People - Ancient Egypt: Amenope
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 21st Dynasty (993-984) Northern King. The capital moves from Tanis to Libyan, to
Nubia, to Thebes, to SAIS, and then back to Nubia and Thebes.
Amenemope in Wikipedia
Pharaoh Amenemope (prenomen: Usimare) was the son of Psusennes I and Queen Mutnodjemet. Amenemope's birth name or nomen
translates as "Amun in the Opet Feast." He served as a junior co-regent at the end of his father's final years
according to the evidence from a mummy bandage fragment. All surviving versions of his Manetho's Epitome state that
Amenemope enjoyed a reign of 9 years. Both Psusennes I and Amenemope's royal tombs were discovered intact by the French
Egyptologist Pierre Montet in his excavation at Tanis in 1940 and were filled with significant treasures including gold
funerary masks, coffins and numerous other items of precious jewelry. Montet opened Amenemope's tomb in April 1940, just
a month before the German invasion of France and the Low Countries in World War II. Thereafter, all excavation work
abruptly ceased until the end of the war. Montet resumed his excavation work at Tanis in 1946 and later published his
findings in 1958.
The Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen states that there are few known monuments of Amenemope. His tomb at Tanis was barely 20
feet long by 12–15 feet wide, "a mere cell compared with the tomb of Psusennes I" while his only other original projects
was to continue with the decoration of the chapel of Isis "Mistress of the Pyramids at Giza" and to make an addition to
one of the temples in Memphis. Amenemope was served by two High Priests of Amun at Thebes—Smendes II (briefly) and
then by Pinedjem II, Smendes' brother. Kitchen observes that
"in Thebes, his authority as king was undisputed--no less than nine burials of the Theban clergy had braces, pendants or
bandages inscribed with the name of Amenemope as pharaoh and of Pinedjem as pontiff. Pen-nest-tawy, captain of the barge
of Amun in Thebes, possessed a Book of the Dead dated to Year 5 of this king's reign."
In the introduction to the third (1996) edition of his book on The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (TIPE), Kitchen
notes that Papyrus Brooklyn 16.205 which mentions "a Year 49 followed by a Year 4 must now be attributed to the time of
Psusennes I and Amenemope, [and] not to Shoshenq III and Pimay. [ie. Pami] (cf.103, §83 below)" due to the discovery of a
new Tanite king named Shoshenq IV who ruled for a minimum of 10 years between Year 39 of Shoshenq III and Year 1 of
Pami. Consequently, the creation of this papyrus document must be dated to Year 4 of king Amenemope.
Four objects from king Amenemope's royal tomb preserve the name of his illustrious father Psusennes I including a collar
and several bracelets. His funerary mask, now located in Egypt's Cairo Museum, renders a youthful depiction of the
king. Unlike Psusennes I, Amenemope was buried with much less opulence since "his wooden coffins were covered with gold
leaf instead of being of solid silver" while "he wore a gilt mask rather than one of solid gold." He was later
reburied in the tomb of his father Psusennes I during the reign of Siamun.
Amenope in Tour Egypt
Amenope was the fourth king of the Twenty-first Dynasty. It is
possible that he wrote one of the most famous Egyptian books
of wisdom, known as the Instruction of Amenope. In this book,
advice is offered to his son on integrity, honesty, self-
control and kindness. He teaches that it is reliance on god
that this tranquillity and the freedom from overanxiety can be
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