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November 18    Scripture

People - Ancient Rome: Gratian
Born Flavius Gratianus, he was Roman Emperor from 375 to 383.

Gratiānus in Harpers Dictionary The eldest son of Valentinian I., succeeding, after his father's death, A.D. 375, to a share of the Western Empire, having for his portion Gaul, Spain, and Britain. His brother, Valentinian II., then an infant under five years of age, had Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, under the guardianship, however, of Gratianus, who was therefore, in reality, ruler of all the West. His uncle Valens had the Empire of the East. Gratianus began his reign by punishing severely various prefects and other officers who had committed acts of oppression and cruelty during his father's reign. At the same time, through some insidious charges, Count Theodosius, father of Theodosius the Great, and one of the most illustrious men of his age, was beheaded at Carthage. In the year 378, Valens perished in the battle of Adrianople against the Goths, and Gratianus, who was hastening to his assistance, was hardly able to save Constantinople from falling into the hands of the enemy. In consequence of the death of his uncle, Gratianus, finding himself ruler of the whole Roman Empire during the minority of his brother Valentinian, called to him young Theodosius, who had distinguished himself in the Roman armies. Gratianus appointed him his colleague, a choice equally creditable to both and fortunate for the Empire, and gave him the provinces of the East. Gratianus now returned to Italy, but was obliged soon after to hasten to Illyricum to the assistance of Theodosius, and repelled the Goths, who were threatening Thrace. Thence he was forced to march to the banks of the Rhine, to fight the Alemanni and other barbarians. Having returned to Mediolanum in the year 381, he had to defend the frontiers of Italy from other tribes, who were advancing on the side of Rhaetia. Gratianus showed himself stern and unyielding towards the remains of the heathen worship. At Rome he overthrew the altar of Victory and confiscated the property attached to it, as well as all that which belonged to the other priests and the vestals. He also refused to assume the title and insignia of Pontifex Maximus, a dignity till then considered as annexed to that of emperor. These measures gave a final blow to the old worship of the Empire; and although the senators, who, for the most part, were still attached to it, sent him a deputation, at the head of which was Symmachus, they could not obtain any mitigation of his decrees. In the year 383, a certain Maximus revolted in Britain, and was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers, to whom he promised to re-establish the temples and the old religion of the Empire. He invaded Gaul, where he found numerous partisans. Gratianus advanced to meet him, but was forsaken by most of his troops, and obliged to hasten towards Italy. He was seized at Lugdunum, and put to death by the partisans of Maximus. He was little more than twenty-four years of age, and had reigned about eight years.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0062:alphabetic+letter%3DG:entry+group%3D6:entry%3Dgratianus-harpers


Gratian in Roman Biography Gratian, gra'she-an, [Lat. Gratia'nus ; Fr. Gratikn, gRi'sej^.N',) a Roman emperor, who in 375 A.D. succeeded his father, Valentinian I., and became joint ruler of the Western Empire with his brother, Valentinian II. His uncle, Valens, who ruled the Eastern Empire, having fallen in battle in 378, Gratian appointed Theodosius in his place. In 383 a revolt broke out in Britain, and a certain Maximus proclaimed himself emperor and invaded Gaul. Gratian advanced to meet him, but, being forsaken by the greater part of his army, was seized and put to death at Lyons. He was distinguished for his justice and clemency, and his zeal in promoting Christianity. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," books x"xvii., xxviii.,xxix.,and xxx. ; Ammianus Marcri.linus; Socrates, Historia Ecclesiastica ;" Tiu.kmont, " Histoire des Empereurs."
http://books.google.com/books?id=GPXRKSUyj14C&printsec=frontcover&dq=pronouncing+dictionary+of+biography+and+mythology&hl=en&ei=ueCoTLOHCpOi


Gratian in Wikipedia Flavius Gratianus (18 April/23 May 359 25 August 383), commonly known as Gratian, was Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. The eldest son of Valentinian I, during his youth Gratian accompanied his father on several campaigns along the Rhine and Danube frontiers. Upon the death of Valentinian in 375, Gratian's brother Valentinian II was declared emperor by his father's soldiers. Gratian gained a decisive victory over the Alamanni in 378 at the Battle of Argentovaria. That same year, his uncle Valens was killed in the Battle of Adrianople against the Goths - making Gratian essentially ruler of the entire empire. He favoured the Christian religion against Roman polytheism, refusing the traditional polytheistic attributes of the emperors and removing the Altar of Victory from the Roman Senate...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gratian


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