was a massive public project worked by hundreds of slaves.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Temple


Bar Kochba Coin of Herod's Temple The Bar Kochba coin was struck by Bar Kochba, the leader of the Jewish revolt against the Romans in 132 A.D., it reveals the entrance to the Holy Place within the Temple. It is the only image in history of the original facade of the Second Temple. [Bar Kochba Coin Image]
http://www.bible-history.com/jewishtemple/JEWISH_TEMPLEArchaeology.htm


Korban Inscription with Doves for Sacrifice in Herod's Temple Cast of the top of a stone vessel incised with two doves and the Hebrew word "Korban" (Sacrifice). Found in excavations at the wailing wall, Jerusalem, Herodian Period. The Israeli Museum, Jerusalem. [Image of the Korban Inscription]
http://www.bible-history.com/jewishtemple/JEWISH_TEMPLEArchaeology.htm


Roman Legion Inscription from the Destroyers of Herod's Temple Tile inscribed with "Legio X Fretensis" – the name of the Roman legion which destroyed Jerusalem. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem. [Image of the Roman Legion Inscription]
http://www.bible-history.com/jewishtemple/JEWISH_TEMPLEArchaeology.htm


Second Temple Remains by Easton Several remains of Herod's stately temple have by recent explorations been brought to light. It had two courts, one intended for the Israelites only, and the other, a large outer court, called "the court of the Gentiles," intended for the use of strangers of all nations. These two courts were separated by a low wall, as Josephus states, some 4 1/2 feet high, with thirteen openings. Along the top of this dividing wall, at regular intervals, were placed pillars bearing in Greek an inscription to the effect that no stranger was, on the pain of death, to pass from the court of the Gentiles into that of the Jews. At the entrance to a graveyard at the north-western angle of the Haram wall, a stone was discovered by M. Ganneau in 1871, built into the wall, bearing the following inscription in Greek capitals: "No stranger is to enter within the partition wall and enclosure around the sanctuary. Whoever is caught will be responsible to himself for his death, which will ensue." There can be no doubt that the stone thus discovered was one of those originally placed on the boundary wall which separated the Jews from the Gentiles, of which Josephus speaks. It is of importance to notice that the word rendered "sanctuary" in the inscription was used in a specific sense of the inner court, the court of the Israelites, and is the word rendered "temple" in John 2:15 and Acts 21:28, 29. When Paul speaks of the middle wall of partition (Eph. 2:14), he probably makes allusion to this dividing wall. Within this partition wall stood the temple proper, consisting of, (1) the court of the women, 8 feet higher than the outer court; (2) 10 feet higher than this court was the court of Israel; (3) the court of the priests, again 3 feet higher; and lastly (4) the temple floor, 8 feet above that; thus in all 29 feet above the level of the outer court.
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/T/Temple%2C+Herod%27s/


Temple Menorah and other Implements Incised on Plaster Incised on plaster of a house wall found in the Jewish quarter of old Jerusalem. Herod’s time (40-48 A.D.) The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. [Image of Temple Menorah]
http://www.bible-history.com/jewishtemple/JEWISH_TEMPLEArchaeology.htm


Temple Warning Inscription from the Outer Court of Herod's Temple Josephus the Jewish historian wrote about the warning signs that were on the barrier that separated the court of the gentiles from the other courts in the Temple. Not until recent times did archaeologists actually discover one. Its seven-line inscription read as follows: NO FOREIGNER IS TO GO BEYOND THE BALUSTRADE AND THE PLAZA OF THE TEMPLE ZONE WHOEVER IS CAUGHT DOING SO WILL HAVE HIMSELF TO BLAME FOR HIS DEATH WHICH WILL FOLLOW [Temple Warning Inscription Image]
http://www.bible-history.com/jewishtemple/JEWISH_TEMPLEArchaeology.htm


The Place of Trumpeting Stone in Herod's Temple The Place of Trumpeting stone was discovered by archaeologists excavating the Temple Mount area. It is inscribed with the words "To the place of trumpeting" and the photo is shows the block of stone. [Place of Trumpeting Stone Image]
http://www.bible-history.com/jewishtemple/JEWISH_TEMPLEArchaeology.htm


The Western Wall in Herod's Temple The Western (Wailing) Wall is all that remains of the Jerusalem Temple where Jesus ministered. This wall formed part of the Plaza within the Temple area. King Herod's incredible remodeling project began in 19 B.C. and continued long after his death. It was finally completed only seven years before the Romans came and destroyed the Temple in 70 AD. The Western (Wailing) Wall is all that remains of the Jerusalem Temple where Jesus ministered. This wall formed part of the Plaza within the Temple area. It is the most sacred place of prayer in the Jewish world. The below image shows the size of the wall in relation to the entire temple in the red rectangle. The Western (Wailing) Wall is indicated in the red box in the above photo of the Temple model wall. The Wall aboveground consisted of 24 rows of stones of different dressing and age, reaching a total height of 18 m. with 6 m. above the level of the Temple Mount. In 1867 excavations revealed that 19 more rows lay buried underground, the lowest being sunk into the natural rock of the Tyropoeon Valley. [Western Wall Images]
http://www.bible-history.com/jewishtemple/JEWISH_TEMPLEArchaeology.htm


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