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April 23    Scripture

Ancient Near East: Manners & Customs
Daily Life

Ancient Babylonia - Schools For the most part the only education that a young Babylonian might have received would have been of a scribal type. Those who were sent to school to train as a scribe had to be children of wealthy or influential parents. Boys were admitted and possibly girls as well. There is no doubt that rich women often had a lot of freedom and influence. (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaSchools.htm


Ancient Babylonia - Temples and Rituals The care and feeding of the gods in the great temples was a matter of daily concern. Elaborate rituals requiring the participation and support of numbers of temple personnel evolved around the daily presentation of offerings, the cleaning of the divine statues' garments, and the purification of the temples. Offerings were provided from the temple's land holdings, endowments by royal and wealthy people, and from occasional gifts such as war booty. (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaTemples_and_Rituals.htm


Ancient Lattice Windows The lattice window looked very much like a fisherman's net, and was used in warm middle eastern countries. It was formed of reticulated work, and highly ornamental. They also had hinges which allowed them to be open or shut. On very hot days then sun is kept out while the air is let in through the trellis openings.
http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/lattice.html


Ancient Mesopotamia: Daily Life Plaques such as this one were part of a door-locking system for important buildings in ancient Mesopotamia. The plaque was embedded into the doorjamb and then a peg was inserted into the hole. A hook or cord wrapped around the peg was covered with clay and secured the door.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/TRC/MESO/life.html


Ancient Mesopotamia: Mathematics and Measurement During the earliest years of recorded history, the ancient Mesopotamians were experimenting with ways to count, measure, and solve mathematical problems. They were the first to give a number a place value and to recognize the concept of zero.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/TRC/MESO/math.html


Ancient Mesopotamia: The Role of Women From the earliest times in ancient Mesopotamia, women who came from a sector of society that could afford to have statues made placed their likenesses in temple shrines. This was done so that their images would stand in constant prayer while they continued to go about their daily chores. This female worshipper statue wears a standard fashion of the time, a simple draped dress with her right shoulder bare and hair done up in elaborate braided coils.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/TRC/MESO/women.html


Assyrian Stone Altar Assyrian Stone Altar sketch
http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/assyria/assyrian_stone_altar.html


Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia The ancient world of Mesopotamia (from Sumer to the subsequent division into Babylonia and Assyria) vividly comes alive in this portrayal of the time period from 3100 BCE to the fall of Assyria (612 BCE) and Babylon (539 BCE). Readers will discover fascinating details about the lives of these people taken from the ancients' own descriptions. Beautifully illustrated, this easy-to-use reference contains a timeline and a historical overview to aid student research.
http://www.hendrickson.com/html/product/37127.trade.html


Everyday Life In Babylonia And Assyria The way of life with which this book deals flourished for 2000 years of the most formative period of human history, and it would require far more than the space available even touch upon every significant aspect of this subject. I have there,-e had to confine myself to a more modest task. What I have empted has been to give an introduction to the subject by a sketch Babylonian and Assyrian life at a few key-points, seen in the context of the historical setting.
http://www.aina.org/books/eliba/eliba.htm


Female Subordination Women in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Mothers of Female Subordination By Jacqueline K. Hammack. Jackson State University, Department of History. The modern world has seen the liberation of females from male subjugation. Yet there are contemporary culture that consider women property. This phenomenon has existed, codified in law, for more than four thousand years. Why have men dominated women in all civilizations for all of recorded history? What happened in prehistorical times that females came to be subordinated by males for so many thousand years, or have females been in subordinate position since time immemorial?
http://jkhammack.com/5-9body&cvrpg.pdf


Marriage and Divorce Documents From the Ancient Near East. Old Assyrian, 19th century B.C. Text: B. Hrozný, Inscriptions Cunéiformes du Kultépé (Praha, 1952). Transliteration and translation, Hrozný, in Symbolae Koschaker (Studia et Documenta II, 1939), 108ff. For bibliography of discussions cf. H. Hirsch, Orientalia, xxxv (1966), 259f
http://www.history.upenn.edu/~humm/Topics/Contracts/marri02.html


Marriage in Ancient Mesopotamia and Babylonia As the bride approaches the ceremonial altar holding on to the arm of her father, the groom nervously takes a peek at the scene surrounding him... Not far away are the gifts, which shortly will be exchanged. Family members stand proudly around in a festive atmosphere. Is this taking place in upstate New York, a tropical garden in Miami, or a quaint old church in old Montreal? Perhaps, but it could well have happened somewhere in ancient Mesopotamia.
http://ehistory.osu.edu/world/articles/ArticleView.cfm?AID=58


Odyssey - Near East: Daily Life For thousands of years, the needs of daily life in the Near East - shelter, tools, and domestic implements - have been resourcefully and creatively made from available natural materials. Houses were, and in some places still are, constructed of mud-brick, with flat roofs that served as sleeping porches in hot weather. Tools, weapons, and vessels were worked from stone.
http://www.carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/daily.html


Odyssey - Near East: Death & Burial In the ancient Near East burial, rather than cremation, was usually practiced. This tomb, called Tomb P1 by archaeologists, is from the ancient city of Jericho. It shows us one type of a Near Eastern tomb in its shape and in the contents buried inside.
http://www.carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/d&b.html


Odyssey - Near East: People In parts of the Near East today, people's lives are in some ways very similar to their ancestors' thousands of years ago. Researchers can observe today's lifestyles along with archaeological evidence from the past to better understand the people of the ancient Near East. Let's look at how people supported themselves over thousands of years and how their lifestyles developed in the "cradle of civilization."
http://www.carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/people.html


Religion in the Ancient Middle East The Sumerians believed that the forces of nature (rain, wind, floods) were alive. The people couldn't control these forces of nature, so they worshipped them as gods. The people also believed that they were living on Earth only to please the gods.
http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/ancientmiddleeastreligion1.htm


Sumerian Society Religion was an intricate part of the daily life of a citizen of Sumer. Accordingly, the largest and most important structure in the city was the temple. Each city had a patron deity to which its main temple was dedicated. However, a multitude of gods were recognized and some of them might have shrines located in the main temple complex or have their own smaller temples.
http://www.sarissa.org/sumer/sumer_s.php


The Sumerian People The people of Sumer could own slaves, although the majority of residents were free. Slaves had a number of rights, including the right to borrow money, transact business, and even buy their own freedom. The children of Sumer had few rights -- the authority of their parents was supreme. Children were expected to obey their parents in all cases. For example, the spouse of a Sumerian child was chosen by his/her parent. Those children who chose to disobey the authority of their parents faced being disinherited or sold into slavery. Women also possessed several rights, including the right to engage in business and own property.
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/middle_east/sumer_citizens.html


Women In Babylonia Under The Hammurabi Law Code The best known and most complete of the ancient pre-Roman law codes is that of Hammurabi, Eighteenth Century BCE ruler of Babylon. It was the Hammurabi Code that said that one who destroys the eye of another should have his own eye put out as punishment and one who murders should himself be put to death, thus giving rise to the expression "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth".
http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/hammurabilawcode.htm


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