Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online

Bible History Online

Sub Categories
Aceldama
Acropolis
Antonia Fortress
Apse of the Nea Church
Aqabat et - Takiya
Armenian Mosaic
Bab el - Mathara
Bab el - Qattanin
Bethany
Bethphage
Burnt House
Cardo Maximus
Cave of Gethsemane
Chruch of the Visitation
Church if St John the Baptist
Church of all Nations
Church of St John the Baptist
Church of St Mary Magdalene
Church of the Pater Noster
Church of the Redeemer
Citadel Excavations
Citadel Museum
Crusader Market
Damascus Gate
Dome of the Chain
Dome of the Rock
Dominus Flevit
Ecce Homo
El - Aksa Mosque
Essene Gate
Ethiopian Monastery
Fountain of Sultan Qaytbay
Four Synagogues
Garden Tomb
Gihon Spring
Golden Gate
Hermitage
Herod's Family Tomb
Herod's Gate
Herodian Houses
Hezekiah's Tunnel
Hurva and Ramban Synagogues
Iron Age Wall
Islamic Museum
Israel Museum Western Section
Israelite and Hasmonean Walls
Jaffa Gate
Jason's Tomb
Jebusite Wall
Jerusalem Gates
Jerusalem Walls
Judgment Gate
Madrasa Ashrafiyya
Minor Monuments
Model of Herodian Jerusalem
Model of Iron Age Jerusalem
Monastery of the Cross
Monastery of the Flagellation
Mosque of the Ascension
Museums in Northern Section
Museums Western Section
New Gate
Patriarch's Bath Pool
Paved Street
Platform of Dome of the Rock
Pool of Bethesda
Pool of Siloam
Roman Column
Roofs of the Market
Russian Ascension Church
Russian Mission
Sanhedrin Tombs
Shaft Tombs
Sion Gate to Dung Gate
Solomon's Quarries
Solomon's Stables
St Anne's
St Mary's of the Germans
St Stephen's Church
St Stephen's Gate
Suq el - Qattanin
Tariq Bab en - Hadid
Tariq Bab en - Nazir
Tarq Bab es - Silsila
Temple Mount North Wall
The Cenacle
The Column
Tomb of Absalom
Tomb of David
Tomb of Queen Helena of Adiabene
Tomb of Simon the Just
Tomb of the Virgin
Tomb of Zachariah
Tombs in Silwan
Tombs of the Prophets
Tourist Attractions
Tower of David
Valley of Hinnom
Via Dolorosa
Warren's Shaft
Western Wall
Western Wall Plaza - Outside Gates
Western Wall Plaza - SW
Western Wall Tunnel
Zawiya Kubakiyya

Back to Categories

June 27    Scripture

Sites - Jerusalem: The Cenacle
Mount Sion in Jerusalem

The Cenacle in Wikipedia The Cenacle (from Latin cenaculum), also known as the "Upper Room", is the term used for the site of The Last Supper. The word is a derivative of the Latin word cena, which means dinner. In Christian tradition, based on Acts 1:13,[1] the "Upper Room" was not only the site of the Last Supper (i.e. the Cenacle), but the usual place where the Apostles stayed in Jerusalem, and according to the Catholic Encyclopedia[2] "the first Christian church". Thus the Cenacle is considered the site where many other events described in the New Testament took place[3][4], such as: the Washing of the Feet[5] some resurrection appearances of Jesus[6][7][8] the gathering of the disciples after the Ascension of Jesus[9] the election of Saint Matthias as apostle[10] the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples on the day of Pentecost[11] The Site Since at least the fourth century CE a structure identified as the Cenacle, the site of the Last Supper, has been a popular Christian pilgrimage site on Mount Sion in Jerusalem. It is documented in the narratives of many early pilgrims such as Egeria, who visited in 384.[12] The building has experienced numerous cycles of destruction and reconstruction, culminating in the Gothic structure which stands today. While the term “Cenacle” refers only to the “Upper Room,” the site is connected to other points of interest, including a large cenotaph in the lower level, said first by 12th century Crusaders to be the tomb of King David. However, most scholars consider this attribution to be incorrect; 1 Kings 2:10[13] says that David was buried “in the City of David,” an area of Jerusalem geographically disparate from Mount Sion. The Cenacle is also connected to the Church of the Dormition. History -- The early history of the Cenacle site is uncertain; scholars have made attempts at establishing a chronology based on archaeological evidence and historical sources. Biblical archaeologist Bargil Pixner[14] offers these significant dates and events in the building's history. The original building was a synagogue later probably used by Jewish Christians. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the building was spared during the destruction of Jerusalem under Titus (AD 70)[15], though Pixner thinks it was likely rebuilt right after the war, and claims three walls of that structure are still extant: the North, East and South walls of the present King David's Tomb. Roman emperor Theodosius I built an octagonal church (the "Theodosian Church" or "Holy Zion Church") aside the synagogue (that was named "Church of the Apostles"). The Theodosian Church, probably started on 382 AD, was consecrated by John II, Bishop of Jerusalem on 394 AD. Some years later, c. 415 AD, Bishop John II enlarged the Holy Zion Church transforming it in a large rectangular basilica with five naves, always aside the Church of the Apostles. This building was later destroyed by Persian invaders in 614 AD and shortly after partially rebuilt by patriarch Modestus. In 1009 AD the church was razed to the ground by the Muslim caliph Al-Hakim and shortly after replaced by the Crusaders with a five aisled basilica named for "Saint Mary". It is thought that the Cenacle occupied a portion of two aisles on the right side of the altar.[16] While the church was destroyed sometime after 1219, the Cenacle was spared.[17] In the 1340's, it passed into the custody of the Franciscan Order of Friars, who maintained the structure until 1552, when the Ottoman Empire took possession of it. After the Franciscan friars' eviction, this room was transformed into a mosque, as evidenced by the mihrab in the direction of Mecca and an Arabic inscription prohibiting public prayer at the site. Christians were not allowed to return until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. Architecture -- Scholars offer wide-ranging dates and builders for the surviving Gothic-style Cenacle. Some believe that it was constructed by Crusaders just before Saladin’s conquest of Jerusalem in 1187, while others attribute it to Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, after he arrived in the city in 1229. Still others hold that it was not built in this form until the Franciscans acquired the site in the 1330s.[18] Scarce documentation and disturbed structural features offer little strong support for any of these dates.[19] In its current state, the Cenacle is divided into six rib- vaulted bays. The bays are supported by three freestanding columns which bilaterally divide the space, as well as six pillars flanking the side walls. While the capital of the westernmost freestanding column is flush with the Cenacle’s interior wall, the column shaft itself is completely independent of the wall, leading scholars to consider the possibility that this wall was not original to the building. [20] An analysis of the column and pillar capitals offers clues, but not a solution, to the mystery of the current building’s origin. The Corinthianesque capital between the second and third bays of the Cenacle is stylistically indicative of multiple geographical regions and chronological periods. This capital’s spiky leaves, which tightly adhere to the volume of the column before erupting into scrolls, are in congruence with common outputs of the 12th century sculpture workshop at the Temple site in Jerusalem in the last years before Saladin’s conquest in 1187.[21] The workshop also frequently utilized drilling as an ornamental device. The Jerusalem workshop included artists from diverse regions in the West, who brought stylistic traits with them from their native countries. The workshop produced sculpture for many Crusader projects and other structures, such as the al-Aqsa mosque. This comparison allows for the support of the twelfth century date of the Cenacle. There are also, however, similar capitals which originated in workshops in southern Italy, a draw for scholars who wish to associate the building with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and the Sixth Crusade in 1229. Examples can be seen in the Romanesque cathedral in Bitanto, a small city near Bari, in southern Italy, and on column supports of the pulpit in the Pisa Baptistery, carved by Apulian-born sculptor Nicola Pisano around 1260. The capitals of the freestanding columns are not identical. The capital between the first and second bays seems either severely weathered or shallowly carved, and its volume is a marked contrast from the others. It rises from the shaft in a straight cylinder, rather than in an inverted pyramid, and then flares only just before it intersects with the abacus. The third capital, which now flanks the Cenacle’s western wall, is also unique among the three. It is not decorated with a floral motif, rather, scrolling crockets spring from the base of the volume. Enlart has proposed a comparison to buildings constructed by Frederick II in Apulia.[22] Analysis of these column capitals does not yield significant evidence to link them to the 14th century and a potential Franciscan construction, nor does it definitively date them to the 12th or 13th century. The building remains a frustrating, but intriguing, mystery. Other sites -- The Syriac Orthodox Church monastery of Saint Mark near the Armenian Quarter, in the Old City of Jerusalem, is sometime considered as alternative place for the cenacle.[23]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cenacle


If you notice a broken link or any error PLEASE report it by clicking HERE
© 1995-2017 Bible History Online





More Bible History