People - Ancient Egypt: Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II
GRECO-ROMAN PERIOD Ptolemaic Dynasty (116-107 & 88-80) This period is confusing due to all of the co-regencies.
Scholars are not always in agreement on the order of reigns and, in some case, the reigns themselves, from Ptolemy
VI through Ptolemy XI. In any event, Egypt's authority and wealth was intact until the death of Cleopatra, at
which time, Egypt was overpowered by Rome.
Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II in Tour Egypt
CLEOPATRA III & PTOLEMY IX SOTER II (LATHYROS)
116-107 & 88-80 B.C.
Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros) were co-regents during the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
Cleopatra III was the niece of Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) and was married to him while
her mother was still his official wife. She bore Physcon two sons - Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter
II (Lathyros) and Ptolemy X Alexander I as well as three daughters, Cleopatra IV, Cleopatra
Tryphaena, and Cleopatra Selene.
In Physcon's will he left the succession to Cleopatra and to whichever son she preferred. She
hated Lathyros, but doted on the younger son Alexander. The Alexandrians wanted Lathyros to be
co-regent. He was then governor of Cyprus. Lathyros was brought back to Alexandria to co-rule
and Alexander was sent to Cyprus to replace Lathyros. Lathyros was married to Cleopatra IV, his
sister, but his mother repudiated the marriage and replaced her with Cleopatra Selene, who was
Cleopatra IV's sister.
Cleopatra IV went to Cyprus where she tried to raise an army and to marry Ptolemy Alexander. She
failed to marry him and moved on to Syria where she used her army as a dowry and married
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus who was son of Antiochus Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Cleopatra III
finally succeeded in driving out Lathyros in 107 BC when she accused him of trying to murder
her. He left behind his wife and his two sons. His brother returned from Cyprus and assumed the
throne. Lathyros was in Cyprus during this time.
After the death of Alexander in a naval battle, Lathyros, who was now in his mid-fifties, was
brought back to Alexandria to try to put back together the Ptolemaic empire. He died at the age
of 62 and left no legitimate heir to the throne, both of his sons by Cleopatra Selene appear to
have died at a young age. His daughter Cleopatra Berenice ruled alone for a while after his
Cleopatra III of Egypt in Wikipedia
Cleopatra III (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα, 161Ė101 BC) was queen of Egypt 142Ė101 BC.
Cleopatra III was also known as Cleopatra Euergetis while associated with her husband Ptolemy VIII or her son Ptolemy X. She is attested as
Cleopatra Philometor Soteira while associated with her eldest son Ptolemy IX. According to Strabo she was sometimes known as Cleopatra Kokke
when discussed in relation to her son Ptolemy X. 
Younger Years -
Cleopatra IIIís uncle Ptolemy VIII of Egypt ruled together with her parents from ca 170 to 164 BC at which point he expelled Cleopatra II and
Ptolemy VI of Egypt. But he was soon forced to abdicate.  Cleopatra IIIís parents retook the throne and remained in power for almost 20
years until 145 BC. During this time Cleopatra III was born to Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II of Egypt (sometime between 160 and 155 BC).
Cleopatra was a sister of Ptolemy Eupator, Cleopatra Thea and possibly Berenice.  
After the death of her father Ptolemy VI from injuries sustained when falling from his horse during the battle of Oinoparas against Alexander
Balas, Cleopatra IIIís uncle Ptolemy VIII became the King of Egypt again. 
Joint rule with her mother and husband -
Ptolemy VIII first married Cleopatra IIIís mother Cleopatra II in 145 BC, and married Cleopatra III in ca 139 BC. Cleopatra II rebelled
against Ptolemy VIII in ca 132 BC. Cleopatra III fled to Cyprus in 130 BC with her husband Ptolemy VIII and was able to return to Alexandria
in 127 BC. 
Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII had five children :
Ptolemy IX born ca 143 BC
Tryphaena born ca 141 BC. Married Antiochus VIII Grypus, king of Syria in 124 BC
Ptolemy X born ca 140 or 139 BC. Married his niece Berenice (daughter of Ptolemy IX and Cleopatra Selene I)
Cleopatra IV born between 138 and 135 BC. Married first her brother Ptolemy IX and second Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, king of Syria
Cleopatra Selene I born between 135 and 130 BC. Married first to her brother Ptolemy IX, and later to her brother Ptolemy X. Later married to
Antiochus VIII Grypus, king of Syria, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, king of Syria and Antiochus X Eusebes, king of Syria
In ca 124 BC Cleopatra III and her husband were joined again by her mother Cleopatra II as a joint ruler.
Joint Rule with her sons -
After the death of Ptolemy VIII in 116 BC Cleopatra III ruled jointly with her mother Cleopatra II and her son Ptolemy IX. 
Cleopatra III expelled Ptolemy IX from Alexandria in 107 BC and replaced him as co-regent with her second son Ptolemy X. After 6 years of
joint rule Ptolemy X had his mother Cleopatra III murdered in 101 BC. 
Ptolemy IX Lathyros in Wikipedia
Ptolemy IX Soter II or Lathyros ("grass pea") (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ Λάθυρος, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr LŠthuros) was king of Egypt three
times, from 116 BC to 110 BC, 109 BC to 107 BC and 88 BC to 81 BC, with intervening periods ruled by his brother, Ptolemy X
At first he was chosen by his mother Cleopatra III to be her co-regent (his father Ptolemy VIII wished that she would rule with one
of her sons), though she was more forced to choose him by the Alexandrians. He married his sister Cleopatra IV, but his mother
pushed her out and replaced her with his younger sister Cleopatra Selene. Later, she claimed that he tried to kill her, and
successfully deposed him, putting her favorite son Alexander on the throne as co-regent with her. However, she later grew tired of
the now Ptolemy X and deposed him, putting Ptolemy IX back on the throne. She was soon murdered by Ptolemy X, who took the throne
again. He was then killed in battle, and Ptolemy IX reigned until his own death. In Alexandria, Ptolemy IX, replaced the
sarcophagus of Alexander the Great with a glass one, and melted the original down in order to strike emergency gold issues of his
coinage. The citizens of Alexandria were outraged at this and soon after, Ptolemy IX was killed.
His daughter Berenice III took the throne after his death, and reigned for about a year. She was forced to marry her stepson
Alexander, who reigned under the name Ptolemy XI Alexander II and had her killed nineteen days later.
Ptolemy IX's name recalls that of his great Macedonian ancestor, Ptolemy I Soter; note that in older references and in younger ones
by the German historian Huss, he may be numbered VIII.
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