People - Ancient Greece: Clitomachus (philosopher)
Born Hasdrubal, he was a Carthaginian who studied
philosophy under Carneades.
Clitomăchus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
（Κλειτόμαχος). A native of Carthage. In his early years he acquired a fondness for learning, which induced him to visit Greece for the purpose of attending the schools of the philosophers. From the time of his first arrival in Athens he attached himself to Carneades (q.v.), and continued his disciple until his death, when he became his successor in the academic chair. He studied with great industry and made himself master of the systems of the other schools, but professed the doctrine of suspension of assent, as it had been taught by his master. Cicero relates that he wrote four hundred books upon philosophical subjects. At an advanced age he was seized with a lethargy. Recovering in some measure the use of his faculties, he said, “The love of life shall deceive me no longer,” and laid violent hands upon himself. He entered, as we have said, upon the office of preceptor in the Academy immediately after the death of Carneades, and held it thirty years. According to Cicero, he taught that there is no certain criterion by which to judge of the truth of those reports which we receive from the senses, and that, therefore, a wise man will either wholly suspend his assent, or decline giving a peremptory opinion; but that, nevertheless, men are strongly impelled by nature to follow probability. His moral doctrine established a natural alliance between pleasure and virtue. He was a professed enemy to rhetoric, and thought that no place should be allowed in society to so dangerous an art.
Clitomachus (philosopher) in Wikipedia
Clitomachus (Greek: Κλειτόμαχος, also Cleitomachus or Kleitomachos; 187/6-110/09 BC) originally named Hasdrubal, was a Carthaginian who came to Athens around 146 BC and studied philosophy under Carneades. He became head of the Academy around 127/6 BC. He was an Academic skeptic like his master. Nothing survives of his writings, which were dedicated to making known the views of Carneades, but Cicero made use of them for some of his works.
Clitomachus was born in Carthage in 187/6 BC, and he was originally named Hasdrubal. He came to Athens in 163/2 BC, when he was about 24 years old. He there became connected with the founder of the New Academy, the philosopher Carneades, under whose guidance he rose to be one of the most distinguished disciples of this school; but he also studied at the same time the philosophy of the Stoics and Peripatetics. In 127/6 BC, two years after the death of Carneades, he became the effective head (scholarch) of the Academy. He continued to teach at Athens till as late as 111 BC, as Crassus heard him in that year. He died in 110/09 BC, and was succeeded as scholarch by Philo of Larissa.
Of his works, which amounted to 400 books, only a few titles are preserved. His main object in writing them was to make known the philosophy of his master Carneades, from whose views he never dissented. Clitomachus continued to reside at Athens till the end of his life; but he continued to cherish a strong affection for his native country, and when Carthage was taken in 146 BC, he wrote a work to console his unfortunate countrymen. This work, which Cicero says he had read, was taken from a discourse of Carneades, and was intended to exhibit the consolation which philosophy supplies even under the greatest calamities. His work was highly regarded by Cicero, who based parts of his De Natura, De Divinatione and De Fato on a work of Clitomachus he names as On the Withholding of Assent (Latin: De Sustinendis Offensionibus).
Clitomachus probably treated of the history of philosophy in his work on the philosophical sects: On the Schools of Thought (Greek: περί αἱρέσεων).
Two of Clitomachus' works are known to have been dedicated to prominent Romans, the poet Gaius Lucilius and the one-time consul Lucius Marcius Censorinus, suggesting that his work was known and appreciated in Rome.
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