People - Ancient Egypt: Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I
GRECO-ROMAN PERIOD Ptolemaic Dynasty (107-88) This period is confusing due to all of the co-regencies. Scholars are not
always in agreement on the order of reigns and, in some case, the reigns themselves, from Ptolemy VI through Ptolemy
XI. In any event, Egypt's authority and wealth was intact until the death of Cleopatra, at which time, Egypt was
overpowered by Rome.
Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I in Tour Egypt
CLEOPATRA III & ALEXANDER I
Cleopatra III & Alexander I were co-rulers of the Ptolemaic Dynasty after Cleopatra had driven out her older son, Ptolemy IX
Soter II (Lathyros), after accusing him of trying to kill her.
Alexander had been the governor of Cyprus, but after Lathyros had been ousted, he returned to Alexandria to rule with his
mother. Not long after he came to rule, his mother soon grew tired of him as well and forced him to flee from Alexandria. In
101, he returned under the pretense of a reconciliation with his mother. He came back and had her assassinated.
Alexander was finally driven out of Egypt after selling off Alexander the Great's gold coffin to raise money. He willed his
kingdom to Rome however, they could not claim their inheritance while he was still alive. It did allow him to gain favor with
moneylenders in Rome. This did allow him to finance a fleet. He was killed in a naval battle off Cyprus.
Cleopatra III of Egypt in Wikipedia
Cleopatra III (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα, 161–101 BC) was queen of Egypt 142–101 BC.
Cleopatra III was also known as Cleopatra Euergetis while associated with her husband Ptolemy VIII or her son Ptolemy X.
She is attested as Cleopatra Philometor Soteira while associated with her eldest son Ptolemy IX. According to Strabo she
was sometimes known as Cleopatra Kokke when discussed in relation to her son Ptolemy X. 
Cleopatra III’s uncle Ptolemy VIII of Egypt ruled together with her parents from ca 170 to 164 BC at which point he
expelled Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VI of Egypt. But he was soon forced to abdicate.  Cleopatra III’s parents retook the
throne and remained in power for almost 20 years until 145 BC. During this time Cleopatra III was born to Ptolemy VI and
Cleopatra II of Egypt (sometime between 160 and 155 BC). Cleopatra was a sister of Ptolemy Eupator, Cleopatra Thea and
possibly Berenice.  
After the death of her father Ptolemy VI from injuries sustained when falling from his horse during the battle of Oinoparas
against Alexander Balas, Cleopatra III’s uncle Ptolemy VIII became the King of Egypt again. 
Joint rule with her mother and husband -
Ptolemy VIII first married Cleopatra III’s mother Cleopatra II in 145 BC, and married Cleopatra III in ca 139 BC. Cleopatra
II rebelled against Ptolemy VIII in ca 132 BC. Cleopatra III fled to Cyprus in 130 BC with her husband Ptolemy VIII and was
able to return to Alexandria in 127 BC. 
Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII had five children :
Ptolemy IX born ca 143 BC
Tryphaena born ca 141 BC. Married Antiochus VIII Grypus, king of Syria in 124 BC
Ptolemy X born ca 140 or 139 BC. Married his niece Berenice (daughter of Ptolemy IX and Cleopatra Selene I)
Cleopatra IV born between 138 and 135 BC. Married first her brother Ptolemy IX and second Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, king of
Cleopatra Selene I born between 135 and 130 BC. Married first to her brother Ptolemy IX, and later to her brother Ptolemy
X. Later married to Antiochus VIII Grypus, king of Syria, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, king of Syria and Antiochus X Eusebes,
king of Syria
In ca 124 BC Cleopatra III and her husband were joined again by her mother Cleopatra II as a joint ruler.
Joint Rule with her sons -
After the death of Ptolemy VIII in 116 BC Cleopatra III ruled jointly with her mother Cleopatra II and her son Ptolemy IX.
Cleopatra III expelled Ptolemy IX from Alexandria in 107 BC and replaced him as co-regent with her second son Ptolemy X.
After 6 years of joint rule Ptolemy X had his mother Cleopatra III murdered in 101 BC. 
Ptolemy X Alexander I in Wikipedia
Ptolemy X Alexander I (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ἀλέξανδρος,
Ptolemaĩos Aléxandros) was King of Egypt from 110 BC to 109 BC
and 107 BC till 88 BC.
He was the son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra III. In
110 BC he became King with his mother as co-regent, after his
mother had deposed his brother Ptolemy IX Lathyros. However,
in 109 BC he was deposed by Ptolemy IX. In 107 BC he became
King again, and again with his mother as co-regent. In 101 BC
he had his mother killed, and ruled either alone or with his
niece/wife, Berenice III.
When he died, Ptolemy IX regained the throne. When Ptolemy IX
died, Ptolemy X's wife Berenice III took over the throne for
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