Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online

Bible History Online

Sub Categories
Aeschines
Andronicus Rhodius
Apollodorus of Athens
Aspasius
Acacius of Caesarea
Acacius of Caesarea
Acestorides
Achaeus
Achaeus of Eretria
Achaeus of Eretria
Acron
Acrotatus I
Acrotatus II
Acusilaus
Adeimantus
Adrianus
Aedesius
Aeimnestus
Aelianus Tacticus
Aelius Aristides
Aelius Herodianus
Aelius Theon
Aeneas Tacticus
Aenesidemus
Aenesidemus
Aeropus II of Macedon
Aeschines Socraticus
Aeschylus
Aesop
Aetion
Aetius
Agarista
Agariste
Agariste of Sicyon
Agasias
Agasicles
Agathias
Agathinus
Agathocles
Agathocles of Bactria
Agathon
Ageladas
Agesander
Agesilaus I
Agesilaus II
Agesipolis I
Agesipolis II
Agesipolis III
Agis I
Agis II
Agis III
Agis IV
Agoracritus
Agrippa
Agyrrhius
Albinus
Alcaeus
Alcamenes
Alcamenes
Alcetas I of Macedon
Alcibiades
Alcidamas
Alciphron
Alcmaeon of Croton
Alcman
Alcmenes
Alexander Aetolus
Alexander Balas
Alexander Cornelius
Alexander I of Epirus
Alexander II of Epirus
Alexander of Abonuteichos
Alexander of Aphrodisias
Alexander of Greece
Alexander of Pherae
Alexander Polyhistor
Alexander The Great
Alexis
Alypius
Ameinocles
Ameipsias
Amelesagoras
Amelius
Ammonius Grammaticus
Ammonius Hermiae
Ammonius Saccas
Amphis
Amynander
Anacharsis
Anacreon
Anaxagoras
Anaxander
Anaxandrides
Anaxarchus
Anaxidamus
Anaxilas
Anaxilas of Rhegium
Anaxilaus
Anaximander
Anaximenes of Lampsacus
Anaximenes of Miletus
Andocides
Andriscus
Andron
Andron
Andronicus of Cyrrhus
Andronicus of Cyrrhus
Andronicus Rhodius
Androsthenes
Androtion
Anniceris
Anonymus
Anser
Antalcidas
Anthemius of Tralles
Antigenes
Antigonus II Gonatas
Antigonus III Doson
Antigonus III of Macedon
Antigonus of Carystus
Antimachus
Antimachus I
Antinous
Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Antiochus of Ascalon
Antiochus V Eupator
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Antiochus X Eusebes
Antiochus XI Ephiphanes
Antiochus XI Ephiphanes
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Antipater
Antipater II of Macedon
Antipater of Sidon
Antipater of Tarsus
Antipater of Thessalonica
Antipater of Tyre
Antiphanes
Antiphilus
Antiphon
Antisthenes
Antoninus Liberalis
Antonius Diogenes
Antyllus
Anyte of Tegea
Anytos
Apelles
Apellicon
Apellicon
Apion
Apollocrates
Apollodorus
Apollodorus of Carystus
Apollodorus of Damascus
Apollodorus of Pergamon
Apollodorus of Seleuceia on the Tigris
Apollodotus I
Apollonius
Apollonius Molon
Apollonius of Citium
Apollonius of Perga
Apollonius of Rhodes
Apollonius of Tyana
Apollophanes
Apollos
Appian
Apsines
Araros
Aratus
Arcesilaus
Archedemus of Tarsus
Archelaus
Archelaus I
Archelaus II
Archermus
Archestratus
Archias
Archidamus I
Archidamus II
Archidamus III
Archidamus IV
Archidamus V
Archigenes
Archilochus
Archimedes
Archytas
Arctinus
Aretaeus
Areus I
Areus II
Argas
Arion
Aristaeus
Aristagoras
Aristander of Telmessus
Aristarchus of Samos
Aristarchus of Samothrace
Aristarchus of Tegea
Aristeas
Aristides
Aristides Quintilianus
Aristippus
Aristobulus
Aristocles
Aristodemus
Aristogiton
Aristomenes
Ariston (king of Sparta)
Ariston of Alexandria
Ariston of Ceos
Ariston of Chios
Aristonicus
Aristonymus
Aristophanes
Aristophanes of Byzantium
Aristophon
Aristotle
Aristoxenus
Arius
Arius Didymus
Arrian
Arsinoe I of Egypt
Arsinoe II of Egypt
Arsinoe III of Egypt
Artemidorus
Artemisia
Artemon
Asclepiades
Asclepiodotus
Asius
Aspasia - hetaera
Athenaeus
Athenaeus
Athenagoras of Athens
Athenodorus
Attalus I
Attalus II
Attalus III
Autocrates
Autolycus of Pitane
Avaris
Babrius
Bacchylides
Basil of Caesarea
Basilides
Bathycles of Magnesia
Battus
Berenice I of Egypt
Berenice II of Egypt
Berenice IV of Egypt
Bias of Priene
Bion
Biton
Boethus
Boethus of Sidon
Bolus
Brasidas
Bryson
Bupalus
Cadmus of Miletus
Caecilius of Calacte
Caesarion
Calamis
Calliades
Callias
Callicrates
Callimachus
Callimachus
Callimachus (polemarch)
Callimachus (sculptor)
Callinus
Calliphon
Callippus
Callisthenes
Callistratus
Carcinus (writer)
Carneades
Cassander
Castor of Rhodes
Cebes
Celsus
Cephisodotus
Cercidas
Cercops of Miletus
Chabrias
Chaeremon
Chaeremon of Alexandria
Chaeris
Chamaeleon
Chares of Athens
Chares of Lindos
Chares of Mytilene
Charidemus
Chariton
Charmadas
Charon of Lampsacus
Charondas
Chilon
Chionides
Choerilus
Choerilus of Iasus
Choerilus of Samos
Chremonides
Christodorus
Chrysanthius
Chrysippus
Cimon
Cimon of Cleonae
Cineas
Cinesias
Cleandridas
Cleanthes
Clearchus of Rhegium
Clearchus of Soli
Clearchus of Sparta
Cleidemus
Cleinias
Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes of Sicyon
Cleitarchus
Cleitus
Clement of Alexandria
Cleombrotus I
Cleomedes
Cleomenes I
Cleomenes II
Cleomenes III
Cleomenes of Naucratis
Cleon
Cleonides
Cleonymus
Cleopatra I of Egypt
Cleopatra II of Egypt
Cleopatra III of Egypt
Cleopatra IV of Egypt
Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra V of Egypt
Cleopatra V of Egypt
Cleopatra VI of Egypt
Cleopatra VII of Egypt
Cleophon
Clitomachus (philosopher)
Colaeus
Colluthus
Colotes
Conon
Conon (mythographer)
Conon of Samos
Corinna
Cosmas Indicopleustes
Crantor
Craterus of Macedon
Crates of Mallus
Crates of Thebes
Cratippus
Cresilas
Critias
Critius
Crito
Critolaus
Croesus
Ctesias
Ctesibius
Cylon
Cynaethus
Cynegeirus
Cynisca
Cypselus
Damascius
Damasias
Damastes
Damocles
Damon of Athens
Damophon
Dares of Phrygia
Deinocrates
Demades
Demaratus
Demetrius I of Bactria
Demetrius I of Syria
Demetrius I Poliorcetes
Demetrius II
Demetrius II of Macedon
Demetrius II of Syria
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Demetrius of Alopece
Demetrius of Magnesia
Demetrius of Pharos
Demetrius of Scepsis
Demetrius Phalereus
Demetrius the Cynic
Demetrius the Fair
Democedes
Democritus
Demonax
Demonax (lawmaker)
Demosthenes
Demosthenes (general)
Dercyllidas
Dexippus
Diagoras
Diagoras of Rhodes
Dicaearchus
Dictys Cretensis
Didymus Chalcenterus
Didymus the Blind
Didymus the Musician
Dienekes
Dinarchus
Dinocrates
Dinon
Dio Chrysostom
Diocles
Diocles of Carystus
Diocles of Magnesia
Diodorus Cronus
Diodorus Siculus
Diodotus II
Diodotus of Bactria
Diodotus the Stoic
Diodotus Tryphon
Diogenes Apolloniates
Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Oenoanda
Diogenes of Sinope
Diogenes of Tarsus
Diogenianus
Diomedes
Dion
Dionysius Chalcus
Dionysius of Byzantium
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Heraclea
Dionysius of Phocaea
Dionysius of Syracuse
Dionysius Periegetes
Dionysius the Areopagite
Diophantus
Dios
Dioscorides
Diotimus
Diphilus
Dorotheus
Dorotheus of Sidon
Dositheus
Draco
Dracon
Duris
Echecrates
Ecphantus
Empedocles
Epaminondas
Ephialtes
Ephialtes of Trachis
Ephippus
Ephorus
Epicharmus of Kos
Epicrates
Epictetus
Epicurus
Epigenes
Epilycus
Epimenides
Epiphanius of Salamis
Epitadeus
Erasistratus
Eratosthenes
Erinna
Eubulides of Miletus
Eubulus (statesman)
Eucleidas
Eucleides
Euclid
Eucratides
Euctemon
Eudamidas I
Eudemus
Eudemus of Rhodes
Eudorus of Alexandria
Eudoxus of Cnidus
Eudoxus of Cyzicus
Euenus
Eugammon
Euhemerus
Eumenes I
Eumenes II
Eumenes of Cardia
Eumenius
Eumolpidae
Eunapius
Eunomus
Euphantus
Euphemus
Euphorion
Euphranor
Euphronius
Eupolis
Euripides
Eurybatus
Eurybiades
Eurycrates
Eurycratides
Eurylochus
Eurymedon
Eurypon
Eurysthenes
Eusebius of Caesarea
Euthydemus
Euthydemus I
Euthydemus II
Euthymides
Eutychides
Evagoras
Execias
Galen
Gelo
Glaphyra - hetaera
Glaucus of Chios
Gorgias
Gorgidas
Gregory Nazianzus
Gregory of Nyssa
Gylippus
Hagnon
Hagnothemis
Harmodius and Aristogeiton
Harpalus
Hecataeus of Abdera
Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecato of Rhodes
Hecatomnus
Hedylus
Hegemon of Thasos
Hegesander
Hegesias of Cyrene
Hegesias of Magnesia
Hegesippus
Hegesistratus
Heliocles
Heliodorus
Hellanicus
Hellanicus of Lesbos
Hephaestion
Hephaistio of Thebes
Heracleides
Heraclides Ponticus
Heraclitus
Hermaeus
Hermagoras
Hermias (philosopher)
Hermias of Atarneus
Hermippus
Hermocrates
Hero of Alexandria
Herodotus
Herophilus
Herostratus
Hesiod
Hesychius of Alexandria
Hicetas
Hiero I of Syracuse
Hiero II of Syracuse
Hierocles of Alexandria
Hippalus
Hipparchus
Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus)
Hippias
Hippias (son of Pisistratus)
Hippocleides
Hippocrates
Hippodamus
Hipponax
Hipponicus
Histiaeus
Homer
Hypatia of Alexandria
Hyperbolus
Hypereides
Hypsicles
Iamblichus (philosopher)
Iambulus
Iasus
Ibycus
Ictinus
Ion of Chios
Iophon
Iphicrates
Irenaeus
Isaeus
Isagoras
Isidore of Alexandria
Isidorus of Miletus
Isocrates
Isyllus
Jason of Pherae
John Chrysostom
Karanus of Macedon
Karkinos
Kerykes
King Nicias
Koinos of Macedon
Lacedaimonius
Laches
Lacydes
Lais of Corinth
Lais of Hyccara
Lamachus
Lamprocles
Lasus of Hermione
Leochares
Leon
Leonidas I
Leonidas II
Leonnatus
Leosthenes
Leotychides
Lesbonax
Lesches
Leucippus
Libanius
Livius Andronicus
Lobon
Longinus
Longus
Lucian
Lycophron
Lycortas
Lycurgus
Lycurgus of Arcadia
Lycurgus of Athens
Lycurgus of Nemea
Lycurgus of Sparta
Lycurgus of Thrace
Lycus
Lydiadas
Lysander
Lysanias
Lysias
Lysimachus
Lysippus
Lysis
Lysistratus
Machaon
Machon
Marcellinus
Marcellus of Side
Marinus
Marsyas of Pella
Maximus of Smyrna
Megacles
Megasthenes
Meidias
Melanippides
Melanthius
Melas
Meleager of Gadara
Melesagoras of Chalcedon
Meletus
Melissus of Samos
Memnon of Rhodes
Menaechmus
Menander
Menander of Ephesus
Menander of Laodicea
Menander the Just
Menecrates of Ephesus
Menedemus (Cynic)
Menedemus of Eretria
Menelaus of Alexandria
Menexenus
Menippus
Meno
Menodotus of Nicomedia
Mentor of Rhodes
Metagenes
Meton
Metrodorus
Metrodorus of Chios
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the elder)
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger)
Metrodorus of Scepsis
Metrodorus of Stratonicea
Micon
Milo of Croton
Miltiades
Mimnermus
Mindarus
Mnaseas
Mnesicles
Moeris
Moschion (physician)
Moschion (tragic poet)
Moschus
Musaeus
Myia
Myron
Myronides
Myrtilus
Myrtis
Nabis
Nearchus
Nicander
Nicarchus
Nicias
Nicocreon
Nicomachus
Nicomachus of Thebes
Nicomedes I of Bithynia
Nicomedes II of Bithynia
Nicomedes III of Bithynia
Nicomedes IV of Bithynia
Olympias
Olympiodorus of Thebes
Onomacritus
Orestes of Macedon
Origen
Paeonius
Pagondas
Palladas
Pamphilus
Panaetius of Rhodes
Pantaleon
Parmenides
Parmenion
Parrhasius
Paulus Aegineta
Paulus Alexandrinus
Pausanias
Pausanias of Macedon
Pausanias of Sparta
Pedanius Dioscorides
Peisander
Pelopidas
Perdiccas I of Macedon
Perdiccas II of Macedon
Perdiccas III of Macedon
Periander
Pericles
Perseus
Perseus of Macedon
Phaedo of Elis
Phalaris
Pherecydes of Leros
Pherecydes of Syros
Phidias
Phidippides
Philetaerus
Philip I Philadelphus
Philip II of Macedon
Philip II Philoromaeus
Philip III of Macedon
Philip IV of Macedon
Philip V of Macedon
Philistus
Philitas of Cos
Philo
Philochorus
Philolaus
Philoxenos of Eretria
Philoxenus
Phocion
Phocylides
Phormio
Phryne
Phrynichus
Pigres of Halicarnassus
Pindar
Pisistratus
Pittacus of Mytilene
Plato
Pleistarchus
Pleistoanax
Plotinus
Plutarch
Polemo
Polybius
Polycarp
Polycrates
Polydectes
Polydorus
Polygnotus
Polykleitos
Polykleitos
Polyperchon
Porphyry
Posidippus
Posidonius
Pratinas
Praxilla
Praxiteles
Procles
Proclus
Prodicus
Protagoras
Proteas
Prusias I of Bithynia
Prusias II of Bithynia
Prytanis
Ptolemy
Ptolemy I of Egypt
Ptolemy I of Macedon
Ptolemy II of Egypt
Ptolemy III of Egypt
Ptolemy IV of Egypt
Ptolemy IX of Egypt
Ptolemy Philadelphus
Ptolemy V of Egypt
Ptolemy VI of Egypt
Ptolemy VII of Egypt
Ptolemy VIII of Egypt
Ptolemy X of Egypt
Ptolemy XI of Egypt
Ptolemy XII of Egypt
Ptolemy XIII of Egypt
Ptolemy XIV of Egypt
Pyrrho
Pyrrhus of Epirus
Pythagoras
Pytheas
Rhianus
Sappho
Satyros
Satyrus
Scopas
Scopas of Aetolia
Scylax of Caryanda
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Seleucus IV Philopator
Seleucus V Philometor
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes
Sextus Empiricus
Simmias
Simonides of Amorgos
Simonides of Ceos
Socrates
Socrates Scholasticus
Solon
Soos
Sophocles
Sophytes
Sosicles (statesman)
Sosigenes
Sosthenes of Macedon
Sostratus
Spartacus
Speusippus
Sporus of Nicaea
Stesichorus
Stesimbrotus
Stilpo
Stobaeus
Strabo
Strato of Lampsacus
Straton of Sardis
Teleclus
Terence
Terpander
Thais
Thales
Thallus
Theagenes of Megara
Theagenes of Rhegium
Theages
Theano
Themistocles
Theocritus
Theodectes
Theodorus of Cyrene
Theodorus of Gadara
Theodorus of Samos
Theodotus of Byzantium
Theognis of Megara
Theon of Alexandria
Theon of Smyrna
Theophilus
Theophrastus
Theopompus
Theopompus
Theramenes
Theron
Thespus
Thessalus
Thibron
Thrasybulus
Thrasyllus
Thrasymachus
Thucydides
Thucydides
Timaeus of Locres
Timaeus of Tauromenium
Timagenes
Timanthes
Timocharis
Timoclea
Timocrates
Timocreon
Timoleon
Timon of Phlius
Timotheus (sculptor)
Timotheus of Athens
Timotheus of Miletus
Triphiodorus or Tryphiodorus
Tyrimmas of Macedon
Tyrtaeus
Ulysses
Xanthippe
Xanthippus
Xenarchus
Xenocles
Xenocrates
Xenocrates of Aphrodisias
Xenophanes
Xenophilus
Xenophon
Xenophon of Ephesus
Zaleucus
Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Elea
Zeno of Sidon
Zenobius
Zenodorus
Zenodotus
Zeuxidamas
Zeuxis and Parrhasius
Zoilus
Zosimas

Back to Categories

May 28    Scripture

People - Ancient Greece: Lysias
Ancient Greek speech writer.

Lysĭas in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898) (Λυσίας). One of the ten Athenian orators. He was born at Athens, B.C. 458 or 459. His father, Cephalus, was a native of Syracuse, who settled at Athens during the time of Pericles. Cephalus was a person of considerable wealth, and lived on intimate terms with Pericles and Socrates; and his house is the supposed scene of the celebrated dialogues related in Plato's Republic. Lysias, at the age of fifteen, went to Thurii in Italy, with his brother Polemarchus, at the first foundation of the colony. Here he remained for thirty-two years; but, in consequence of his supporting the Athenian interests, he was obliged to leave Italy after the failure of the Athenian expedition to Sicily. He returned to Athens, B.C. 411, and carried on, in partnership with his brother Polemarchus, an extensive manufactory of shields, in which they employed as many as 120 slaves. Their wealth excited the cupidity of the Thirty Tyrants; their house was attacked one evening by an armed force while Lysias was entertaining a few friends at supper; their property was seized, and Polemarchus was taken to prison, where he was shortly after executed (B.C. 404). Lysias, by bribing some of the soldiers, escaped to the Piraeus, and sailed thence to Megara. He has given us a graphic account of his escape in his oration against Eratosthenes, who had been one of the Thirty Tyrants. Lysias actively assisted Thrasybulus in his enterprise against the Thirty; he supplied him with a large sum of money from his own resources and those of his friends, and hired a considerable body of soldiers at his own expense. In return for these services Thrasybulus proposed a decree by which the rights of citizenship should be conferred upon Lysias; but, in consequence of some informality, this decree was never carried into effect. He was, however, allowed the peculiar privileges which were sometimes granted to resident aliens (namely, ἰσοτέλεια). Lysias appears to have died about B.C. 378. The author of the Life of Lysias, attributed to Plutarch, mentions 425 orations of his, 230 of which were considered to be genuine. There remain only 34, which are all forensic, and remarkable for the method which reigns in them. The purity, the perspicuity, the grace and simplicity which characterize the orations of Lysias, would have raised him to the highest rank in the art had they been coupled with the force and energy of Demosthenes. His style is elegant without being overornate, and is regarded as a model of the “plain” style. In the art of narration, Dionysius of Halicarnassus considers him superior to all orators in being distinct, probable, and persuasive; but, at the same time, admits that his composition is better adapted to private litigation than to important causes. The text of his harangues, as we now have it, is extremely corrupt. His masterpiece is the funeral oration in honour of those Athenians who, having been sent to the aid of the Corinthians under the command of Iphicrates, perished in battle. Lysias is said to have delivered only one of the orations which he wrote—that against Eratosthenes. Lysias has been edited by Reiske (1772), Bekker (1828), Baiter and Sauppe (1850), Cobet (1863), and Scheibe (1886); and there are selections edited by Rauchenstein-Fuhr (with German notes), Frohberger, and (with English notes) by Shuckburgh, Stevens, and Bristol. There is an English translation by Gillies. See Jebb's Attic Orators, i. pp. 142- 312.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0062%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DL%3Aentry+group%3D12%3Aentry%3Dlysias-harpers


Lysias in Wikipedia Lysias (Greek: Λυσίας) (born ca. 445 BC; died ca. 380 BC) was a logographer (speech writer) in Ancient Greece. He was one of the ten Attic orators included in the "Alexandrian Canon" compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace in the third century BC. Life According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus and the author of the life ascribed to Plutarch, Lysias was born in 459 BC, which would accord with a tradition that Lysias reached, or passed, the age of eighty. This date was evidently obtained by reckoning back from the foundation of Thurii (444 BC), since there was a tradition that Lysias had gone there at the age of fifteen. Modern critics, in general, place his birth later, ca. 445 BC, and place the trip to Thurii around 430 BC.[1] Cephalus, his father, was a native of Syracuse, and on the invitation of Pericles had settled at Athens. The opening scene of Plato's Republic is set at the house of his eldest son, Polemarchus, in Piraeus. The tone of the picture warrants the inference that the Sicilian family were well known to Plato, and that their houses must often have been hospitable to such gatherings. Further, Plato's Phaedrus opens with Phaedrus coming from conversation with Lysias at the house of Epicrates of Athens: he meets Socrates, with whom he will read and discuss the speech of Lysias he heard. At Thurii, the colony newly planted on the Tarentine Gulf, the boy may have seen Herodotus, now a man in middle life, and a friendship may have grown up between them. There, too, Lysias is said to have commenced his studies in rhetoric—doubtless under a master of the Sicilian school possibly, as tradition said, under Tisias, the pupil of Corax, whose name is associated with the first attempt to formulate rhetoric as an art. In 413 BC the Athenian armament in Sicily was annihilated. The desire to link famous names is illustrated by the ancient ascription to Lysias of a rhetorical exercise purporting to be a speech in which the captive general Nicias appealed for mercy to the Sicilians. The terrible blow to Athens quickened the energies of an anti-Athenian faction at Thurii. Lysias and his elder brother Polemarchus, with three hundred other persons, were accused of Atticizing. They were driven from Thurii and settled at Athens (412 BC). Lysias and Polemarchus were rich men, having inherited property from their father, Cephalus; and Lysias claims that, though merely resident aliens, they discharged public services with a liberality which shamed many of those who enjoyed the franchise (Against Eratosthenes xii.20). The fact that they owned house property shows that they were classed as isoteleis (ἰσοτελεῖς), i.e. foreigners who paid only the same tax as citizens, being exempt from the special tax (μετοίκιον) on resident aliens. Polemarchus occupied a house in Athens itself, Lysias another in the Piraeus, near which was their shield manufactory, employing a hundred and twenty skilled slaves. In 404 the Thirty Tyrants were established at Athens under the protection of a Spartan garrison. One of their earliest measures was an attack upon the resident aliens, who were represented as disaffected to the new government. Lysias and Polemarchus were on a list of ten singled out to be the first victims. Polemarchus was arrested, and compelled to drink hemlock. Lysias had a narrow escape, with the help of a large bribe. He slipped by a back-door out of the house in which he was a prisoner, and took boat to Megara. It appears that he had rendered valuable services to the exiles during the reign of the tyrants, and in 403 Thrasybulus proposed that these services should be recognized by the bestowal of the citizenship. The Boule, however, had not yet been reconstituted, and hence the measure could not be introduced to the ecclesia by the requisite preliminary resolution (προβούλευμα). On this ground it was successfully opposed. The Athenian political climate during Lysias’s life cannot be looked upon in modern terms. Modern politics means constant and open competition between organized rival factions with their own ideologies and memberships. The members of these parties label themselves a certain name which implies that they will vote and pay dues to a certain organization who share the same basic social and political outlooks on society. The terms that best render political opposites at the time were “Oligarch” and “Democratic.” Politics as described by Lysias meant that “no human being is by nature oligarchical or democratic, but whatever constitution brings advantage to an individual is the one he would like to see established.” This passage illustrates that whatever ideology a person chose to support is not based on their core beliefs or principles. Overall, two of the key terms of Athenian politics were popular participation and collective rule. Every male Athenian citizen, irrespective to birth, occupation, and with a few exceptions, economic status, had the right to wield power as an official or Council member and actively participate in the decision-making process at the Assembly whether or not he currently held any official position. Voting was egalitarian—‘one man, one vote’—and because Athens was a direct democracy, voting outcomes remained relatively unpredictable. A Greek person was likely to support one or the other at any given time based on specific economic and social cases.[2] [3] During his later years Lysias—now probably a comparatively poor man owing to the rapacity of the tyrants and his own generosity to the Athenian exiles—appears as a hard-working member of a new profession—that of logographer, writer of speeches to be delivered in the law-courts. The thirty-four extant are but a small fraction. From 403 to about 380 BC his industry must have been incessant. The notices of his personal life in these years are scanty. In 403 he came forward as the accuser of Eratosthenes, one of the Thirty Tyrants. This was his only direct contact with Athenian politics. The story that he wrote a defence for Socrates, which the latter declined to use, probably arose from a confusion. Several years after the death of Socrates the sophist Polycrates composed a declamation against him, to which Lysias replied. Though already in his early fifties, Lysias fell in love with a young man from Platea, by the name of Theodotus. The youth, however, had already signed a companionship contract with a certain Simon, who, claiming prior rights to the boy, proceeded to stalk him, resorting to several kidnapping attempts. As a result of that, and the street brawls which ensued over Lysias' eromenos, the case was heard before the Areopagus.[4][5] A more authentic tradition represents Lysias as having spoken his own Olympiacus at the Olympic festival of 388 BC, to which Dionysius I of Syracuse had sent a magnificent embassy. Tents embroidered with gold were pitched within the sacred enclosure; and the wealth of Dionysius was vividly shown by the number of chariots which he had entered. Lysias lifted up his voice to denounce Dionysius as, next to Artaxerxes, the worst enemy of Hellas, and to impress upon the assembled Greeks that one of their foremost duties was to deliver Sicily from a hateful oppression. The latest work of Lysias which we can date (a fragment of a speech For Pherenicus) belongs to 381 or 380 BC. He probably died in or soon after 380 BC. Style Lysias displays literary tact, humour, and attention to character in his extant speeches, and is famous for using his skill to conceal his art. It was obviously desirable that a speech written for delivery by a client should be suitable to his age, station and circumstances. Lysias was the first to make this adaptation really artistic. His language is crafted to flow easily, in contrast to his predecessor Antiphon's pursuit of majestic emphasis, to his pupil (and close follower in many respects) Isaeus' more conspicuous display of artistry and more strictly logical manner of argumentation,[6] and later to the forceful oratory of Demosthenes. Translated into terms of ancient criticism, he became the model of the plain style (ἰσχνὸς χαρακτήρ, ἰσχνὴ/λιτὴ/ἀφελὴς λέξις: genus tenue or subtile). Greek and then Roman critics distinguished three styles of rhetorical composition—the grand (or elaborate), the plain and the middle, the plain being nearest to the language of daily life. Greek rhetoric began in the grand style; then Lysias set an exquisite pattern of the plain; and Demosthenes might be considered as having effected an almost ideal compromise. The vocabulary of Lysias is relatively simple and would later be regarded as a model of pure diction for Atticists. Most of the rhetorical figures are sparingly used—except such as consist in the parallelism or opposition of clauses. The taste of the day not yet emancipated from the influence of the Sicilian rhetoric probably demanded a large use of antithesis. Lysias excels in vivid description; he has also the knack of marking the speakers character by light touches. The structure of his sentences varies a good deal according to the dignity of the subject. He has equal command over the periodic style (κατεστραμμένη λέξις) and the non-periodic or continuous (εἰρομένη, διαλελυμένη). His disposition of his subject-matter is always simple. The speech has usually four parts: introduction (προοίμιον), narrative of facts (διήγησις), proofs (πίστεις), which may be either external, as from witnesses, or internal, derived from argument on the facts, and, lastly, conclusion (ἐπίλογος). It is in the introduction and the narrative that Lysias is seen at his best. In his greatest extant speech—that Against Eratosthenes—and also in the fragmentary Olympiacus, he has pathos and fire; but these were not characteristic qualities of his work. In Cicero's judgment (De Orat. iii. 7, 28) Demosthenes was peculiarly distinguished by force (vis), Aeschines by resonance (sonitus); Hypereides by acuteness (acumen); Isocrates by sweetness (suavitas); the distinction which he assigns to Lysias is subtilitas, an Attic refinement—which, as he elsewhere says (Brutus, 16, 64) is often joined to an admirable vigour (lacerti). Nor was it oratory alone to which Lysias rendered service; his work had an important effect on all subsequent Greek prose, by showing how perfect elegance could be joined to plainness. Here, in his artistic use of familiar idiom, he might fairly be called the Euripides of Attic prose. His style has attracted interest from modern readers, because it is employed in describing scenes from the everyday life of Athens. Works Table of Extant Speeches From Lysias we have thirty-four speeches. Three fragmentary ones have come down under the name of Lysias; one hundred and twenty-seven more, now lost, are known from smaller fragments or from titles. In the Augustan age four hundred and twenty-five works bore his name, of which more than two hundred were allowed as genuine by the critics. The table below shows the name of the speech (in the ordered listed in the Lamb translation), the suggested date of the speech, the primary rhetorical mode, the main point of the speech, and comments. Forensic is synonymous with judicial and denotes speeches made in law courts. Epideictic is ceremonial and involves the praise or, less often, the criticism, of the subject. Deliberative denotes speeches made in legislatures. Notes (e.g., A1, B3, etc.) refer to the list of qualifications below the table. Speech Suggested date Primary rhetorical mode Main point of speech Comment 1. On the Murder of Eratosthenes ca. 400 BCE forensic, in public causes [A6]; in private causes [B4] Euphelitos tries to prove that the murder he committed was not premeditated 2. Funeral Oration ca. 380-340 BCE epideictic Praise of fallen soldiers, purported to have been spoken during the Corinthian War. Authorship uncertain (style and approach are much different from Lysias' other speeches). 3. Against Simon 393 BCE forensic, in public causes [A6]; in private causes [B4] 4. On a Wound by Premeditation uncertain forensic, in public causes [A6] 5. For Callias uncertain forensic, in public causes [A7] 6. Against Andocides uncertain forensic, in public causes [A7] certainly spurious, but perhaps contemporary 7. Defense in the Matter of the Olive Stump 395 BCE or later forensic, in public causes [A7] 8. Accusation of Calumny 9. For the Soldier 394 BCE forensic, in public causes [A3] probably not by Lysias, but by an imitator, writing for a real cause 10. Against Theomnestus 1 ca. 384-383 BCE Forensic, in private causes [B1] 11. Against Theomnestus 2 ca. 384-383 BCE Forensic, in private causes [B1] this "second" speech may be merely an epitome of the first 12. Against Eratosthenes 403 BCE forensic, in public causes [A6] 13. Against Agoratus 399 BCE forensic, in public causes [A6] 14. Against Alcibiades 1 395 BCE forensic, in public causes [A5] 15. Against Alcibiades 2 395 BCE forensic, in public causes [A5] 16. In Defense of Mantitheus 392 BCE forensic, in public causes [A4] 17. On The Property Of Eraton 397 BCE forensic, in private causes [B3] 18. On The Property Of The Brother Of Nicias: Peroration 395 BCE forensic, in public causes [A2] 19. On the Property of Aristophenes 387 BCE forensic, in public causes [A3] 20. For Polystratus 407 BCE forensic, in public causes [A1] 21. Defense Against a Charge of Taking Bribes 402 BCE forensic, in public causes [A1] 22. Against the Corn-Dealers 386 BCE forensic, in public causes [A1] 23. Against Pancleon uncertain forensic, in private causes [B4] 24. On the Refusal of a Pension 402 BCE forensic, in public causes [A4] 25. Defense Against a Charge of Subverting the Democracy 401 BCE forensic, in public causes [A4] 26. On the Scrutiny of Evandros 382 BCE forensic, in public causes [A4] 27. Against Epicrates and his Fellow-Envoys 389 BCE forensic, in public causes [A1] 28. Against Ergocles 389 BCE forensic, in public causes [A1] 29. Against Philocrates 389 BCE forensic, in public causes [A3] 30. Against Nicomachus 389 BCE forensic, in public causes [A1] 31. Against Philon ca. 404-395 BCE forensic, in public causes [A4] 32. Against Diogeiton 400 BCE forensic, in private causes [B2] 33. Olympic Oration 388 BCE epideictic 34. Against the Subversion of the Ancestral Constitution 403 BCE deliberative NOTES "A": FORENSIC, RELATING TO PUBLIC CAUSES 1. Relating to Offences directly against the State (γραφαὶ δημοσίων ἀδικημάτων); such as treason, malversation in office, embezzlement of public moneys. 2. Causes relating to Unconstitutional Procedure (γραφὴ παρανόμων) 3. Causes relating to *Claims for Money withheld from the State (ἀπογραφαί). 4. Causes relating to a Scrutiny (δοκιμασία); especially the Scrutiny, by the Senate, of Officials Designate 5. Causes relating to Military Offences (γραφαὶ λιποταξίου, ἀστρατείας) 6. Causes relating to Murder or Intent to Murder (γραφαὶ φόνου, τραύματος ἐκ προνοίας) 7. Causes relating to Impiety (γραφαὶ ἀσεβείας) NOTES "B": FORENSIC, RELATING TO PRIVATE CAUSES 1. Action for Libel (δίκη κακηγορίας) 2. Action by a Ward against a Guardian (δίκη ἐπιτροπῆς) 3. Trial of a Claim to Property (διαδικασία) 4. Answer to a Special Plea (πρὸς παραγραφήν) Miscellaneous To his Companions, a Complaint of Slanders, viii. (certainly spurious). The speech attributed to Lysias in Plato's Phaedrus 230e-234. This speech has generally been regarded as Plato's own work; but the certainty of this conclusion will be doubted by those who observe: * the elaborate preparations made in the dialogue for a recital of the erōtikos which shall be verbally exact, * the closeness of the criticism made upon it. If the satirist were merely analysing his own composition, such criticism would have little point. Lysias is the earliest writer who is known to have composed erōtikoi; it is as representing both rhetoric and a false erōs that he is the object of attack in the Phaedrus. Fragments Three hundred and fifty-five of these are collected by Hermann Sauppe, Oratores Attici, ii. 170-216. Two hundred and fifty-two of them represent one hundred and twenty-seven speeches of known title; and of six the fragments are comparatively large. Of these, the fragmentary speech For Pherenicus belongs to 381 or 380 BC, and is thus the latest known work of Lysias. In literary and historical interest, the first place among the extant speeches of Lysias belongs to that Against Eratosthenes (403 BC), one of the Thirty Tyrants, whom Lysias arraigns as the murderer of his brother Polemarchus. The speech is an eloquent and vivid picture of the reign of terror which the Thirty established at Athens; the concluding appeal, to both parties among the citizens, is specially powerful. Next in importance is the speech Against Agoratus (388 BC), one of our chief authorities for the internal history of Athens during the months which immediately followed; the defeat at Aegospotami. The Olympiacus (388 BC) is a brilliant fragment, expressing the spirit of the festival at Olympia, and exhorting Greeks to unite against their common foes. The Plea for the Constitution (403 BC) is interesting for the manner in which it argues that the well-being of Athens—now stripped of empire—is bound up with the maintenance of democratic principles. The speech For Mantitheus (392 BC) is a graceful and animated portrait, of a young Athenian hippeus, making a spirited defence of his honor against the charge of disloyalty. The defence For the Invalid is a humorous character-sketch, The speech Against Pancleon illustrates the intimate relations between Athens and Plataea, while it gives us some picturesque glimpses of Athenian town life. The defence of the person who had, been charged with destroying a mona, or sacred olive, places us amidst the country life of Attica. And the speech Against Theomnestus deserves attention for its curious evidence of the way in which the ordinary vocabulary of Athens had changed between 600 and 400 BC. All manuscripts of Lysias yet collated have been derived, as H Sauppe first showed, from the Codex Palatinus X. (Heidelberg). The next most valuable manuscript is the Laurentianus C (15th century), which Immanuel Bekker chiefly followed. Speaking generally, we may say that these two manuscripts are the only two which carry much weight where the text is seriously corrupt. In Oratt. i.-ix. Bekker, occasionally consulted eleven other manuscripts, most of which contain only the above nine speeches: viz., Marciani F, G, I, K (Venice); Laurentiani D, E (Florence); Vaticani M, N; Parisini U, V; Urbinas O.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysias


If you notice a broken link or any error PLEASE report it by clicking HERE
© 1995-2017 Bible History Online





More Bible History