Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online

Bible History Online

Sub Categories
Aahotepre
Aaneterire
Ahmose (Nebpehtyre)
Alexander IV
Alexander the Great
Amasis
Amenemhat V
Amenemhat VI
Amenemhat VII
Amenemhat-senebef
Amenemhet I (Sehetepibre)
Amenemhet II (Nubkaure)
Amenemhet III (Nimaatre)
Amenemhet IV (Maakherure)
Amenemnisu
Amenhotep I (Djeserkare)
Amenhotep II (Akheperure)
Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre)
Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten
Amenmesse (Menmire)
Amenope
Amenophis II
Amenophis III
Amenophis IV (=Akhnaton)
Amu
Amyrtaios
Anat-Her
Anedjib
Ankhkare
Antef IV
Antef V
Antef VI
Antef VII
Apachnan (Khian)
Apophis (Auserre Apepi)
Apries
Arses
Artaxerxes I
Augustus
Ay
Ay (Kheperkheperure)
Bebankh
Berenice IV
Bnon
Cambyses
Claudius
Cleopatra & Ptolemy XIV
Cleopatra Berenice
Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II
Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I
Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XIII
Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XV Cesarion
Darius I
Darius II
Darius III Codomannus
Dedumes I
Den (Udimu)
Djedefre
Djedkare II
Djedkare Izezi
Djehuti
Djer (Itit)
Djet (Wadj)
Gaius Caligula
Hakoris
Hatshepsut (Maatkare)
Heribre
Herihor
Hetepsekhemwy
Hor I
Hor II
Horemheb (Djeserkheperure)
Hori
Horus Aha
Huni
Iaib
Ibi I
Ibi II
Imhotep
Imira-mesha
Ined
Ini I
Inyotef I (Sehertawy)
Inyotef II (Wahankh)
Inyotef III
Isu
Iti
Iufni
Iytenu
Jacob-Baal
Kamose (Wadjkheperre)
Kanefertemre
Khaba
Khafre (Chephren)
Khamudi
Khamure
Khasekhemwy
Khatire
Khauserre
Khendjer
Kheti
Khufu (Cheops)
Masaherta
Menkamin I
Menkare
Menkauhor
Menkaure (Mycerinus)
Menkheperre
Mentuhotep II
Mentuhotep III (Sankhkare)
Mentuhotep IV (Nebtawyre)
Mentuhotep VII
Merenhor
Merenptah (Baenrehotephirmaat)
Merenre Nemtyemzaf
Meri-Hathor
Meridjefare
Merikare
Merkheperre
Nebfaure
Nebirau I
Nebirau II
Nebmaatre
Nectanebo I
Nectanebo II
Nedjemibre
Neferefre
Neferhotep I
Neferibre
Neferirkare II
Neferirkare Kakai
Neferkahor
Neferkamin II
Neferkare
Neferkare II
Neferkare III
Neferkare IV
Neferkare V
Neferkare VI
Neferkauhor
Neferkaure
Neferusobek (Sobekkare)
Nehesi
Nekau (Necho) II
Nepherites I
Nepherites II
Netjerykhet (Djoser)
Netrikare
Nikare
Nikare II
Ninetjer (Nynetjer)
Niuserre Izi
Nubankhre
Nubuserre
Ochus (Artaxerxes III)
Osochor
Osorkon I
Osorkon II
Osorkon IV
Pami
Pedubaste I
Peftjauwybast
Pepi III
Pepy I (Meryre)
Pepy II (Neferkare)
Peribsen (Seth-Peribsen)
Philip Arrhidaeus
Piankh
Pinedjem I
Pinedjem II
Piye
Psammetichus I (Psam-tik)
Psammetichus II
Psammetichus III
Psammuthis
Psusennes I
Psusennes II
Psusennes III
Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy III Euergeter
Ptolemy IV Philopator
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
Ptolemy XI Alexander II
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos
Qa'a
Qar
Rahotep
Ramesses I (Menpehtyre)
Ramesses II (Usermaatresetepenre)
Ramesses III (Usermaatremeryamun)
Ramesses IV (Hekamaatresetepenamun)
Ramesses IX (Neferkaresetepenre)
Ramesses V (Usermaatresekheperenre)
Ramesses VI (Nebmaatremeryamun)
Ramesses VII (Usermaatresetepenre)
Ramesses VIII (Usermaatreakhenamun)
Ramesses X (Khepermaatresetepenre)
Ramesses XI (Menmaatresetepenptah)
Raneb (Nebra)
Reniseneb
Sahure
Salitis
Sanakhte (Nebka)
Sankhibre
Sehabre
Sehetepibre I
Sehetepibre II
Sekhanre I
Sekhemkare
Sekhemkhet (Djoser Teti)
Sekhemre-khutawi
Semenenre
Semenkare
Semerkhet
Semqen
Senebmiu
Senusret I (Kheperkare)
Senusret II (Khakheperre)
Senusret III (Khakaure)
Setakht (Userkhauremeryamun)
Seth
Seti I (Menmaatre)
Seti II (Userkheperuresetepenre)
Sewadjkare
Sewadjkare
Sewadjtu
Shebaka
Shebitku
Shepseskaf
Shepseskare Ini
Shepsesre Tefnakht I
Shoshenq I
Shoshenq II
Shoshenq III
Shoshenq IV
Siamun
Sihathor
Siptah (Akhenresetepenre)
Smendes
Smendes II
Smenkhkare (Ankhkheperure)
Snefru
Sobekemzaf I
Sobekemzaf II
Sobekhotep I
Sobekhotep II
Sobekhotep III
Sobekhotep IV
Sobekhotep V
Sobekhotep VI
Suserenre
Taharqa
Takelot
Takelot II
Tantamani
Tao I (Senakhtenre)
Tao II (Sekenenre)
Tausert (Sitremeritamun)
Teos
Teti
Thutmose I (Akheperkare)
Thutmose II (Akheperenre)
Thutmose III (Menkheperre)
Thutmose IV (Menkheperure)
Tiberius
Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure)
Tuthmosis I
Tuthmosis III
Tuthmosis IV
Unas
User-anat
Userkaf
Wadjkare
Wahkare Bakenranef
Wasa
Wegaf
Xerxes I
Yakbam
Yoam
Zaket

Back to Categories

March 24    Scripture

People - Ancient Egypt: Setakht (Userkhauremeryamun)
NEW KINGDOM 20th Dynasty (1186-1184) Extreme prosperity and renaissance in art and building projects mark the beginning of this period. Towards the end of the 19th Dynasty the increasing power of the priesthood corrupts the central government. During the 20th Dynasty tomb robbing is done by officials. The priesthood becomes hereditary and begins to assume secular power. The government breaks down.

Setakht (Userkhauremeryamun) in Tour Egypt SETNAKHTE, THE FIRST KING OF EGYPT'S 20TH DYNASTY by Jimmy Dunn -- Setnakhte was the first king of Egypt's 20th Dynasty, the last dynasty of the New Kingdom. This is the king's birth name that, together with his epithet, mereramunre, means "Victorious is Set, Beloved of Amun Re". He is sometimes also known as Setnakht and Sethnakht. His throne name was Userkhaure Setepenre, meaning "Powerful are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen by Re". The cloud that surrounds the end of the 19th Dynasty swirls about a character known as Bay. He was a chancellor who has been referred to as the "kingmaker", for he made the claim that it was he who "established the king on the throne of his father", referring to Siptah. Indeed, he probably assisted Tausert as she ruled Egypt in the name of her stepson, Siptah. In fact, as Tausert eventually took on the full regalia of rulership after Siptah's death, it is certainly possible that Bay may have effectively ruled Egypt. Originally a scribe to Seti II, we believe that he could have been of foreign blood, perhaps Syrian. After the death of Tausert, Chancellor Bay may have even ruled Egypt for a brief period, for many Egyptologists believe that it was he who is referred to in the Papyrus Harris I as Iarsu (Irsu): "The land of Egypt was overthrown from without and every man was thrown out of his right; they had no chief for many years formerly until other times. The land of Egypt was in the hands of chiefs and of rulers of towns; one slew his neighbor great and small. Other times having come after it, with empty years, Iarsu, a certain Syrian was with them as chief. He set the whole land tributary before him together; he united his companions and plundered their possessions. They made the gods like men and no offerings were presented in the temples." Actually, the name Iarsu has the meaning, "self-made man", which would have been a derogatory way of referring to him as an usurper of the throne, and irregardless of whether Chancellor bay is one and the same as Iarsu, he had an evil reputation. However, it is interesting that he was apparently allowed a burial in the Valley of the Kings, (KV13). One way or the other though, is is very clear that Egypt suffered some amount of turmoil at the end of the 19th Dynasty. It was Setnakhte, who ended the confusion and reestablished ma'at in the Two Lands, though we know very little about him. Almost all of our information about the king is either from the Papyrus Harris I, which was written some 65 years after his death, or from a stela he had erected on the island of Elephantine dated to the second year of his reign (though it may have been the first year he was in complete control of Egypt after having settled the earlier confusion). In fact, we really have no information about how Setnakhte came to the throne, though it has been suggested that he may have been a grandson of the great king, Ramesses II. That may have been reason enough, considering that every other king of the 20th Dynasty took Ramesses as part of their names, wishing to emulate the success of their notable predecessor. However, whether he was Ramesses II's grandson or not, judging by his birth name (Setnakhte), which makes reference to Seth who was revered by the 19th Dynasty kings, there must surely have been some family connection with that earlier period. The last four pages of the Papyrus Harris I tell us that Senakhte rose to power and put down the rebellions fermented by Asiatics, telling us that it was he would relieved the besieged cities of Egypt, bought back those who had gone into hiding and reopened the temples and restored their revenue. His stela at Elephantine also relates that he expelled rebels who, on their flight, left behind the gold, silver and copper they had stolen from Egypt, and with which they had intended to hire reinforcements among the Asiatics. In reality, the dynastic change between the 19th and 20th Dynasties may not have been as much of a problem as the Papyrus Harris makes out. Setnakhte seems to have kept Hori son of Kama in office as Viceroy of Kush (a kingdom in Nubia), who was originally appointed to that position during the reign of Siptah. Another Hori, who was a vizier, was also apparently allowed to remain in office. Setnakhte's reign was short, perhaps only two or three years and he may have come to the throne fairly late in life. He was the father of Egypt's last great Egyptian King, Ramesses III by his wife, Tiymerenese. Ramesses III may have held a short co-regency with his father. Upon his death, Setnakhte was buried with full royal honors. According to the Papyrus Harris I, "he was rowed in his king's barge upon the river (crossed the Nile to the west bank), and rested in his eternal house west of Thebes". Though we are not sure of the actual reason, he was buried in the tomb that was originally excavated for Queen Twosret (KV14) on the West bank at Thebes (modern Luxor) in the Valley of the Kings. He may have usurped this tomb himself because the tomb that he had originally begun to construct for himself, KV11, had been abandoned after workers excavating it broke through into the adjacent tomb of Ameenmesses (KV10). Another possibility is that his son, Ramesses III, usurped KV14 for his father, with the intention of realigning and finishing KV11, where he was buried, for himself. Alas, Setnakhte's body was not discovered in KV14, but his coffin was found during 1898 in the royal cache in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35). It is possible that his body was that of an unwrapped and unidentified man discovered on a wooden boat in that tomb.
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/setnakhte.htm


Setnakhte in Wikipedia Userkhaure-setepenre Setnakhte (or Setnakht) was the first Pharaoh (1190 BC–1186 BC) of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and the father of Ramesses III. Setnakhte was not the son, brother or a direct descendant of the previous Pharaoh, Merneptah Siptah, nor of his predecessor Seti II, whom Setnakht formally considered the last legitimate ruler. It is possible that he was an usurper who seized the throne during a time of crisis and political unrest, or he could have been a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family who emerged as Pharaoh. He married Queen Tiy-merenese, perhaps a daughter of Merenptah. A connection between Setnakhte's successors and the preceding 19th dynasty is suggested by the fact that one of Ramesses II's children also bore this name and that similar names are shared by Setnakhte's descendants such as Ramesses, Amun-her-khepshef, Seth-her-khepshef and Monthu-her-khepshef.[2] Reign Length Setnakhte was originally believed to have enjoyed a reign of only 2 Years based upon his Year 2 Elephantine stela but his third regnal year is now attested in Inscription No.271 on Mount Sinai[3] If his theoretical accession date is assumed to be II Shemu 10 based on the date of his Elephantine stela, Setnakhte would have ruled Egypt for at least 2 Years and 11 Months before he died, or nearly 3 Full Years. This date is only 3 months removed from Twosret's Highest known date of Year 8, III Peret 5 and is based upon a calculation of Ramesses III's known accession date of I Shemu 26.[4] Peter Clayton also assigned Setnakhte a reign of 3 years in his 1994 book on the Egyptian Pharaohs.[5] In a mid-January 2007 issue of the Egyptian weekly Al-Ahram, however, Egyptian antiquity officials announced that a recently discovered and well preserved quartz stela belonging to the High Priest of Amun Bakenkhunsu was explicitly dated to Year 4 of Setnakhte's reign. The Al-Ahram article notes that this data: "contradicts...the official record, which says Setnakhte ruled Egypt for only three years. According to the new information provided by the stela, Setnakhte's reign certainly lasted for four years, and may have continued for [a little] longer."[6] Consequently, Setnakhte likely ruled Egypt for around 4 years. Zahi Hawass, the current Secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities declared the discovery to be one of the most important finds of 2006 because "it adjusts the history of the 20th dynasty and reveals more about the life of Bakenkhunsu."[6] As Setnakhte's reign was short, he may have come to the throne fairly late in life. Monuments Reliefs of Horus and Geb from tomb KV14 While Setnakhte's reign was still comparatively brief, it was just long enough for him to stabilize the political situation in Egypt and establish his son, Rameses III, as his successor to the throne of Egypt. The Bakenkhunsu stela reveals that it was Setnakhte who began the construction of a Temple of Amun-Re in Karnak which was eventually completed by his son, Ramesses III. Setnakhte also started work on a tomb, KV11, in the Valley of the Kings, but stopped it when the tombcarvers accidentally broke into the tomb of the Nineteenth Dynasty Pharaoh Amenmesse. Setnakhte then appropriated the tomb of Queen Twosret (KV14), his predecessor, for his own use. Setnakhte's origins are unknown, and he may have been a commoner, although many Egyptologists believe he was related to the previous dynasty, the Nineteenth, through his mother and may thus have been a grandson of Ramesses II. Setnakhte's son and successor, Ramesses III, is regarded as the last great king of the New Kingdom. Papyrus Harris The beginning of the Great Harris Papyrus or Papyrus Harris I, which documents the reign of Ramesses III, provides some details about Setnakhte's rise to power. An excerpt of James Henry Breasted's 1906 translation of this document is provided below: "The land of Egypt was overthrown from without, and every man was thrown out of his right; they had no "chief mouth" for many years formerly until other times. The land of Egypt was in the hands of chiefs and of rulers of towns; one slew his neighbour, great and small. Other times having come after it, with empty years, Irsu ('a self- made man'), a certain Syrian (Kharu) was with them as chief (wr). He set plundering their (i.e.: the people's) possessions. They made gods like men, and no offerings were presented in the temples. "But when the gods inclined themselves to peace, to set the land in its rights according to its accustomed manner, they established their son, who came forth from their limbs, to be ruler, LPH, of every land, upon their great throne, Userkhaure-setepenre-meryamun, LPH, the son of Re, Setnakht-merire-meryamun, LPH. He was Khepri-Set, when he is enraged; he set in order the entire land which had been rebellious; he slew the rebels who were in the land of Egypt; he cleansed the great throne of Egypt; he was ruler of the Two Lands, on the throne of Atum. He gave ready faces to those who had been turned away. Every man knew his brother who had been walled in. He established the temples in possession of divine offerings, to offer to the gods according to their customary stipulations."[7] Until 2000, Chancellor Bay was considered the only plausible candidate for this Irsu. However, an IFAO Ostracon no. 1864 found at Deir el-Medina dated to Year 5 records that 'Pharaoh (Siptah) LPH has killed the great enemy, Bay'.[8] Because Chancellor Bay died at least 3 years before this 'Irsu', he can no longer be considered a plausible candidate for this historical figure. Setnakhte's stela from Elephantine touches on this chaotic period and refers explicitly to the expulsion of certain Asiatics, who fled, abandoning the gold which they looted from Egyptian temples behind. It is uncertain the degree to which this inscription referred to contemporary events or rather repeated anti-Asiatic sentiment from the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose I. Setnakhte identified with the God Atum or Temu, and built a temple to this God at Per-Atum. Setnakhte may have been the first Pharaoh mentioned in Greek mythology. Marianne Luban[9] quotes Diodorus Siculus: "A man of obscure origin was chosen king, whom the Egyptians call 'Ketes', but who among the Greeks is thought to be that Proteus who lived at the time of the war about Ilium." Ketes, from Egyptian Khenti, means the same as Proteios, meaning "first". King Setnakht may have been a commoner or a prince of royal blood who was somehow connected to the 19th Dynasty. After his death, Setnakhte was buried in KV14 which was originally designed to be Twosret's royal tomb.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setnakhte


If you notice a broken link or any error PLEASE report it by clicking HERE
© 1995-2016 Bible History Online





More Bible History