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February 19    Scripture

People - Ancient Rome: Livy
Born Titus Livius, he was a Roman historian.

Livius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities Titus. One of the greatest and certainly the most popular of the Roman writers of history. He was born at Patavium (B.C. 59), of good family, and, after being carefully educated, betook himself early (before B.C. 31) to Rome, where he soon became acquainted with the most distinguished men of the day. Even Augustus entertained friendly relations towards him in spite of his openly expressed republican convictions, for which he called him a partisan of Pompey. He does not seem to have taken public office, but to have lived exclusively for literature. He was esteemed by his contemporaries so highly that a Spaniard is said to have travelled from Gades (Cadiz) to Rome merely to see him (Pliny , Epist. ii. 3). He died in his native town in A.D. 17. He must have begun his great historical work between B.C. 27 and 25; it can only have been completed shortly before his death, as he did not publish the first twenty-one books until after the death of Augustus (A.D. 14). It recounts the history of Rome in 142 books, extending from the foundation of the city (whence the title Ab Urbe Condita Libri) to the death of Drusus (A.D. 9). His own death must have prevented its continuation to the death of Augustus, as he doubtless had proposed. He published the work, called by himself Annales (xliii. 13), from time to time, in separate parts, arranging his material—at least for the first ninety books—as far as possible in decades (portions consisting of ten books), and half-decades; the division into decades was, however, first carried through in the fifth century, probably for convenience of handling so vast a series of books. There still remain only the first decade (to B.C. 293), the third, fourth, and half of the fifth decade (218- 167); and of the remainder, with the exception of a fairly large portion of the ninety-first book, only inconsiderable fragments. We also possess from an unknown pen, epitomes (periochae) of all the books except 136 and 137, and a scanty extract from the account of the portents (prodigia), which appeared in B.C. 249 and following year. This is by a certain Iulius Obsequens, and perhaps dates from the fourth century. Livy 's importance rests more on the magnitude of his patriotic undertaking and the charm of his style than on his acquisitions as a scientific historian. He is, in fact, best regarded as a remarkable story-teller, who possessed a diction almost perfect in its way, and an unusual power of graphic narrative. For writing history, however, he had no special training, and his knowledge of Roman law and of the Roman military system was but slight. In selecting his authorities, also, he showed little discrimination, basing his judgment of them on a priori assumptions. Thus he follows Valerius Antias in the first decade with no mistrust (cf. vii. 36; ix. 27, 37, 43), but later denounces him as a falsifier (xxvi. 49; xxx. 19; xxxiii. 10, etc.). He does, however, use Polybius, besides Licinius Macer , Quadrigarius, and Caelius Antipater, but often draws different portions of his narrative from conflicting accounts, so that there are frequent inconsistencies to be noticed. It is evident that he had never read the Leges Regiae or even many important laws of later times. His purpose, however, was not at all to write a critical history, but rather, by a lively and brilliant narrative, to rekindle the patriotic spirit among his countrymen and to inspire them with a desire to emulate the deeds of their heroic ancestors. From this standpoint, his history deserves the highest praise, and justly won for him the name of “the Roman Herodotus.” The only criticism of any account that has come down to us is that of Asinius Pollio recorded by Quintilian (i. 5, 56 and viii. 1, 3), which charges the historian with displaying in his writings a certain Patavinity (Patavinitas, from Patavium, Padua, Livy 's birthplace). Just what this criticism was meant to imply is not clearly known. It may have been intended to characterize the style as being more florid than was consistent with the reserve of a Roman gentleman, or it may refer to the presence of provincialisms, which we are not now able to detect as such. It may, as some think, have marked the enthusiasm of the writer as opposed to the polished and self-contained urbanitas of the metropolis. On this point, see Wiedemann, De Patavinitate Livii (Görlitz, 1848-54); and Moritz Haupt, Opuscula, ii. 69. Of Livy's history, the first decade (books one to ten) is entire. It embraces the period from the foundation of the city to the year B.C. 294, when the subjugation of the Samnites may be said to have been completed. The second decade (books eleven to twenty) is altogether lost. It embraced the period from 294 to 219, comprising an account, among other matters, of the invasion of Pyrrhus and of the First Punic War. The third decade (books twenty-one to thirty) is entire. It embraces the period from 219 to 201, comprehending the whole of the Second Punic War. The fourth decade (books thirty-one to forty) is entire, and also one half of the fifth (books forty-one to forty-five). These fifteen books embrace the period from 201 to 167, and develop the progress of the Roman arms in Cisalpine Gaul, in Macedonia, Greece, and Asia, ending with the triumph of Aemilius Paulus. Of the other books nothing remains except inconsiderable fragments, the most notable being a few chapters of the ninety-first book, concerning the fortunes of Sertorius. The composition of so vast a work necessarily occupied many years; and we find indications which throw some light upon the epochs when different sections were composed. Thus, in the first book (ch. 19), it is stated that the temple of Ianus had been closed twice only since the reign of Numa—for the first time in the consulship of T. Manlius (B.C. 235), a few years after the termination of the First Punic War; for the second time by Augustus Caesar, after the battle of Actium, in 29. But we know that it was shut again by Augustus, after the conquest of the Cantabrians, in 25; and hence it is evident that the first book must have been written between the years 29 and 25. Moreover, since the last book contained an account of the death of Drusus, it is evident that the task must have been spread over seventeen years, and probably occupied a much longer time. The discovery of the lost books of Livy has been a dream of scholars for many centuries, and may yet be realized. In the sixteenth century a complete Livy was reported to be in existence in a monastery in Denmark, where two travellers independently professed to have seen it; but inquiry failed to verify the claim. Among the most famous manuscripts of Livy now in existence are a Codex Mediceus and a Co dex Parisinus, each of the eleventh century. Portions of bks. iii.-vi. are preserved in a very old palimpsest at Verona. The third decade is preserved in a MS. now in Paris (the Codex Puteaneus) of the eighth century, and in a Mediceus of the eleventh century. The fourth decade is known from a Codex Moguntinus (Mayence), now lost, and from a MS. at Bamberg. What is preserved of the fifth decade is in a sixth-century MS. at Vienna. The editio princeps of Livy appeared at Rome about 1469 (bks. xxxiii. and xli.-xlv. omitted). The first critical edition was that of F. Gronovius (Leyden, 1645). Great editions are those of Drakenborch with variorum notes and supplements (7 vols. Amsterdam, 1738-46; reprinted at Stuttgart, 1820-28, and edited by Bekker and Raschig, Berlin, 1829 foll.); Madvig, Ussing, and Luchs, not yet finished (Berlin, 1888 foll.); and Weissenborn and Müller, with German notes (Berlin, 1867- 1888). Good editions of separate portions are the following: Bk. i., by Seeley (Oxford, 1876), Purser (Dublin, 1881), Stephenson (London, 1886); bk. iv., Stephenson (London, 1890); bk. v., Whibley (London, 1890), Prendeville, 13th ed. (London, 1890); bks. v.-vii., Cluer and Matheson (London, 1881); bks. vii.-viii., Luterbacher (Leipzig, 1890); bks. xxi.-xxii., Lord (Boston, 1891); bks. i., xxi.-xxii., Westcott (Boston, 1891); bks. xxi.-xxv., Harant (Paris, 1886); bks. xxvi.-xxx., Riemann (Paris, 1889). On Livy 's language, see Riemann, Études sur la Langue et la Grammaire de Tite Live (Paris, 1884). There is a vast lexicon to Livy , preparing by Fügner, of which in 1894 six parts had appeared. On the sources of Livy 's history, see Lachmann, De Fontibus Historiarum T. Livii (Göttingen, 1821); H. Peter, Hist. Reliquiae, i. 89, 198, 225; and Kieserling, De Rerum Romanarum Scriptoribus Quibus T. Livius Usus Est (Berlin, 1858). There is a translation of the whole of Livy into Elizabethan English by Philemon Holland (London, 1600); of bks. xxi.- xxv., by Church and Brodribb (2d ed. London, 1890); and of the whole into German by Klaiber and Teuffel, in 6 vols. (2d ed. Stuttgart, 1854-56). See Historia.

Livy in Roman Biography Liv'y, [Lat. Liv'ius,] (Titus,) [It. Tito Livio, tee'to lee've-o ; Fr. Tite Live, tit lev,] a celebrated Roman historian, was born at Patavium (now Padua) in 59 B.C. Ancient writers furnish us few particulars of his life, except that he was patronized by Augustus and became a person of consideration at court. He appears to have passed the greater part of his time in Rome. Niebuhr favours the opinion that he was in early life a teacher of rhetoric. His great history of Rome, from the origin of the city to the year 9 B.C., was' called by him " Annates," and was comprised in one hundred and forty-two books, of which thirty-five have come down to us entire,—viz., the first, third, and fourth decades, and five books of the fifth decade. We have also epitomes, by an unknown hand, of one hundred and forty books. The first book was probably published or written between 29 and 25 B.C. His dialogues on philosophy and politics, which, according to some writers, procured him the favour of Augustus, are not now extant. The great popularity of his history must lie ascribed to the excellence and beauty of his style and his wonderful powers of description. The numerous orations by which the history is diversified are models of eloquence. "The painting of the narrative," says Macaulay, in his essav entitled " History," in the "Edinburgh Review," "is beyond description vivid and graceful. The abundance of interesting sentiments and splendid imagery in the speeches is almost miraculous." Hut he was destitute of many qualifications essential to a historian of the first order. Incapable of broad philosophic views, and indisposed to profound research, he was more studious to exalt the national glory and produce a picturesque effect than to compose a true history. He made little use of public documents, and was not familiar with the antiquities of his country. His work is also deficient in the explanation of the original constitution of the state, the contests between the orders, the progress of civilization, and other domestic affairs. Livy was married, and had two or more children. Died at Padua in 17 A.D. See N. Machiavei.u. " Discorso sopra la prima Decada Hi Tito Livio," 1512. (translated into English by K. Dacrks 1636;) D. W. Mnu.Kk, •*' Dbpuiatio drciikuia de Tito" 1688; A. M Mbke- GMeu.i, "Vila di Titn Livio," iRm 1 G K. Tommasini, " Vita Titi Livii," 1630: J C. Hand, " De Tito Livio Oratore," 1773.

Livy in Wikipedia Titus Livius (59 BC – AD 17), known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Chapters from the Foundation of the City," covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time. He was on familiar terms with the Julio-Claudian family, advising Augustus' grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, as a young man not long before 14 AD in a letter to take up the writing of history.[1] Livy and Augustus' wife, Livia, were from the same clan in different locations, although not related by blood. Life - According to Jerome and numerous other sources, Livy was a native of Patavium, the modern Padua.[2] He belonged to the Livia gens, or family, but no agnomen has survived. His works show that he was educated in oratory and Greek, which is an indicator of rank, although the Livii were of plebeian origin. Patavium did not become a Roman municipium until 49 BC when Livy was ten years old. The Patavians were enrolled in the Fabii,[3] but perhaps not Romans who already had a good name, as Livy kept his and without agnomen. Whether the fact that the emperor Augustus' much loved and respected wife, Livia, was born into the Roman branch of the Livia gens, had anything to do with Augustus' tolerance of Livy's republican views is not known. Various authors testify that Livy married and had children. Quintilian gives a fragment of a letter from Livy to his son.[4] The same son became a writer considered an authority by Pliny the Elder in Books V and VI of Natural History. Seneca the Elder mentions a son-in-law, Lucius Magius.[5] Two epitaphs from Padua are considered relevant: CIL V 2975 commemorates Titus Livius, son of Gaius, his two sons: Titus Livius Priscus and Titus Livius Longus, as well as Livy's wife, Cassia;[6] and CIL V 2865, marking the resting place of a freedman of Livia Quarta, daughter of Titus Livius. Evidently the Livii of Padua continued to reside there and one must presume that after sojourns elsewhere they came home to die. At some time early in his career Livy moved to Rome, probably for his education. A few references in Book I suggest he was at Rome at or prior to 27 BC, when he began work on his History of Rome.[7][8] It would have been in Rome also that he had or overheard a conversation with Augustus, who did not acquire that title until 27 BC.[9] In that year, if born in 59 BC, Livy was 32. Works - Livy's only surviving work is the "History of Rome" (Ab Urbe Condita), which was his career from an age in middle life, probably 32, until he left Rome for Padua in old age, probably after the death of Augustus in the reign of Tiberius. When he began this work he was already past his youth; presumably, events in his life prior to that time had led to his intense activity as a historian. Seneca the Younger gives brief mention that he was also known as an orator and philosopher and had written some treatises in those fields from a historical point of view.[10] Reception - In Roman Empire - Livy's History of Rome was in demand from the publication of the first packet. Livy became so famous that a man from Cadiz travelled to Rome just to see him, and once he had seen, returned home.[11] The popularity of the work continued through the entire classical period. A number of Roman authors used Livy, including Aurelius Victor, Cassiodorus, Eutropius, Festus, Florus, Granius Licinianus and Orosius. Julius Obsequens used Livy, or a source with access to Livy, to compose his De Prodigiis, an account of supernatural events in Rome, from the consulship of Scipio and Laelius to that of Paulus Fabius and Quintus Aelius. Livy wrote during the reign of Augustus, who came to power after a civil war with generals and consuls claiming to be defending the Roman Republic, such as Pompey. Patavium had been pro-Pompey. To clarify his status, the victor of the civil war, Octavian Caesar, had wanted to take the title Romulus (the first king of Rome) but in the end accepted the senate proposal of Augustus. He did not abolish the republic de facto but adapted its institutions into the empire. Livy's enthusiasm for the republic is evident from the first pentade of his work, and yet the Julio-Claudian family (the imperial family) were as much fans of Livy as anyone. He could not have been an advocate of any sort of sedition in favor of restoring the republic; he would have been put on trial for treason and executed, as many had been and would be. He must have been viewed as a harmless and relevant advocate of the ancient morality, which was a known public stance of the citizens of Patavium. His relationship to Augustus is defined primarily by a passage from Tacitus[12] in which Cremutius Cordus is put on trial for his life for offenses no worse than Livy's and defends himself face-to-face with the frowning Tiberius as follows: "I am said to have praised Brutus and Cassius, whose careers many have described and no one mentioned without eulogy. Titus Livius, pre-eminently famous for eloquence and truthfulness, extolled Cneius Pompeius in such a panegyric that Augustus called him Pompeianus, and yet this was no obstacle to their friendship. To avoid conviction, while waiting for a verdict Cordus committed suicide by self-starvation. His worst fears were realized in absentia: his books were sentenced to be burned by the aediles, but they performed the task without zeal and many escaped. Livy's reasons for returning to Padua after the death of Augustus (if he did) are unclear, but the circumstances of Tiberius' reign certainly allow for speculation. Later - During the Middle Ages interest in Livy fell off.[13] Due to the length of the work the literate class were already reading summaries rather than the work itself, which was tedious to copy, expensive, and required a lot of storage space. It must have been during this period, if not before, that MSS began to be lost without replacement. The Renaissance was a time of intense revival; the population discovered that Livy was being lost and large amounts of money changed hands in the rush to collect Livy manuscripts. The poet Beccadelli sold a country home for the money to purchase one manuscript copied by Poggio.[14] Petrarch and Pope Nicholas V launched a search for the now missing books. Laurentius Valla published an emended text initiating the field of Livy scholarship. Dante speaks highly of him in his poetry, and Francis I of France commissioned extensive artwork treating Livian themes; Niccolň Machiavelli's work on republics, the Discourses on Livy is presented as a commentary on the History of Rome. Respect for Livy rose to lofty heights. After a few hundred years of Livy being studied by the youth of every Western population, moderns have developed their own views of Livy and his place in the ancient world, which were not current in ancient times. For example, one text on western civilization pronounces: "Livy was the prose counterpart of Vergil", as both have been standard in the study of Golden Age Latin literature.[15] Golden Age Latin was not known as such in classical times and the ancient reader could choose from a vastly larger bibliography; but in fact, private reading was a privilege of the literate few, who had the wealth to buy manuscripts or have them copied and had the time for library research. Public readings of works, however, were common and were the main way in which an author became known. Dates - The authority supplying information from which possible vital data on Livy can be deduced is Eusebius of Caesaria, an early Christian-era bishop. One of his works was a summary of world history in ancient Greek, termed the Chronikon, dating from the early 4th century. This work was lost except for fragments (mainly excerpts), but not before it had been translated in whole and in part by various authors such as St. Jerome. The entire work survives in Armenian. St. Jerome wrote in Latin. Fragments in Syriac exist.[16] Eusebius' work consists of two books, the Chronographia, a summary of history in annalist form, and the Chronikoi Kanones, tables of years and events. St. Jerome translated the tables into Latin as the Chronicon, probably adding some information of his own from unknown sources. Livy's dates appear in Jerome's Chronicon. The main problem with the information given in the MSS is that between them they often give different dates for the same events or different events, do not include the same material entirely and reformat what they do include. A date may be in AUC or in Olympiads or in some other form, such as age. These variations may have occurred through scribal error or scribal license. Some material has been inserted under the aegis of Eusebius. The topic of manuscript variants is a large and specialized one, on which authors of works on Livy seldom care to linger. As a result standard information in a standard rendition is used, which gives the impression of a standard set of dates for Livy. There are no such dates. A typical presumption is of a birth in the 2nd year of the 180th Olympiad and a death in the first year of the 199th Olympiad, which are coded 180.2 and 199.1 respectively.[2] All sources use the same first Olympiad, 776/775-773/772 BC by the modern calendar. By a complex formula (made so by the 0 reference point not falling on the border of an Olympiad) these codes correspond to 59 BC for the birth, 17 AD for the death. In another manuscript the birth is in 180.4, or 57 BC.[17] Jerome says that Livy was born the same year as Marcus Valerius Messala Corvinus and died the same year as Ovid.[2] Messala, however, was born earlier, in 64 BC, and Ovid's death, usually taken to be the same year as Livy's, is more uncertain. As an alternative view, Ronald Syme argues for 64 BC-12 AD as a range for Livy, setting the death of Ovid at 12.[18] A death date of 12, however, removes Livy from Augustus' best years and makes him depart for Padua without the good reason of the second emperor, Tiberius, being not as tolerant of his republicanism. The contradiction remains.

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