People - Ancient Egypt: Shoshenq IV
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 22nd Dynasty (773-735) The capital moves from Tanis to Libyan, to Nubia, to Thebes, to SAIS, and then
back to Nubia and Thebes.
Shoshenq IV in Tour Egypt
Shoshenq IV was the ninth king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. The Serapeum stela of Pasenhor is dated as the thirty-seventh year of
Shoshenq IV. This shows that he reigned at least this long. In the year 732, toward the end of his reign, an Assyrian, Tiglath-
pileser III took Damascus and killed Rezin. He then captured many cities of northern Israel and took the people to Assyria. The
Egyptian troops had at one time joined forces with Damascus, Israel and some other states to resist Shalmaneser III at Qarqar.
There is no indication that Shoshenq IV made any attempt to help the former allies.
Shoshenq IV in Wikipedia
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq IV ruled Egypt's 22nd Dynasty between the reigns of Shoshenq III and Pami. This Pharaoh's existence
was first argued by David Rohl but the British Egyptologist Aidan Dodson settled the issue in a seminal GM 137(1993)
article. Dodson's arguments here for the existence of a new Tanite king called Shoshenq IV is accepted by all Egyptologists today
including J. Von Beckerath and Kenneth Kitchen– the latter in the preface to the third edition of his book on the Third Intermediate
Period in Egypt." While Shoshenq IV shared the same prenomen as his illustrious ancestor Shoshenq I, he is distinguished from
Shoshenq I by his use of an especially long nomen–Shoshenq Meryamun Si-Bast Netjerheqawaset/Netjerheqaon which featured both the Si-
Bast and Netjerheqawaset/Netjerheqaon epithets. These two epithets were gradually employed by the 22nd Dynasty Pharaohs starting
from the reign of Osorkon II. In contrast, Shoshenq I's nomen reads simply as "Shoshenq Meryamun" while neither Shoshenq I, Osorkon I
nor Takelot I ever used any epithets beyond the standard 'Meryamun' (Beloved of Amun) form during their reigns. Aidan Dodson--in
his 1994 book on the Canopic Equipment of the kings of Egypt--perceptively observes that when the Si-Bast epithet "appears during the
dynasty of Osorkon II," it is rather infrequent while the Netjerheqawaset/Netjerheqaon epithet is only exclusively attested "in the
reigns of that monarch's successors"--ie: Shoshenq III, Shoshenq IV, Pami and Shoshenq V. This means that Shoshenq IV was a late
Tanite era king who ruled Egypt after Shoshenq III. His prenomen is explicitly attested on a published Year 10 stela (St. Petersburg
Hermitage 5630) which bears his unique long form titulary. This stela mentions the Chief of the Libu, Niumateped, who is also
attested in office in Year 8 of Shoshenq V. Since the title 'Chief of the Libu' is only first documented in use from Year 31 of
Shoshenq III onwards, this new king again can only have ruled after Shoshenq III.
Like Shoshenq III, Shoshenq IV was not a son of his predecessor and the exact grounds for his claim to the throne are unknown. He
ruled Egypt between Shoshenq III and Pami for either 12 or 13 Years based on different Egyptologists' interpretation of his reign.
According to Dodson, excavation work in the looted NRT V Tanite tomb of Shoshenq III revealed the presence of 2 sarcophagi: one
inscribed for Usermaatre Setepenre Shoshenq III and the other being an anonymous sarcophagus. The unmarked sarcophagus, however, "was
clearly a secondary introduction" according to its position in the tomb. In the tomb's debris, several fragments were found from
one or two canopic jars bearing the name "Hedjkheperre-Setpenre-meryamun-sibast-Netjerheqaon." Since the epithet Netjerheqaon was
never employed by the 22nd Dynasty kings until the reign of Shoshenq III, this is clear evidence that Shoshenq IV was buried in
Shoshenq III's Tanite tomb and must have succeeded this king; it also establishes that the king buried here was certainly not
NOTE: The original king Shoshenq IV in pre-1993 books and journal articles has been renamed Shoshenq VI by Egyptologists because he
was a Theban king who is only attested by Upper Egyptian documents. He was never a king of the Tanite 22nd Dynasty of Egypt.
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