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November 21    Scripture

Ancient Near East: Coins


Arabia (coins) Several small kingdoms that existed in what is now Syria, Jordan and the southern Arabian penninsula, bordering the Indian Ocean and Red Sea (modern Yemen). [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/arabia/arabia.html


Armenia (coins) The coins and history of asia. Armenia is a mountainous country to the northeast of Asia Minor, once part of the Achaemenid, Alexandrine and Seleucid Empires. After the defeat of Antiochus III by the Romans in 190 BC, an independent kingdom was set up under her guidance. A 600 year long tug-of-war followed between Rome, the Parthians and later, the Sasanians, ending in the late 4th century division of the country between the east Romans and the Persians. Armenia was the first land to adopt the Christian religion officially and the oldest Christian nation to survive into modern times. [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/armenia/armenian.html


Cappadocia (coins) Eastern Turkey. Once part of the Hittite, Persian and Seleucid Empires, it was independent by the middle of the 3rd century BC. In 17 AD it became part of the Roman Empire. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/cappadocia/cappadocian.html


Characene (coins) The coins and history of asia. The Kingdom of Characene, located at the head of the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Tigris, served as a trading center between the Roman Empire and the East for over three centuries. It fell under Sasanian rule in 228 AD. [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/characene/characene.html


Coins references/bibliography numismatic references. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/reference/reference1.html


Commagene (coins) [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
The Kingdom of Commagene was the most northern district of Syria, to the west of the Euphrates in what is now southern Turkey. Commagene bec


Crusader Kingdoms (coins) About the Crusaders. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/crusader/crusader.html


Elymais (coins) The coins and history of asia. Not much is known of the history of the Elymaid rulers. It seems they were quasi-independent but subject to the Parthian kings. Their kingdom was located south of Susa and northwest of Persis, at the head of the Persian Gulf in what would be modern southwestern Iran. Their coinage commences about 150 BC and lasts until about 225 AD, when the Parthians are overthrown by the Sasanians. Elamais is the 'Graecized' form of the more ancient name, Elam. [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/elymais/elymais.html


Islamic dynasties (coins) The coins and history of asia. The Islamic Era year AH 1 is equal to the western year 622 AD, the year Mohammed fled from Mecca to Medina (on July 15th). Based on the lunar year, it is 11 days shorter. To (roughly) calculate an AH date from the AD, subtract 622 and then add 3%. [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/islam/islamic.html


Judaean Kingdom (coins) Judaea was part of the Persian Empire until Alexander the Great subjugated it in 332 BC. After Alexander's death, the Jews came under the rule of the Ptolomies of Egypt and the Seleucids in 198 BC. Before the end of the 2nd century the Hasmoneans had won full autonomy from their former Greek rulers. In 63 BC Pompey incorporated Israel into the Roman Empire and in 6 AD it had become a Roman province. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/judaean.html


Kings of Bosporus (coins) A kingdom situated at the northern end of the Black Sea, running between it and the Sea of Maeotis. Begun in the 5th century B.C., it remained a semi-autonomous client kingdom under the Romans and continued into the 4th century A.D. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/bosporus/bosporus.html


Kings of Scythia (coins) About the Kings of Scythia. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/scythia/scythia.html


Mint signatures and locations (Pahlavi) (coins) Map of mint cities. The coins and history of asia [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/maps/m_sas_mint_2.jpg


Osrhoene (coins) The Kingdom of Osrhoene was an independent kingdom, alternately under Parthian and Roman domination, from the end of the Seleucid period until it became a Roman province in 244 A.D. This coin was minted in the name of Lucilla, Augusta and wife of the emperor Lucius Verus. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=1193


Parthian Empire (coins) The coins and history of asia. In 247 BC, Arsaces, leader of a Scythian group in Central Asia called the Parni (a branch of the Dahae) is crowned king. He overthrows the Seleucid governor of Parthia in 238 BC and establishes a nation that lasts for almost 500 years. 95 - 57 BC is referred to as the Parthian 'dark age,' and civil wars make the chronology of this period a matter of conjecture. At the height of their power, the Parthians were second only to Rome and were the only civilized nation able to stand up to her. The empire began its decline in the 2nd century AD and the rebellion of Ardashir of Persis in 220 AD was its death knell. The last Parthian king, Artabanos IV, was killed in the battle of Hormuzdagan in 224 AD and Ardashir became the first Sasanian king. [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/parthia/parthian.html


Parthian Empire 2 (coins) The coins and history of asia. About Parthian related coins - Saka/Sacaraucae issues, Sanabares, Farn-Sasan, etc. [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/par_rel/par_rel.html


Phoenicia (coins) Existing as several city-states, the Phoenicians replaced the Mycenaeans as the principal eastern Mediterranean seafaring power in the 10th century BC. Its long and complex history includes the founding of colonies throughout the Mediterranean, including Carthage in north Africa circa 800 BC. Defeated by Alexander in 332 BC, Phoenicia became subject to the Ptolemies, Seleucids and finally to the Romans in 63 BC. The Phoenicians regarded themselves as Canaanites. Cities listed from north to south. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/phoenicia/phoenicia.html


Romaion/Byzantine Empire (coins) Renamed Constantinople in 330 AD, the ancient city of Byzantion gave its name to a combined Greek and Roman culture that lasted for almost 1000 years. The `Byzantines` never referred to each other as such; they called themselves Romaioi, the Greek word for Roman. In 1453 AD, the Ottoman Turks overran Constantinople, putting an end to the Romaioi and the Middle Ages. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/romaion/romaion.html


Romaion/Byzantine Empire 2 (coins) Renamed Constantinople in 330 AD, the ancient city of Byzantion gave its name to a combined Greek and Roman culture that lasted for almost 1000 years. The `Byzantines` never referred to each other as such; they called themselves Romaioi, the Greek word for Roman. In 1453 AD, the Ottoman Turks overran Constantinople, putting an end to the Romaioi and the Middle Ages. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/romaion/romaion2.html


Romaion/Byzantine Empire 3 (coins) Renamed Constantinople in 330 AD, the ancient city of Byzantion gave its name to a combined Greek and Roman culture that lasted for almost 1000 years. The `Byzantines` never referred to each other as such; they called themselves Romaioi, the Greek word for Roman. In 1453 AD, the Ottoman Turks overran Constantinople, putting an end to the Romaioi and the Middle Ages. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/romaion/romaion3.html


Sasanian (coins) Empire The coins and history of asia. Ardashir I, a king of Persis, defeats the Parthian king Artabanos IV and two years later is crowned as the first Sasanian king in 226 AD. His son, Shapur I, expands the borders to include all of modern Iran and parts of Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and the Gulf Coast of the Arabian peninsula. 400 years of war with Rome, Kushans, Chionites and Hephthalites takes its toll and in the mid 7th century the Arabs overrun the Sasanians, replacing Zoroastrianism with Islam. [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/sasania/sasanian.html


Sasanian 2 (coins) Imitations The coins and history of asia [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/sasania/sas_imitation.html


Sasanian 3 (coins) Seals The coins and history of asia [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/sasania/sas_seals/sas_seal.html


Sasanian 4 (coins) Sasanian Empire The coins and history of asia [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/sasania/sasanian.html


Sasanian 5 (coins) The coins and history of asia [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/sasania/sasanian.html


Sasanian 6 (coins) The coins and history of asia [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/sasania/sasanian.html


Sasanian 7 (coins) The coins and history of asia [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/sasania/sasanian.html


Seleucid Empire (coins) The coins and history of asia. The Seleucid empire at its greatest stretched from Thrace to India and included almost all of Alexander the Great's conquests, except Egypt. Seleucus, one of Alexander's generals, became satrap of Babylonia in 321 BC. In a prolonged power struggle between the "Successors" (Diadochoi) -- Ptolemy (Egypt), Lysimachos (Thrace), Cassander (Macedon and Greece) and Seleucus ganged up on Antigonas (Asia), defeating him at the battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. Seleucus was assassinated by the disgruntled son of Ptolemy in 281 BC. The kingdom was a major center of Hellenistic culture, maintaining the pre-eminence of Greek customs and manners over the Middle East. It began to decline in 190 BC after a first defeat by the Romans and lasted until 64 BC when the last Seleucid king, Antiochus XIII, was murdered by Sampsiceramus, an Arab emir, at the behest of Pompey. [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/seleucia/seleucid.html


Table of Dates (Pahlavi) (coins) The coins and history of asia. Based on Mochiri's tables of dates (circa Khusro I through Khusro II), with a newer transliteration scheme; variations abound. I'll probably end up changing it some more... [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/sasania/sas_mint/dp/sas_date_table.html


Table of mints (Pahlavi) (coins) The coins and history of asia. PAHLAVI ALPHABET Pahlavi (Middle Persian) is read from right to left. Many letterforms are similar: B and Y; R and L; D and K; G and Z; U, V, W and N. [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/sasania/sas_mint/sas_mint_table.html


The Coins and History of Asia Containing information and scans of over 3000 coins, these pages are to be a resource for students of Near Eastern, Persian, Indian, Central Asian and Chinese history from 600 BC to 1600 AD. Permanent exhibits with emphasis on Sasanian, Hunnic and Central Asian coinages. Check back often and reload everything because I'm adding all the time. Begun in July 1996, I've resigned myself to the fact that this will take the better part of several dozen more years to complete. Oh well. In a state of continuous flux, Summer, 2008. Want to learn more about Oriental coins? Join the Oriental Numismatic Society. AV=Gold, AR=Silver, AE=Bronze, Brass, Copper, etc., PB=Lead, FE=Iron, Billon=an alloy of AE and AR v. after a catalogue number means it is a variant of that type (?) means i'm not sure; (!) signifies an unusual or unique aspect [Persian Empire] [coins]
http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/coins.html


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