Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online

Bible History Online

Sub Categories
Aeschines
Andronicus Rhodius
Apollodorus of Athens
Aspasius
Acacius of Caesarea
Acacius of Caesarea
Acestorides
Achaeus
Achaeus of Eretria
Achaeus of Eretria
Acron
Acrotatus I
Acrotatus II
Acusilaus
Adeimantus
Adrianus
Aedesius
Aeimnestus
Aelianus Tacticus
Aelius Aristides
Aelius Herodianus
Aelius Theon
Aeneas Tacticus
Aenesidemus
Aenesidemus
Aeropus II of Macedon
Aeschines Socraticus
Aeschylus
Aesop
Aetion
Aetius
Agarista
Agariste
Agariste of Sicyon
Agasias
Agasicles
Agathias
Agathinus
Agathocles
Agathocles of Bactria
Agathon
Ageladas
Agesander
Agesilaus I
Agesilaus II
Agesipolis I
Agesipolis II
Agesipolis III
Agis I
Agis II
Agis III
Agis IV
Agoracritus
Agrippa
Agyrrhius
Albinus
Alcaeus
Alcamenes
Alcamenes
Alcetas I of Macedon
Alcibiades
Alcidamas
Alciphron
Alcmaeon of Croton
Alcman
Alcmenes
Alexander Aetolus
Alexander Balas
Alexander Cornelius
Alexander I of Epirus
Alexander II of Epirus
Alexander of Abonuteichos
Alexander of Aphrodisias
Alexander of Greece
Alexander of Pherae
Alexander Polyhistor
Alexander The Great
Alexis
Alypius
Ameinocles
Ameipsias
Amelesagoras
Amelius
Ammonius Grammaticus
Ammonius Hermiae
Ammonius Saccas
Amphis
Amynander
Anacharsis
Anacreon
Anaxagoras
Anaxander
Anaxandrides
Anaxarchus
Anaxidamus
Anaxilas
Anaxilas of Rhegium
Anaxilaus
Anaximander
Anaximenes of Lampsacus
Anaximenes of Miletus
Andocides
Andriscus
Andron
Andron
Andronicus of Cyrrhus
Andronicus of Cyrrhus
Andronicus Rhodius
Androsthenes
Androtion
Anniceris
Anonymus
Anser
Antalcidas
Anthemius of Tralles
Antigenes
Antigonus II Gonatas
Antigonus III Doson
Antigonus III of Macedon
Antigonus of Carystus
Antimachus
Antimachus I
Antinous
Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Antiochus of Ascalon
Antiochus V Eupator
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Antiochus X Eusebes
Antiochus XI Ephiphanes
Antiochus XI Ephiphanes
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Antipater
Antipater II of Macedon
Antipater of Sidon
Antipater of Tarsus
Antipater of Thessalonica
Antipater of Tyre
Antiphanes
Antiphilus
Antiphon
Antisthenes
Antoninus Liberalis
Antonius Diogenes
Antyllus
Anyte of Tegea
Anytos
Apelles
Apellicon
Apellicon
Apion
Apollocrates
Apollodorus
Apollodorus of Carystus
Apollodorus of Damascus
Apollodorus of Pergamon
Apollodorus of Seleuceia on the Tigris
Apollodotus I
Apollonius
Apollonius Molon
Apollonius of Citium
Apollonius of Perga
Apollonius of Rhodes
Apollonius of Tyana
Apollophanes
Apollos
Appian
Apsines
Araros
Aratus
Arcesilaus
Archedemus of Tarsus
Archelaus
Archelaus I
Archelaus II
Archermus
Archestratus
Archias
Archidamus I
Archidamus II
Archidamus III
Archidamus IV
Archidamus V
Archigenes
Archilochus
Archimedes
Archytas
Arctinus
Aretaeus
Areus I
Areus II
Argas
Arion
Aristaeus
Aristagoras
Aristander of Telmessus
Aristarchus of Samos
Aristarchus of Samothrace
Aristarchus of Tegea
Aristeas
Aristides
Aristides Quintilianus
Aristippus
Aristobulus
Aristocles
Aristodemus
Aristogiton
Aristomenes
Ariston (king of Sparta)
Ariston of Alexandria
Ariston of Ceos
Ariston of Chios
Aristonicus
Aristonymus
Aristophanes
Aristophanes of Byzantium
Aristophon
Aristotle
Aristoxenus
Arius
Arius Didymus
Arrian
Arsinoe I of Egypt
Arsinoe II of Egypt
Arsinoe III of Egypt
Artemidorus
Artemisia
Artemon
Asclepiades
Asclepiodotus
Asius
Aspasia - hetaera
Athenaeus
Athenaeus
Athenagoras of Athens
Athenodorus
Attalus I
Attalus II
Attalus III
Autocrates
Autolycus of Pitane
Avaris
Babrius
Bacchylides
Basil of Caesarea
Basilides
Bathycles of Magnesia
Battus
Berenice I of Egypt
Berenice II of Egypt
Berenice IV of Egypt
Bias of Priene
Bion
Biton
Boethus
Boethus of Sidon
Bolus
Brasidas
Bryson
Bupalus
Cadmus of Miletus
Caecilius of Calacte
Caesarion
Calamis
Calliades
Callias
Callicrates
Callimachus
Callimachus
Callimachus (polemarch)
Callimachus (sculptor)
Callinus
Calliphon
Callippus
Callisthenes
Callistratus
Carcinus (writer)
Carneades
Cassander
Castor of Rhodes
Cebes
Celsus
Cephisodotus
Cercidas
Cercops of Miletus
Chabrias
Chaeremon
Chaeremon of Alexandria
Chaeris
Chamaeleon
Chares of Athens
Chares of Lindos
Chares of Mytilene
Charidemus
Chariton
Charmadas
Charon of Lampsacus
Charondas
Chilon
Chionides
Choerilus
Choerilus of Iasus
Choerilus of Samos
Chremonides
Christodorus
Chrysanthius
Chrysippus
Cimon
Cimon of Cleonae
Cineas
Cinesias
Cleandridas
Cleanthes
Clearchus of Rhegium
Clearchus of Soli
Clearchus of Sparta
Cleidemus
Cleinias
Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes of Sicyon
Cleitarchus
Cleitus
Clement of Alexandria
Cleombrotus I
Cleomedes
Cleomenes I
Cleomenes II
Cleomenes III
Cleomenes of Naucratis
Cleon
Cleonides
Cleonymus
Cleopatra I of Egypt
Cleopatra II of Egypt
Cleopatra III of Egypt
Cleopatra IV of Egypt
Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra V of Egypt
Cleopatra V of Egypt
Cleopatra VI of Egypt
Cleopatra VII of Egypt
Cleophon
Clitomachus (philosopher)
Colaeus
Colluthus
Colotes
Conon
Conon (mythographer)
Conon of Samos
Corinna
Cosmas Indicopleustes
Crantor
Craterus of Macedon
Crates of Mallus
Crates of Thebes
Cratippus
Cresilas
Critias
Critius
Crito
Critolaus
Croesus
Ctesias
Ctesibius
Cylon
Cynaethus
Cynegeirus
Cynisca
Cypselus
Damascius
Damasias
Damastes
Damocles
Damon of Athens
Damophon
Dares of Phrygia
Deinocrates
Demades
Demaratus
Demetrius I of Bactria
Demetrius I of Syria
Demetrius I Poliorcetes
Demetrius II
Demetrius II of Macedon
Demetrius II of Syria
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Demetrius of Alopece
Demetrius of Magnesia
Demetrius of Pharos
Demetrius of Scepsis
Demetrius Phalereus
Demetrius the Cynic
Demetrius the Fair
Democedes
Democritus
Demonax
Demonax (lawmaker)
Demosthenes
Demosthenes (general)
Dercyllidas
Dexippus
Diagoras
Diagoras of Rhodes
Dicaearchus
Dictys Cretensis
Didymus Chalcenterus
Didymus the Blind
Didymus the Musician
Dienekes
Dinarchus
Dinocrates
Dinon
Dio Chrysostom
Diocles
Diocles of Carystus
Diocles of Magnesia
Diodorus Cronus
Diodorus Siculus
Diodotus II
Diodotus of Bactria
Diodotus the Stoic
Diodotus Tryphon
Diogenes Apolloniates
Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Oenoanda
Diogenes of Sinope
Diogenes of Tarsus
Diogenianus
Diomedes
Dion
Dionysius Chalcus
Dionysius of Byzantium
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Heraclea
Dionysius of Phocaea
Dionysius of Syracuse
Dionysius Periegetes
Dionysius the Areopagite
Diophantus
Dios
Dioscorides
Diotimus
Diphilus
Dorotheus
Dorotheus of Sidon
Dositheus
Draco
Dracon
Duris
Echecrates
Ecphantus
Empedocles
Epaminondas
Ephialtes
Ephialtes of Trachis
Ephippus
Ephorus
Epicharmus of Kos
Epicrates
Epictetus
Epicurus
Epigenes
Epilycus
Epimenides
Epiphanius of Salamis
Epitadeus
Erasistratus
Eratosthenes
Erinna
Eubulides of Miletus
Eubulus (statesman)
Eucleidas
Eucleides
Euclid
Eucratides
Euctemon
Eudamidas I
Eudemus
Eudemus of Rhodes
Eudorus of Alexandria
Eudoxus of Cnidus
Eudoxus of Cyzicus
Euenus
Eugammon
Euhemerus
Eumenes I
Eumenes II
Eumenes of Cardia
Eumenius
Eumolpidae
Eunapius
Eunomus
Euphantus
Euphemus
Euphorion
Euphranor
Euphronius
Eupolis
Euripides
Eurybatus
Eurybiades
Eurycrates
Eurycratides
Eurylochus
Eurymedon
Eurypon
Eurysthenes
Eusebius of Caesarea
Euthydemus
Euthydemus I
Euthydemus II
Euthymides
Eutychides
Evagoras
Execias
Galen
Gelo
Glaphyra - hetaera
Glaucus of Chios
Gorgias
Gorgidas
Gregory Nazianzus
Gregory of Nyssa
Gylippus
Hagnon
Hagnothemis
Harmodius and Aristogeiton
Harpalus
Hecataeus of Abdera
Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecato of Rhodes
Hecatomnus
Hedylus
Hegemon of Thasos
Hegesander
Hegesias of Cyrene
Hegesias of Magnesia
Hegesippus
Hegesistratus
Heliocles
Heliodorus
Hellanicus
Hellanicus of Lesbos
Hephaestion
Hephaistio of Thebes
Heracleides
Heraclides Ponticus
Heraclitus
Hermaeus
Hermagoras
Hermias (philosopher)
Hermias of Atarneus
Hermippus
Hermocrates
Hero of Alexandria
Herodotus
Herophilus
Herostratus
Hesiod
Hesychius of Alexandria
Hicetas
Hiero I of Syracuse
Hiero II of Syracuse
Hierocles of Alexandria
Hippalus
Hipparchus
Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus)
Hippias
Hippias (son of Pisistratus)
Hippocleides
Hippocrates
Hippodamus
Hipponax
Hipponicus
Histiaeus
Homer
Hypatia of Alexandria
Hyperbolus
Hypereides
Hypsicles
Iamblichus (philosopher)
Iambulus
Iasus
Ibycus
Ictinus
Ion of Chios
Iophon
Iphicrates
Irenaeus
Isaeus
Isagoras
Isidore of Alexandria
Isidorus of Miletus
Isocrates
Isyllus
Jason of Pherae
John Chrysostom
Karanus of Macedon
Karkinos
Kerykes
King Nicias
Koinos of Macedon
Lacedaimonius
Laches
Lacydes
Lais of Corinth
Lais of Hyccara
Lamachus
Lamprocles
Lasus of Hermione
Leochares
Leon
Leonidas I
Leonidas II
Leonnatus
Leosthenes
Leotychides
Lesbonax
Lesches
Leucippus
Libanius
Livius Andronicus
Lobon
Longinus
Longus
Lucian
Lycophron
Lycortas
Lycurgus
Lycurgus of Arcadia
Lycurgus of Athens
Lycurgus of Nemea
Lycurgus of Sparta
Lycurgus of Thrace
Lycus
Lydiadas
Lysander
Lysanias
Lysias
Lysimachus
Lysippus
Lysis
Lysistratus
Machaon
Machon
Marcellinus
Marcellus of Side
Marinus
Marsyas of Pella
Maximus of Smyrna
Megacles
Megasthenes
Meidias
Melanippides
Melanthius
Melas
Meleager of Gadara
Melesagoras of Chalcedon
Meletus
Melissus of Samos
Memnon of Rhodes
Menaechmus
Menander
Menander of Ephesus
Menander of Laodicea
Menander the Just
Menecrates of Ephesus
Menedemus (Cynic)
Menedemus of Eretria
Menelaus of Alexandria
Menexenus
Menippus
Meno
Menodotus of Nicomedia
Mentor of Rhodes
Metagenes
Meton
Metrodorus
Metrodorus of Chios
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the elder)
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger)
Metrodorus of Scepsis
Metrodorus of Stratonicea
Micon
Milo of Croton
Miltiades
Mimnermus
Mindarus
Mnaseas
Mnesicles
Moeris
Moschion (physician)
Moschion (tragic poet)
Moschus
Musaeus
Myia
Myron
Myronides
Myrtilus
Myrtis
Nabis
Nearchus
Nicander
Nicarchus
Nicias
Nicocreon
Nicomachus
Nicomachus of Thebes
Nicomedes I of Bithynia
Nicomedes II of Bithynia
Nicomedes III of Bithynia
Nicomedes IV of Bithynia
Olympias
Olympiodorus of Thebes
Onomacritus
Orestes of Macedon
Origen
Paeonius
Pagondas
Palladas
Pamphilus
Panaetius of Rhodes
Pantaleon
Parmenides
Parmenion
Parrhasius
Paulus Aegineta
Paulus Alexandrinus
Pausanias
Pausanias of Macedon
Pausanias of Sparta
Pedanius Dioscorides
Peisander
Pelopidas
Perdiccas I of Macedon
Perdiccas II of Macedon
Perdiccas III of Macedon
Periander
Pericles
Perseus
Perseus of Macedon
Phaedo of Elis
Phalaris
Pherecydes of Leros
Pherecydes of Syros
Phidias
Phidippides
Philetaerus
Philip I Philadelphus
Philip II of Macedon
Philip II Philoromaeus
Philip III of Macedon
Philip IV of Macedon
Philip V of Macedon
Philistus
Philitas of Cos
Philo
Philochorus
Philolaus
Philoxenos of Eretria
Philoxenus
Phocion
Phocylides
Phormio
Phryne
Phrynichus
Pigres of Halicarnassus
Pindar
Pisistratus
Pittacus of Mytilene
Plato
Pleistarchus
Pleistoanax
Plotinus
Plutarch
Polemo
Polybius
Polycarp
Polycrates
Polydectes
Polydorus
Polygnotus
Polykleitos
Polykleitos
Polyperchon
Porphyry
Posidippus
Posidonius
Pratinas
Praxilla
Praxiteles
Procles
Proclus
Prodicus
Protagoras
Proteas
Prusias I of Bithynia
Prusias II of Bithynia
Prytanis
Ptolemy
Ptolemy I of Egypt
Ptolemy I of Macedon
Ptolemy II of Egypt
Ptolemy III of Egypt
Ptolemy IV of Egypt
Ptolemy IX of Egypt
Ptolemy Philadelphus
Ptolemy V of Egypt
Ptolemy VI of Egypt
Ptolemy VII of Egypt
Ptolemy VIII of Egypt
Ptolemy X of Egypt
Ptolemy XI of Egypt
Ptolemy XII of Egypt
Ptolemy XIII of Egypt
Ptolemy XIV of Egypt
Pyrrho
Pyrrhus of Epirus
Pythagoras
Pytheas
Rhianus
Sappho
Satyros
Satyrus
Scopas
Scopas of Aetolia
Scylax of Caryanda
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Seleucus IV Philopator
Seleucus V Philometor
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes
Sextus Empiricus
Simmias
Simonides of Amorgos
Simonides of Ceos
Socrates
Socrates Scholasticus
Solon
Soos
Sophocles
Sophytes
Sosicles (statesman)
Sosigenes
Sosthenes of Macedon
Sostratus
Spartacus
Speusippus
Sporus of Nicaea
Stesichorus
Stesimbrotus
Stilpo
Stobaeus
Strabo
Strato of Lampsacus
Straton of Sardis
Teleclus
Terence
Terpander
Thais
Thales
Thallus
Theagenes of Megara
Theagenes of Rhegium
Theages
Theano
Themistocles
Theocritus
Theodectes
Theodorus of Cyrene
Theodorus of Gadara
Theodorus of Samos
Theodotus of Byzantium
Theognis of Megara
Theon of Alexandria
Theon of Smyrna
Theophilus
Theophrastus
Theopompus
Theopompus
Theramenes
Theron
Thespus
Thessalus
Thibron
Thrasybulus
Thrasyllus
Thrasymachus
Thucydides
Thucydides
Timaeus of Locres
Timaeus of Tauromenium
Timagenes
Timanthes
Timocharis
Timoclea
Timocrates
Timocreon
Timoleon
Timon of Phlius
Timotheus (sculptor)
Timotheus of Athens
Timotheus of Miletus
Triphiodorus or Tryphiodorus
Tyrimmas of Macedon
Tyrtaeus
Ulysses
Xanthippe
Xanthippus
Xenarchus
Xenocles
Xenocrates
Xenocrates of Aphrodisias
Xenophanes
Xenophilus
Xenophon
Xenophon of Ephesus
Zaleucus
Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Elea
Zeno of Sidon
Zenobius
Zenodorus
Zenodotus
Zeuxidamas
Zeuxis and Parrhasius
Zoilus
Zosimas

Back to Categories

October 23    Scripture

People - Ancient Greece: Homer
A well known Ancient Greek epic poet and author of the famous epic poems the Iliad, the Odyssey and more.

Homer in Wikipedia Homer (Ancient Greek: Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) in classical tradition is the ancient Greek epic poet, author of the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey, the Homeric Hymns and other works. Homer's epics stand at the beginning of the western canon of literature, exerting enormous influence on the history of fiction and literature in general. The date of Homer's existence was controversial in antiquity and is no less so today. Herodotus said that Homer lived 400 years before his own time, which would place him at around 850 BC;[1] but other ancient sources gave dates much closer to the supposed time of the Trojan War, perhaps from 1194 to 1184 BC.[2] For modern scholarship, "the date of Homer" refers to the date of the poems' conception as much as to the lifetime of an individual. The scholarly consensus is that "the Iliad and the Odyssey date from the extreme end of the 9th century BC or from the 8th, the Iliad being anterior to the Odyssey, perhaps by some decades,"[3] i.e. somewhat earlier than Hesiod,[4] and that the Iliad is the oldest work of Western literature. Over the past few decades, some scholars have argued for a 7th-century date. Those who believe that the Homeric poems developed gradually over a long period of time, however, generally give a later date for the poems: according to Gregory Nagy, they became fixed texts in only the 6th century.[5] The question of the historicity of Homer himself is known as the "Homeric question": no reliable biographical information has been handed down from classical antiquity,[6] and the poems themselves seem to represent the culmination of many centuries of oral story-telling and a well-developed formulaic system of poetic composition. According to Martin West, "Homer" is "not the name of a historical poet, but a fictitious or constructed name."[7] Alfred Heubeck states that the formative influence of the works of Homer in shaping and influencing the whole development of Greek culture was recognized by many Greeks themselves, who considered him to be their instructor.[8] Life and legends Although "Homer" is a Greek name, attested in Aeolic-speaking areas,[9] nothing definite is known of him; yet rich traditions grew up, or were conserved, purporting to give details of his birthplace and background. Many of them were purely fantastical: the satirist Lucian, in his fabulous True History, makes him out to be a Babylonian called Tigranes, who assumed the name Homer only when taken "hostage" (homeros) by the Greeks.[10] When the Emperor Hadrian asked the Oracle at Delphi who Homer really was, the Pythia proclaimed that he was Ithacan, the son of Epikaste and Telemachus, from the Odyssey.[11] These stories proliferated and were incorporated into a number[12] of Lives of Homer compiled from the Alexandrian period onwards.[13] The most common version has Homer born in the Ionian region of Asia Minor, at Smyrna, or on the island of Chios, and dying on the Cycladic island of Ios.[13][14] A connection with Smyrna seems to be alluded to in a legend that his original name was "Melesigenes" ("born of Meles", a river which flowed by that city), and of the nymph Kretheis. Internal evidence from the poems gives some support to this connection: familiarity with the topography of this area of Asia Minor's littoral obtrudes in place-names and details, and similes evocative of local scenery: the meadow birds at the mouth of the Caystros (Iliad 2.459ff.), a storm in the Icarian sea (Iliad 2.144ff.), and wind-lore (Iliad 2.394ff: 4.422ff: 9.5),[15] or that women of either Maeonia or Caria stain ivory with scarlet (Iliad 4.142).[16] The association with Chios dates back at least to Semonides of Amorgos who cited a famous line in the Iliad (6.146) as by "the man of Chios". Some kind of eponymous bardic guild, known as the Homeridae (sons of Homer), or Homeristae ('Homerizers')[17] appears to have existed there, variously tracing descent from an imaginary ancestor of that name,[18] or vaunting their special function as rhapsodes or "lay-stitchers" specialising in the recitation of Homeric poetry. The poet's name is homophonous with ὅμερος (hómēros), meaning, generally, "hostage" (or "surety"), long understood as "he who accompanies; he who is forced to follow", or, in some dialects, "blind".[19] The assonance itself generated many tales relating the person to the functions of a hostage or of a blind man. In regard to the latter, traditions holding that he was blind may have arisen from the meaning of the word both in Ionic, where the verbal form ὁμηρεύω (homēreúō) has the specialized meaning of "guide the blind",[20] and in the Aeolian dialect of Cyme, where ὅμηρος (hómēros) was synonymous with standard Greek τυφλός (tuphlós), meaning 'blind'.[21] The characterization of Homer as a blind bard goes back to some verses in the Delian Hymn to Apollo, the third of the Homeric Hymns,[22] verses later cited to support this notion by Thucydides.[23] The Cumean historian Ephorus held the same view, and the idea gained support in antiquity on the strength of a false etymology deriving his name from ho mḕ horṓn (ὁ μὴ ὁρών: "he who does not see"). Critics have long taken as self-referential[24] a passage in the Odyssey describing a blind bard, Demodocus, in the court of the Phaeacian king, who recounts stories of Troy to the shipwrecked Odysseus.[25] Many scholars take the name of the poet to be indicative of a generic function. Gregory Nagy takes it to mean "he who fits (the Song) together".[26] ὁμηρέω (homēréō), another related verb, besides signifying "meet", can mean "(sing) in accord/tune".[27] Some argue that "Homer" may have meant "he who puts the voice in tune" with dancing.[28][29] Marcello Durante links "Homeros" to an epithet of Zeus as "god of the assemblies" and argues that behind the name lies the echo of an archaic word for "reunion", similar to the later Panegyris, denoting a formal assembly of competing minstrels.[30][31] The Ancient Lives depict Homer as a wandering minstrel, much like Thamyris[32] or Hesiod, who walked as far as Chalkis to sing at the funeral games of Amphidamas.[33] We are given the image of a "blind, begging singer who hangs around with little people: shoemakers, fisherman, potters, sailors, elderly men in the gathering places of harbour towns".[34] The poems themselves give evidence of singers at the courts of the nobility. Scholars are divided as to which category, if any, the court singer or the wandering minstrel, the historic "Homer" belonged.[35] For more details on this topic, see Ancient accounts of Homer, Life of Homer (Pseudo-Herodotus). Works attributed to Homer The Greeks of the sixth and early fifth centuries understood by "Homer", generally, "the whole body of heroic tradition as embodied in hexameter verse".[36] Thus, in addition to the Iliad and the Odyssey, there are "exceptional" epics which organize their respective themes on a "massive scale".[37] Many other works were credited to Homer in antiquity, including the entire Epic Cycle. The genre included further poems on the Trojan War, such as the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Cypria, and the Epigoni, as well as the Theban poems about Oedipus and his sons. Other works, such as the corpus of Homeric Hymns, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia ("The Frog-Mouse War"), and the Margites were also attributed to him, but this is now believed to be unlikely. Two other poems, the Capture of Oechalia and the Phocais were also assigned Homeric authorship, but the question of the identities of the authors of these various texts is even more problematic than that of the authorship of the two major epics. Problems of authorship For more details on this topic, see Homeric Question. The idea that Homer was responsible for just the two outstanding epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, did not win consensus until 350 BC.[38] While many find it unlikely that both epics were composed by the same person, others argue that the stylistic similarities are too consistent to support the theory of multiple authorship. One view which attempts to bridge the differences holds that the Iliad was composed by "Homer" in his maturity, while the Odyssey was a work of his old age. The Batrachomyomachia, Homeric Hymns and cyclic epics are generally agreed to be later than the Iliad and the Odyssey. Most scholars agree that the Iliad and Odyssey underwent a process of standardisation and refinement out of older material beginning in the 8th century BC. An important role in this standardisation appears to have been played by the Athenian tyrant Hipparchus, who reformed the recitation of Homeric poetry at the Panathenaic festival. Many classicists hold that this reform must have involved the production of a canonical written text. Other scholars still support the idea that Homer was a real person. Since nothing is known about the life of this Homer, the common joke—also recycled with regard to Shakespeare—has it that the poems "were not written by Homer, but by another man of the same name."[39][40] Samuel Butler argued that a young Sicilian woman wrote the Odyssey (but not the Iliad), an idea further pursued by Robert Graves in his novel Homer's Daughter and Andrew Dalby in Rediscovering Homer.[41] Independent of the question of single authorship is the near-universal agreement, after the work of Milman Parry,[42] that the Homeric poems are dependent on an oral tradition, a generations-old technique that was the collective inheritance of many singer-poets (aoidoi). An analysis of the structure and vocabulary of the Iliad and Odyssey shows that the poems contain many formulaic phrases typical of extempore epic traditions; even entire verses are at times repeated. Parry and his student Albert Lord pointed out that such elaborate oral tradition, foreign to today's literate cultures, is typical of epic poetry in a predominantly oral cultural milieu, the key words being "oral" and "traditional". Parry started with "traditional": the repetitive chunks of language, he said, were inherited by the singer-poet from his predecessors, and were useful to him in composition. Parry called these repetitive chunks "formulas". Exactly when these poems would have taken on a fixed written form is subject to debate. The traditional solution is the "transcription hypothesis", wherein a non-literate "Homer" dictates his poem to a literate scribe between the 8th and 6th centuries. The Greek alphabet was introduced in the early 8th century, so it is possible that Homer himself was of the first generation of authors who were also literate. The classicist Barry B. Powell suggests that the Greek Alphabet was invented c. 800 BC by one man, probably Homer, in order to write down oral epic poetry.[43] More radical Homerists like Gregory Nagy contend that a canonical text of the Homeric poems as "scripture" did not exist until the Hellenistic period (3rd to 1st century BCE). Homeric studies Main article: Homeric scholarship The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. The aims and achievements of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia. In the last few centuries, they have revolved around the process by which the Homeric poems came into existence and were transmitted over time to us, first orally and later in writing. Some of the main trends in modern Homeric scholarship have been, in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Analysis and Unitarianism (see Homeric Question), schools of thought which emphasized on the one hand the inconsistencies in, and on the other the artistic unity of, Homer; and in the 20th century and later Oral Theory, the study of the mechanisms and effects of oral transmission, and Neoanalysis, the study of the relationship between Homer and other early epic material. Homeric dialect Main article: Homeric Greek The language used by Homer is an archaic version of Ionic Greek, with admixtures from certain other dialects, such as Aeolic Greek. It later served as the basis of Epic Greek, the language of epic poetry, typically in dactylic hexameter. Homeric style Aristotle remarks in his Poetics that Homer was unique among the poets of his time, focusing on a single unified theme or action in the epic cycle.[44] The cardinal qualities of the style of Homer are well articulated by Matthew Arnold: [T]he translator of Homer should above all be penetrated by a sense of four qualities of his author:—that he is eminently rapid; that he is eminently plain and direct, both in the evolution of his thought and in the expression of it, that is, both in his syntax and in his words; that he is eminently plain and direct in the substance of his thought, that is, in his matter and ideas; and finally, that he is eminently noble.[45] The peculiar rapidity of Homer is due in great measure to his use of hexameter verse. It is characteristic of early literature that the evolution of the thought, or the grammatical form of the sentence, is guided by the structure of the verse; and the correspondence which consequently obtains between the rhythm and the syntax—the thought being given out in lengths, as it were, and these again divided by tolerably uniform pauses—produces a swift flowing movement such as is rarely found when periods are constructed without direct reference to the metre. That Homer possesses this rapidity without falling into the corresponding faults, that is, without becoming either fluctuant or monotonous, is perhaps the best proof of his unequalled poetic skill. The plainness and directness of both thought and expression which characterise him were doubtless qualities of his age, but the author of the Iliad (similar to Voltaire, to whom Arnold happily compares him) must have possessed this gift in a surpassing degree. The Odyssey is in this respect perceptibly below the level of the Iliad. Rapidity or ease of movement, plainness of expression, and plainness of thought are not distinguishing qualities of the great epic poets Virgil, Dante,[46] and Milton. On the contrary, they belong rather to the humbler epico-lyrical school for which Homer has been so often claimed. The proof that Homer does not belong to that school—and that his poetry is not in any true sense ballad poetry—is furnished by the higher artistic structure of his poems and, as regards style, by the fourth of the qualities distinguished by Arnold: the quality of nobleness. It is his noble and powerful style, sustained through every change of idea and subject, that finally separates Homer from all forms of ballad-poetry and popular epic. Like the French epics, such as the Chanson de Roland, Homeric poetry is indigenous and, by the ease of movement and its resultant simplicity, distinguishable from the works of Dante, Milton and Virgil. It is also distinguished from the works of these artists by the comparative absence of underlying motives or sentiment. In Virgil's poetry, a sense of the greatness of Rome and Italy is the leading motive of a passionate rhetoric, partly veiled by the considered delicacy of his language. Dante and Milton are still more faithful exponents of the religion and politics of their time. Even the French epics display sentiments of fear and hatred of the Saracens; but, in Homer's works, the interest is purely dramatic. There is no strong antipathy of race or religion; the war turns on no political events; the capture of Troy lies outside the range of the Iliad; and even the protagonists are not comparable to the chief national heroes of Greece. So far as can be seen, the chief interest in Homer's works is that of human feeling and emotion, and of drama; indeed, his works are often referred to as "dramas". History and the Iliad The excavations of Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik in the late 19th century provided initial evidence to scholars that there was a historical basis for the Trojan War. Research into oral epics in Serbo-Croatian and Turkic languages, pioneered by the aforementioned Parry and Lord, began convincing scholars that long poems could be preserved with consistency by oral cultures until they are written down.[42] The decipherment of Linear B in the 1950s by Michael Ventris (and others) convinced many of a linguistic continuity between 13th century BC Mycenaean writings and the poems attributed to Homer. It is probable, therefore, that the story of the Trojan War as reflected in the Homeric poems derives from a tradition of epic poetry founded on a war which actually took place. It is crucial, however, not to underestimate the creative and transforming power of subsequent tradition: for instance, Achilles, the most important character of the Iliad, is strongly associated with southern Thessaly, but his legendary figure is interwoven into a tale of war whose kings were from the Peloponnese. Tribal wanderings were frequent, and far-flung, ranging over much of Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean.[47] The epic weaves brilliantly the disiecta membra (scattered remains) of these distinct tribal narratives, exchanged among clan bards, into a monumental tale in which Greeks join collectively to do battle on the distant plains of Troy. Hero cult In the Hellenistic period, Homer was the subject of a hero cult in several cities. A shrine, the Homereion, was devoted to him in Alexandria by Ptolemy IV Philopator in the late 3rd century BC. This shrine is described in Aelian's 3rd century work Varia Historia. He tells how Ptolemy "placed in a circle around the statue [of Homer] all the cities who laid claim to Homer" and mentions a painting of the poet by the artist Galaton, which apparently depicted Homer in the aspect of Oceanus as the source of all poetry. A marble relief, found in Italy but thought to have been sculpted in Egypt, depicts the apotheosis of Homer. It shows Ptolemy and his wife or sister Arsinoe III standing beside a seated poet, flanked by figures from the Odyssey and Iliad, with the nine Muses standing above them and a procession of worshippers approaching an altar, believed to represent the Alexandrine Homereion. Apollo, the god of music and poetry, also appears, along with a female figure tentatively identified as Mnemosyne, the mother of the Muses. Zeus, the king of the gods, presides over the proceedings. The relief demonstrates vividly that the Greeks considered Homer not merely a great poet but the divinely inspired reservoir of all literature.[48] Homereia also stood at Chios, Ephesus, and Smyrna, which were among the city-states that claimed to be his birthplace. Strabo (14.1.37) records a Homeric temple in Smyrna with an ancient xoanon or cult statue of the poet. He also mentions sacrifices carried out to Homer by the inhabitants of Argos, presumably at another Homereion.[49] Transmission and publication Though evincing many features characteristic of oral poetry, the Iliad and Odyssey were at some point committed to writing. The Greek script, adapted from a Phoenician syllabary around 800 BCE, made possible the notation of the complex rhythms and vowel clusters that make up hexameter verse. Homer's poems appear to have been recorded shortly after the alphabet's invention: an inscription from Ischia in the Bay of Naples, ca. 740 BCE, appears to refer to a text of the Iliad; likewise, illustrations seemingly inspired by the Polyphemus episode in the Odyssey are found on Samos, Mykonos and in Italy dating from the first quarter of the seventh century BCE. We have little information about the early condition of the Homeric poems, but in the second century BCE, Alexandrian editors stabilized this text from which all modern texts descend. In late antiquity, knowledge of Greek declined in Latin-speaking western Europe and, along with it, knowledge of Homer's poems. It was not until the fifteenth century AD that Homer's work began to be read once more in Italy. By contrast it was continually read and taught in the Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire where the majority of the classics also survived. The first printed edition appeared in 1488.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homer


If you notice a broken link or any error PLEASE report it by clicking HERE
© 1995-2017 Bible History Online





More Bible History