Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online

Bible History Online

Sub Categories
Aeschines
Andronicus Rhodius
Apollodorus of Athens
Aspasius
Acacius of Caesarea
Acacius of Caesarea
Acestorides
Achaeus
Achaeus of Eretria
Achaeus of Eretria
Acron
Acrotatus I
Acrotatus II
Acusilaus
Adeimantus
Adrianus
Aedesius
Aeimnestus
Aelianus Tacticus
Aelius Aristides
Aelius Herodianus
Aelius Theon
Aeneas Tacticus
Aenesidemus
Aenesidemus
Aeropus II of Macedon
Aeschines Socraticus
Aeschylus
Aesop
Aetion
Aetius
Agarista
Agariste
Agariste of Sicyon
Agasias
Agasicles
Agathias
Agathinus
Agathocles
Agathocles of Bactria
Agathon
Ageladas
Agesander
Agesilaus I
Agesilaus II
Agesipolis I
Agesipolis II
Agesipolis III
Agis I
Agis II
Agis III
Agis IV
Agoracritus
Agrippa
Agyrrhius
Albinus
Alcaeus
Alcamenes
Alcamenes
Alcetas I of Macedon
Alcibiades
Alcidamas
Alciphron
Alcmaeon of Croton
Alcman
Alcmenes
Alexander Aetolus
Alexander Balas
Alexander Cornelius
Alexander I of Epirus
Alexander II of Epirus
Alexander of Abonuteichos
Alexander of Aphrodisias
Alexander of Greece
Alexander of Pherae
Alexander Polyhistor
Alexander The Great
Alexis
Alypius
Ameinocles
Ameipsias
Amelesagoras
Amelius
Ammonius Grammaticus
Ammonius Hermiae
Ammonius Saccas
Amphis
Amynander
Anacharsis
Anacreon
Anaxagoras
Anaxander
Anaxandrides
Anaxarchus
Anaxidamus
Anaxilas
Anaxilas of Rhegium
Anaxilaus
Anaximander
Anaximenes of Lampsacus
Anaximenes of Miletus
Andocides
Andriscus
Andron
Andron
Andronicus of Cyrrhus
Andronicus of Cyrrhus
Andronicus Rhodius
Androsthenes
Androtion
Anniceris
Anonymus
Anser
Antalcidas
Anthemius of Tralles
Antigenes
Antigonus II Gonatas
Antigonus III Doson
Antigonus III of Macedon
Antigonus of Carystus
Antimachus
Antimachus I
Antinous
Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Antiochus of Ascalon
Antiochus V Eupator
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Antiochus X Eusebes
Antiochus XI Ephiphanes
Antiochus XI Ephiphanes
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Antipater
Antipater II of Macedon
Antipater of Sidon
Antipater of Tarsus
Antipater of Thessalonica
Antipater of Tyre
Antiphanes
Antiphilus
Antiphon
Antisthenes
Antoninus Liberalis
Antonius Diogenes
Antyllus
Anyte of Tegea
Anytos
Apelles
Apellicon
Apellicon
Apion
Apollocrates
Apollodorus
Apollodorus of Carystus
Apollodorus of Damascus
Apollodorus of Pergamon
Apollodorus of Seleuceia on the Tigris
Apollodotus I
Apollonius
Apollonius Molon
Apollonius of Citium
Apollonius of Perga
Apollonius of Rhodes
Apollonius of Tyana
Apollophanes
Apollos
Appian
Apsines
Araros
Aratus
Arcesilaus
Archedemus of Tarsus
Archelaus
Archelaus I
Archelaus II
Archermus
Archestratus
Archias
Archidamus I
Archidamus II
Archidamus III
Archidamus IV
Archidamus V
Archigenes
Archilochus
Archimedes
Archytas
Arctinus
Aretaeus
Areus I
Areus II
Argas
Arion
Aristaeus
Aristagoras
Aristander of Telmessus
Aristarchus of Samos
Aristarchus of Samothrace
Aristarchus of Tegea
Aristeas
Aristides
Aristides Quintilianus
Aristippus
Aristobulus
Aristocles
Aristodemus
Aristogiton
Aristomenes
Ariston (king of Sparta)
Ariston of Alexandria
Ariston of Ceos
Ariston of Chios
Aristonicus
Aristonymus
Aristophanes
Aristophanes of Byzantium
Aristophon
Aristotle
Aristoxenus
Arius
Arius Didymus
Arrian
Arsinoe I of Egypt
Arsinoe II of Egypt
Arsinoe III of Egypt
Artemidorus
Artemisia
Artemon
Asclepiades
Asclepiodotus
Asius
Aspasia - hetaera
Athenaeus
Athenaeus
Athenagoras of Athens
Athenodorus
Attalus I
Attalus II
Attalus III
Autocrates
Autolycus of Pitane
Avaris
Babrius
Bacchylides
Basil of Caesarea
Basilides
Bathycles of Magnesia
Battus
Berenice I of Egypt
Berenice II of Egypt
Berenice IV of Egypt
Bias of Priene
Bion
Biton
Boethus
Boethus of Sidon
Bolus
Brasidas
Bryson
Bupalus
Cadmus of Miletus
Caecilius of Calacte
Caesarion
Calamis
Calliades
Callias
Callicrates
Callimachus
Callimachus
Callimachus (polemarch)
Callimachus (sculptor)
Callinus
Calliphon
Callippus
Callisthenes
Callistratus
Carcinus (writer)
Carneades
Cassander
Castor of Rhodes
Cebes
Celsus
Cephisodotus
Cercidas
Cercops of Miletus
Chabrias
Chaeremon
Chaeremon of Alexandria
Chaeris
Chamaeleon
Chares of Athens
Chares of Lindos
Chares of Mytilene
Charidemus
Chariton
Charmadas
Charon of Lampsacus
Charondas
Chilon
Chionides
Choerilus
Choerilus of Iasus
Choerilus of Samos
Chremonides
Christodorus
Chrysanthius
Chrysippus
Cimon
Cimon of Cleonae
Cineas
Cinesias
Cleandridas
Cleanthes
Clearchus of Rhegium
Clearchus of Soli
Clearchus of Sparta
Cleidemus
Cleinias
Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes of Sicyon
Cleitarchus
Cleitus
Clement of Alexandria
Cleombrotus I
Cleomedes
Cleomenes I
Cleomenes II
Cleomenes III
Cleomenes of Naucratis
Cleon
Cleonides
Cleonymus
Cleopatra I of Egypt
Cleopatra II of Egypt
Cleopatra III of Egypt
Cleopatra IV of Egypt
Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra V of Egypt
Cleopatra V of Egypt
Cleopatra VI of Egypt
Cleopatra VII of Egypt
Cleophon
Clitomachus (philosopher)
Colaeus
Colluthus
Colotes
Conon
Conon (mythographer)
Conon of Samos
Corinna
Cosmas Indicopleustes
Crantor
Craterus of Macedon
Crates of Mallus
Crates of Thebes
Cratippus
Cresilas
Critias
Critius
Crito
Critolaus
Croesus
Ctesias
Ctesibius
Cylon
Cynaethus
Cynegeirus
Cynisca
Cypselus
Damascius
Damasias
Damastes
Damocles
Damon of Athens
Damophon
Dares of Phrygia
Deinocrates
Demades
Demaratus
Demetrius I of Bactria
Demetrius I of Syria
Demetrius I Poliorcetes
Demetrius II
Demetrius II of Macedon
Demetrius II of Syria
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Demetrius of Alopece
Demetrius of Magnesia
Demetrius of Pharos
Demetrius of Scepsis
Demetrius Phalereus
Demetrius the Cynic
Demetrius the Fair
Democedes
Democritus
Demonax
Demonax (lawmaker)
Demosthenes
Demosthenes (general)
Dercyllidas
Dexippus
Diagoras
Diagoras of Rhodes
Dicaearchus
Dictys Cretensis
Didymus Chalcenterus
Didymus the Blind
Didymus the Musician
Dienekes
Dinarchus
Dinocrates
Dinon
Dio Chrysostom
Diocles
Diocles of Carystus
Diocles of Magnesia
Diodorus Cronus
Diodorus Siculus
Diodotus II
Diodotus of Bactria
Diodotus the Stoic
Diodotus Tryphon
Diogenes Apolloniates
Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes of Babylon
Diogenes of Oenoanda
Diogenes of Sinope
Diogenes of Tarsus
Diogenianus
Diomedes
Dion
Dionysius Chalcus
Dionysius of Byzantium
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Heraclea
Dionysius of Phocaea
Dionysius of Syracuse
Dionysius Periegetes
Dionysius the Areopagite
Diophantus
Dios
Dioscorides
Diotimus
Diphilus
Dorotheus
Dorotheus of Sidon
Dositheus
Draco
Dracon
Duris
Echecrates
Ecphantus
Empedocles
Epaminondas
Ephialtes
Ephialtes of Trachis
Ephippus
Ephorus
Epicharmus of Kos
Epicrates
Epictetus
Epicurus
Epigenes
Epilycus
Epimenides
Epiphanius of Salamis
Epitadeus
Erasistratus
Eratosthenes
Erinna
Eubulides of Miletus
Eubulus (statesman)
Eucleidas
Eucleides
Euclid
Eucratides
Euctemon
Eudamidas I
Eudemus
Eudemus of Rhodes
Eudorus of Alexandria
Eudoxus of Cnidus
Eudoxus of Cyzicus
Euenus
Eugammon
Euhemerus
Eumenes I
Eumenes II
Eumenes of Cardia
Eumenius
Eumolpidae
Eunapius
Eunomus
Euphantus
Euphemus
Euphorion
Euphranor
Euphronius
Eupolis
Euripides
Eurybatus
Eurybiades
Eurycrates
Eurycratides
Eurylochus
Eurymedon
Eurypon
Eurysthenes
Eusebius of Caesarea
Euthydemus
Euthydemus I
Euthydemus II
Euthymides
Eutychides
Evagoras
Execias
Galen
Gelo
Glaphyra - hetaera
Glaucus of Chios
Gorgias
Gorgidas
Gregory Nazianzus
Gregory of Nyssa
Gylippus
Hagnon
Hagnothemis
Harmodius and Aristogeiton
Harpalus
Hecataeus of Abdera
Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecato of Rhodes
Hecatomnus
Hedylus
Hegemon of Thasos
Hegesander
Hegesias of Cyrene
Hegesias of Magnesia
Hegesippus
Hegesistratus
Heliocles
Heliodorus
Hellanicus
Hellanicus of Lesbos
Hephaestion
Hephaistio of Thebes
Heracleides
Heraclides Ponticus
Heraclitus
Hermaeus
Hermagoras
Hermias (philosopher)
Hermias of Atarneus
Hermippus
Hermocrates
Hero of Alexandria
Herodotus
Herophilus
Herostratus
Hesiod
Hesychius of Alexandria
Hicetas
Hiero I of Syracuse
Hiero II of Syracuse
Hierocles of Alexandria
Hippalus
Hipparchus
Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus)
Hippias
Hippias (son of Pisistratus)
Hippocleides
Hippocrates
Hippodamus
Hipponax
Hipponicus
Histiaeus
Homer
Hypatia of Alexandria
Hyperbolus
Hypereides
Hypsicles
Iamblichus (philosopher)
Iambulus
Iasus
Ibycus
Ictinus
Ion of Chios
Iophon
Iphicrates
Irenaeus
Isaeus
Isagoras
Isidore of Alexandria
Isidorus of Miletus
Isocrates
Isyllus
Jason of Pherae
John Chrysostom
Karanus of Macedon
Karkinos
Kerykes
King Nicias
Koinos of Macedon
Lacedaimonius
Laches
Lacydes
Lais of Corinth
Lais of Hyccara
Lamachus
Lamprocles
Lasus of Hermione
Leochares
Leon
Leonidas I
Leonidas II
Leonnatus
Leosthenes
Leotychides
Lesbonax
Lesches
Leucippus
Libanius
Livius Andronicus
Lobon
Longinus
Longus
Lucian
Lycophron
Lycortas
Lycurgus
Lycurgus of Arcadia
Lycurgus of Athens
Lycurgus of Nemea
Lycurgus of Sparta
Lycurgus of Thrace
Lycus
Lydiadas
Lysander
Lysanias
Lysias
Lysimachus
Lysippus
Lysis
Lysistratus
Machaon
Machon
Marcellinus
Marcellus of Side
Marinus
Marsyas of Pella
Maximus of Smyrna
Megacles
Megasthenes
Meidias
Melanippides
Melanthius
Melas
Meleager of Gadara
Melesagoras of Chalcedon
Meletus
Melissus of Samos
Memnon of Rhodes
Menaechmus
Menander
Menander of Ephesus
Menander of Laodicea
Menander the Just
Menecrates of Ephesus
Menedemus (Cynic)
Menedemus of Eretria
Menelaus of Alexandria
Menexenus
Menippus
Meno
Menodotus of Nicomedia
Mentor of Rhodes
Metagenes
Meton
Metrodorus
Metrodorus of Chios
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the elder)
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger)
Metrodorus of Scepsis
Metrodorus of Stratonicea
Micon
Milo of Croton
Miltiades
Mimnermus
Mindarus
Mnaseas
Mnesicles
Moeris
Moschion (physician)
Moschion (tragic poet)
Moschus
Musaeus
Myia
Myron
Myronides
Myrtilus
Myrtis
Nabis
Nearchus
Nicander
Nicarchus
Nicias
Nicocreon
Nicomachus
Nicomachus of Thebes
Nicomedes I of Bithynia
Nicomedes II of Bithynia
Nicomedes III of Bithynia
Nicomedes IV of Bithynia
Olympias
Olympiodorus of Thebes
Onomacritus
Orestes of Macedon
Origen
Paeonius
Pagondas
Palladas
Pamphilus
Panaetius of Rhodes
Pantaleon
Parmenides
Parmenion
Parrhasius
Paulus Aegineta
Paulus Alexandrinus
Pausanias
Pausanias of Macedon
Pausanias of Sparta
Pedanius Dioscorides
Peisander
Pelopidas
Perdiccas I of Macedon
Perdiccas II of Macedon
Perdiccas III of Macedon
Periander
Pericles
Perseus
Perseus of Macedon
Phaedo of Elis
Phalaris
Pherecydes of Leros
Pherecydes of Syros
Phidias
Phidippides
Philetaerus
Philip I Philadelphus
Philip II of Macedon
Philip II Philoromaeus
Philip III of Macedon
Philip IV of Macedon
Philip V of Macedon
Philistus
Philitas of Cos
Philo
Philochorus
Philolaus
Philoxenos of Eretria
Philoxenus
Phocion
Phocylides
Phormio
Phryne
Phrynichus
Pigres of Halicarnassus
Pindar
Pisistratus
Pittacus of Mytilene
Plato
Pleistarchus
Pleistoanax
Plotinus
Plutarch
Polemo
Polybius
Polycarp
Polycrates
Polydectes
Polydorus
Polygnotus
Polykleitos
Polykleitos
Polyperchon
Porphyry
Posidippus
Posidonius
Pratinas
Praxilla
Praxiteles
Procles
Proclus
Prodicus
Protagoras
Proteas
Prusias I of Bithynia
Prusias II of Bithynia
Prytanis
Ptolemy
Ptolemy I of Egypt
Ptolemy I of Macedon
Ptolemy II of Egypt
Ptolemy III of Egypt
Ptolemy IV of Egypt
Ptolemy IX of Egypt
Ptolemy Philadelphus
Ptolemy V of Egypt
Ptolemy VI of Egypt
Ptolemy VII of Egypt
Ptolemy VIII of Egypt
Ptolemy X of Egypt
Ptolemy XI of Egypt
Ptolemy XII of Egypt
Ptolemy XIII of Egypt
Ptolemy XIV of Egypt
Pyrrho
Pyrrhus of Epirus
Pythagoras
Pytheas
Rhianus
Sappho
Satyros
Satyrus
Scopas
Scopas of Aetolia
Scylax of Caryanda
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Seleucus IV Philopator
Seleucus V Philometor
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes
Sextus Empiricus
Simmias
Simonides of Amorgos
Simonides of Ceos
Socrates
Socrates Scholasticus
Solon
Soos
Sophocles
Sophytes
Sosicles (statesman)
Sosigenes
Sosthenes of Macedon
Sostratus
Spartacus
Speusippus
Sporus of Nicaea
Stesichorus
Stesimbrotus
Stilpo
Stobaeus
Strabo
Strato of Lampsacus
Straton of Sardis
Teleclus
Terence
Terpander
Thais
Thales
Thallus
Theagenes of Megara
Theagenes of Rhegium
Theages
Theano
Themistocles
Theocritus
Theodectes
Theodorus of Cyrene
Theodorus of Gadara
Theodorus of Samos
Theodotus of Byzantium
Theognis of Megara
Theon of Alexandria
Theon of Smyrna
Theophilus
Theophrastus
Theopompus
Theopompus
Theramenes
Theron
Thespus
Thessalus
Thibron
Thrasybulus
Thrasyllus
Thrasymachus
Thucydides
Thucydides
Timaeus of Locres
Timaeus of Tauromenium
Timagenes
Timanthes
Timocharis
Timoclea
Timocrates
Timocreon
Timoleon
Timon of Phlius
Timotheus (sculptor)
Timotheus of Athens
Timotheus of Miletus
Triphiodorus or Tryphiodorus
Tyrimmas of Macedon
Tyrtaeus
Ulysses
Xanthippe
Xanthippus
Xenarchus
Xenocles
Xenocrates
Xenocrates of Aphrodisias
Xenophanes
Xenophilus
Xenophon
Xenophon of Ephesus
Zaleucus
Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Elea
Zeno of Sidon
Zenobius
Zenodorus
Zenodotus
Zeuxidamas
Zeuxis and Parrhasius
Zoilus
Zosimas

Back to Categories

June 22    Scripture

People - Ancient Greece: John Chrysostom
(c. 349–407) He was the Archbishop of Constantinople and was an Early Church Father.

John Chrysostom in Wikipedia John Chrysostom (c. 349–407, Greek: Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father. He is known for his eloquence in preaching and public speaking, his denunciation of abuse of authority by both ecclesiastical and political leaders, the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, and his ascetic sensibilities. After his death (or, according to some sources, during his life) he was given the Greek surname chrysostomos, meaning "golden mouthed", rendered in English as Chrysostom.[2][3] The Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches honor him as a saint and count him among the Three Holy Hierarchs, together with Basil the Great and Gregory Nazianzus. He is recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church as a saint and as a Doctor of the Church. Churches of the Western tradition, including the Roman Catholic Church, some Anglican provinces, and parts of the Lutheran Church, commemorate him on 13 September. Some Lutheran and many Anglican provinces commemorate him on the traditional Eastern feast day of 27 January. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria also recognizes John Chrysostom as a saint (with feast days on 16 Thout and 17 Hathor).[4] John is known in Christianity chiefly as a preacher, theologian and liturgist, particularly in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Among his sermons, eight directed against Judaizing Christians remain controversial for their impact on the development of Christian antisemitism.[5][6][7] He was also active in destruction of pagan symbols and places of worship, including the temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Biography Early life and education John was born in Antioch in 349. Different scholars describe his mother Anthusa as a pagan[8] or as a Christian, and his father was a high ranking military officer.[9] John's father died soon after his birth and he was raised by his mother. He was baptised in 368 or 373 and tonsured as a reader (one of the minor orders of the Church).[10] As a result of his mother's influential connections in the city, John began his education under the pagan teacher Libanius. From Libanius, John acquired the skills for a career in rhetoric, as well as a love of the Greek language and literature.[11] As he grew older, however, he became more deeply committed to Christianity and went on to study theology under Diodore of Tarsus, founder of the re-constituted School of Antioch. According to the Christian historian Sozomen, Libanius was supposed to have said on his deathbed that John would have been his successor "if the Christians had not taken him from us".[12] He lived with extreme asceticism and became a hermit in about 375; he spent the next two years continually standing, scarcely sleeping, and committing the Bible to memory. As a consequence of these practices, his stomach and kidneys were permanently damaged and poor health forced him to return to Antioch.[13] Priesthood and service in Antioch He was ordained as a deacon in 381 by Saint Meletius of Antioch, and was ordained as a presbyter (that is, a priest) in 386 by Bishop Flavian I of Antioch. Over the course of twelve years, he gained popularity because of the eloquence of his public speaking, especially his insightful expositions of Bible passages and moral teaching. The most valuable of his works from this period are his Homilies on various books of the Bible. He emphasised charitable giving and was concerned with the spiritual and temporal needs of the poor. He also spoke out against abuse of wealth and personal property: Do you wish to honour the body of Christ? Do not ignore him when he is naked. Do not pay him homage in the temple clad in silk, only then to neglect him outside where he is cold and ill-clad. He who said: "This is my body" is the same who said: "You saw me hungry and you gave me no food", and "Whatever you did to the least of my brothers you did also to me"... What good is it if the Eucharistic table is overloaded with golden chalices when your brother is dying of hunger? Start by satisfying his hunger and then with what is left you may adorn the altar as well.[14] His straightforward understanding of the Scriptures – in contrast to the Alexandrian tendency towards allegorical interpretation – meant that the themes of his talks were practical, explaining the Bible's application to everyday life. Such straightforward preaching helped Chrysostom to garner popular support. He founded a series of hospitals in Constantinople to care for the poor.[15] One incident that happened during his service in Antioch illustrates the influence of his sermons. When Chrysostom arrived in Antioch, the bishop of the city had to intervene with Emperor Theodosius I on behalf of citizens who had gone on a rampage mutilating statues of the Emperor and his family. During the weeks of Lent in 397, John preached twenty-one sermons in which he entreated the people to see the error of their ways. These made a lasting impression on the general population of the city: many pagans converted to Christianity as a result of the sermons. As a result, Theodosius' vengeance was not as severe as it might have been.[16] Archbishop of Constantinople In 398, John was requested, against his will, to take the position of Archbishop of Constantinople. He deplored the fact that Imperial court protocol would now assign to him access to privileges greater than the highest state officials. During his time as Archbishop he adamantly refused to host lavish social gatherings, which made him popular with the common people, but unpopular with wealthy citizens and the clergy. His reforms of the clergy were also unpopular with these groups. He told visiting regional preachers to return to the churches they were meant to be serving—without any payout.[17] In 401, Chrysostom led a mob to finally destroy the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus[18] (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, although it had been destroyed and rebuilt several times by then). His time in Constantinople was more tumultuous than his time in Antioch. Theophilus, the Patriarch of Alexandria, wanted to bring Constantinople under his sway and opposed John's appointment to Constantinople. Being an opponent of Origen's teachings, he accused John of being too partial to the teachings of that theologian. Theophilus had disciplined four Egyptian monks (known as "the tall brothers") over their support of Origen's teachings. They fled to and were welcomed by John. He made another enemy in Aelia Eudoxia, the wife of the eastern Emperor Arcadius, who assumed (perhaps with justification) that his denunciations of extravagance in feminine dress were aimed at herself.[16] Depending on one's outlook, John was either tactless or fearless when denouncing offences in high places. An alliance was soon formed against him by Eudoxia, Theophilus and others of his enemies. They held a synod in 403 (the Synod of the Oak) to charge John, in which his connection to Origen was used against him. It resulted in his deposition and banishment. He was called back by Arcadius almost immediately, as the people became "tumultuous" over his departure.[19] There was also an earthquake the night of his arrest, which Eudoxia took for a sign of God's anger, prompting her to ask Arcadius for John's reinstatement.[20] Peace was short-lived. A silver statue of Eudoxia was erected in the Augustaion, near his cathedral. John denounced the dedication ceremonies. He spoke against her in harsh terms: "Again Herodias raves; again she is troubled; she dances again; and again desires to receive John's head in a charger,"[21] an allusion to the events surrounding the death of John the Baptist. Once again he was banished, this time to the Caucasus in Armenia.[22] Death and Canonization Pope Innocent I protested at this banishment, but to no avail. Innocent sent a delegation to intercede on behalf of John in 405. It was led by Gaudentius of Brescia; Gaudentius and his companions, two bishops, encountered many difficulties and never reached their goal of entering Constantinople.[23] John wrote letters which still held great influence in Constantinople. As a result of this, he was further exiled to Pitiunt (Georgia) where his tomb is a shrine for pilgrims. He never reached this destination, as he died during the journey. His last words are said to have been, "δόξα τῷ θεῷ πάντων ἕνεκεν" (Glory be to God for all things).[20] John came to be venerated as a saint soon after his death. His disciple, Saint Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople (434-447), during services in the Church of Hagia Sophia, preached a sermon praising his teacher. He said, "O John, your life was filled with sorrow, but your death was glorious. Your grave is blessed and reward is great, by the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ O graced one, having conquered the bounds of time and place! Love has conquered space, unforgetting memory has annihilated the limits, and place does not hinder the miracles of the saint." This sermon helped to mobilize public opinion, and the patriarch received permission from the emperor to return Chrysostom's relics to Constantinople, where they were enshrined in the Church of the Holy Apostles. The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates him as a "Great Ecumenical Teacher", together with Basil the Great and Gregory the Theologian. These three saints, in addition to having their own individual commemorations throughout the year, are commemorated together on 30 January, a feast known as the Synaxis of the Three Hierarchs. There are several feast days dedicated to him: * 27 January, Translation of the relics of St John Chrysostom from Comana to Constantinople * 30 January, Synaxis of the Three Great Hierarchs * 14 September, Repose of St John Chrysostom * 13 November, St John Chrysostom the Archbishop of Constantinople Writings Homilies Known as "the greatest preacher in the early church", John's sermons have been one of his greatest lasting legacies.[24] Chrysostom's extant homiletical works are vast, including many hundreds of exegetical sermons on both the New Testament (especially the works of Saint Paul) and the Old Testament (particularly on Genesis). Among his extant exegetical works are sixty-seven homilies on Genesis, fifty-nine on the Psalms, ninety on the Gospel of Matthew, eighty-eight on the Gospel of John, and fifty-five on the Acts of the Apostles.[25] The sermons were written down by the audience and subsequently circulated, revealing a style that tended to be direct and greatly personal, but was also formed by the rhetorical conventions of his time and place.[26] In general, his homiletical theology displays much characteristic of the Antiochian school (i.e., somewhat more literal in interpreting Biblical events), but he also uses a good deal of the allegorical interpretation more associated with the Alexandrian school.[25] John's social and religious world was formed by the continuing and pervasive presence of paganism in the life of the city. One of his regular topics was the paganism in the culture of Constantinople, and in his sermons he thunders against popular pagan amusements: the theatre, horseraces, and the revelry surrounding holidays.[27] In particular, he criticized Christians for taking part in such activities: If you ask [Christians] who is Amos or Obadiah, how many apostles there were or prophets, they stand mute; but if you ask them about the horses or drivers, they answer with more solemnity than sophists or rhetors".[28] John's homilies on Saint Paul's Epistles proceed linearly, methodically treating the texts verse by verse, often going into great detail. He shows a concern to be understood by laypeople, sometimes offering colorful analogies and practical examples. At other times, he offers extended comments clearly intended to address the theological subtleties of a heretical misreading, or to demonstrate the presence of a deeper theme. One of the recurring features of John's sermons is his emphasis on care for the needy.[29] Echoing themes found in the Gospel of Matthew, he calls upon the rich to lay aside materialism in favor of helping the poor, often employing all of his rhetorical skills to shame wealthy people to abandon conspicuous consumption: It is not possible for one to be wealthy and just at the same time. Do you pay such honor to your excrements as to receive them into a silver chamber-pot when another man made in the image of God is perishing in the cold?[30] Treatises Outside of his sermons, a number of John's other treatises have had a lasting influence. One such work is John's early treatise Against Those Who Oppose the Monastic Life, written while he was a deacon (sometime before 386), which was directed to parents, pagan as well as Christian, whose sons were contemplating a monastic vocation. The book is a sharp attack on the values of Antiochene upper-class urban society written by someone who was a member of that class.[31] Chrysostom also writes that, already in his day, it was customary for Antiochenes to send their sons to be educated by monks.[32] Other important treatises written by John include On the Priesthood (one of his earlier works), Instructions to Catechumens, and On the Incomprehensibility of the Divine Nature.[33] In addition, he wrote a series of letters to the deaconess Olympias, of which seventeen are extant.[34] Sermons on Jews and Judaizing Christians During his first two years as a presbyter in Antioch (386-387), John denounced Jews and Judaizing Christians in a series of eight sermons delivered to Christians in his congregation who were taking part in Jewish festivals and other Jewish observances.[35] It is disputed whether the main target were specifically Judaizers or Jews in general. His homilies were expressed in the conventional manner, utilizing the uncompromising rhetorical form known as the psogos (Greek: blame). One of the purposes of these homilies was to prevent Christians from participating in Jewish customs, and thus prevent the perceived erosion of Chrysostom's flock. In his sermons, John criticized those "Judaizing Christians", who were participating in Jewish festivals and taking part in other Jewish observances, such as the shabbat, submitted to circumcision and made pilgrimage to Jewish holy places.[36] John claimed that on the shabbats and Jewish festivals synagogues were full of Christians, especially women, who loved the solemnity of the Jewish liturgy, enjoyed listening to the shofar on Rosh Hashanah, and applauded famous preachers in accordance with the contemporary custom.[37] A more recent theory is that he instead tried to persuade Jewish Christians, who for centuries had kept connections with Jews and Judaism, to choose between Judaism and Christianity.[38] In Greek the sermons are called Kata Ioudaiōn (Κατὰ Ιουδαίων), which is translated as Adversus Judaeos in Latin and Against the Jews in English.[39] The original Benedictine editor of the homilies, Bernard de Montfaucon, gives the following footnote to the title: "A discourse against the Jews; but it was delivered against those who were Judaizing and keeping the fasts with them [the Jews]."[40] Liturgy Beyond his preaching, the other lasting legacy of John is his influence on Christian liturgy. Two of his writings are particularly notable. He harmonized the liturgical life of the Church by revising the prayers and rubrics of the Divine Liturgy, or celebration of the Holy Eucharist. To this day, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine Rite typically celebrate the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom as the normal eucharistic liturgy, although his exact connection with it remains a matter of debate among experts.[41] These same churches also read his Catechetical Homily (Hieratikon) at every Easter, the greatest feast of the church year.[42] Legacy and influence During a time when city clergy were subject to criticism for their high lifestyle, John was determined to reform his clergy in Constantinople. These efforts were met with resistance and limited success. He was an excellent preacher[41] whose sermons and writings are still studied and quoted. As a theologian, he has been and continues to be very important in Eastern Christianity, and is generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church, but has been less important to Western Christianity. His writings have survived to the present day more so than any of the other Greek Fathers.[2] He rejected the contemporary trend for allegory, instead speaking plainly and applying Bible passages and lessons to everyday life. His exile demonstrated the rivalry between Constantinople and Alexandria for recognition as the preeminent Eastern See, while in the west, the Pope's primacy remained unquestioned. Influence on the Catechism of the Catholic Church and clergy John's influence on church teachings is interwoven throughout the current Catechism of the Catholic Church (revised 1992). The Catechism cites him in eighteen sections, particularly his reflections on the purpose of prayer and the meaning of the Lord's Prayer: Consider how [Jesus Christ] teaches us to be humble, by making us see that our virtue does not depend on our work alone but on grace from on high. He commands each of the faithful who prays to do so universally, for the whole world. For he did not say "thy will be done in me or in us", but "on earth", the whole earth, so that error may be banished from it, truth take root in it, all vice be destroyed on it, virtue flourish on it, and earth no longer differ from heaven.[43] Christian clerics, such as R.S. Storr, refer to him as "one of the most eloquent preachers who ever since apostolic times have brought to men the divine tidings of truth and love", and the 19th-century John Henry Newman described John as a "bright, cheerful, gentle soul; a sensitive heart."[44] Music and literature John's liturgical legacy has inspired several musical compositions. Particularly noteworthy are Sergei Rachmaninoff's Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op.31, composed in 1910,[45] one of his two major unaccompanied choral works; Pyotr Tchaikovsky's Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op.41; and Ukrainian composer Kyrylo Stetsenko's Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom; and Arvo Pärt's Litany, which sets seven sentence prayers of Chrysostom's Divine Liturgy for chorus and orchestra. Also noteworthy is Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (Bo˛anstvena Liturgija Svetog Jovana Zlatoustog) by a Serbian composer Stevan Mokranjac. James Joyce's novel Ulysses includes a character named Mulligan who brings 'Chrysostomos' into another character's mind because Mulligan's gold-stopped teeth and his gift of the gab earn him the title which St. John Chrysostom's preaching earned him, 'golden-mouthed':[46] Chrysostomos also refers to Stephen, the independent and exiled genius: "He peered sideways up and gave a long low whistle of call, then paused awhile in rapt attention, his even white teeth glistening here and there with gold points. Chrysostomos." [47] The Legend of the Penance of St John Chrysostom A curious legend current in the Eastern Church[48] and widespread in Europe in the 16th century (although not mentioned in the Golden Legend) relates that when John Chrysostom was a hermit in the desert, he was approached by a royal princess in distress.[49] The Saint, thinking she was a demon, at first refused to help her, but the princess convinced him that she was a Christian and would be devoured by wild beasts if she were not allowed to enter his cave. He therefore admitted her, carefully dividing the cave in two parts, one for each of them. In spite of these precautions, a sin was committed, and in an attempt to hide it, the distraught saint took the princess and threw her over a precipice. He then went to Rome to beg absolution, which was refused. Realising the appalling nature of his crimes, Chrysostom made a vow that he would never rise from the ground until his sins were expiated, and for years he lived like a beast, crawling on all fours and feeding on wild grasses and roots. Subsequently the princess reappeared, alive, and suckling the saint's baby, who miraculously pronounced his sins forgiven. This last scene was very popular in the early 16th century as a subject for engravers and artists. The theme was depicted by Albrecht Durer, Hans Sebald Beham and Lucas Cranach the Elder among others. Relics John Chrysostom died in the city of Comana in the year 407 on his way to his place of exile. There his relics remained until 438 when, thirty years after his death, they were transferred to Constantinople during the reign of the Empress Eudoxia's son, the Emperor Theodosius II (408-450), under the guidance of John's disciple, St. Proclus, who by that time had become Archbishop of Constantinople (434-447). Most of John's relics were looted from Constantinople by Crusaders in 1204 and taken to Rome, but some of his bones were returned to the Orthodox on 27 November 2004 by Pope John Paul II.[50] They are now enshrined in the Church of St. George, Istanbul.[51] However, the skull of St John, having been kept at the Vatopedi Monastery on Mount Athos in northern Greece, was not among the relics that were taken by the crusaders in the 13th century. In 1655, at the request of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the skull was taken to Russia, for which the monastery was compensated in the sum of 2000 rubles. In 1693, having received a request from the Vatopedi Monastery for the return of St John's skull, Tsar Peter the Great ordered that the skull remain in Russia but that the monastery was to be paid 500 rubles every four years. The Russian state archives document these payments up until 1735. The skull was kept at the Moscow Kremlin, in the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Mother of God, until 1920, when it was confiscated by the Soviets and placed in the Museum of Silver Antiquities. In 1988, in connection with the 1000th Anniversary of the Baptism of Russia, the Head, together with other important relics, was returned to the Russian Orthodox Church and kept at the Epiphany Cathedral, until being moved to the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour after its restoration. However, today, the Vatopedi Monastery posits a rival claim to possession of the skull of St John Chrysostom, and there a skull is venerated by pilgrims to the monastery as that of St John. The right hand of St John is preserved on Mount Athos, and numerous smaller relics are scattered throughout the world.[52]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Chrysostom


If you notice a broken link or any error PLEASE report it by clicking HERE
© 1995-2017 Bible History Online





More Bible History