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March 30    Scripture

People - Ancient Egypt: Thutmose IV (Menkheperure)
NEW KINGDOM 18th Dynasty (1419-1386) Extreme prosperity and renaissance in art and building projects mark the beginning of this period. Towards the end of the 19th Dynasty the increasing power of the priesthood corrupts the central government. During the 20th Dynasty tomb robbing is done by officials. The priesthood becomes hereditary and begins to assume secular power. The government breaks down.

Thutmose IV (Menkheperure) in Tour Egypt TUTHMOSIS IV OF THE 18TH DYNASTY by Jimmy Dunn The Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV, who ruled during Egypt famous 18th Dynasty, is probably most famous for his "Dream Stele, that can still today be found between the paws of the great Sphinx at Giza. Dreams were important in ancient Egypt and were considered to be divine predictions of the future. In Tuthmosis IV\'s "Dream Stele", he tells us that, while out on a hunting trip, he fell asleep in the shadow of the Sphinx (or apparently, the shadow of the Sphinx\'s head, for the monument was apparently buried in sand at the time). In the young prince\'s sleep, Re-Harakhte, the sun god embodied in the Sphinx, came to him in a dream and promised that if he would clear away the sand that engulfed the monument, Tuthmosis would become king of Egypt. Tuthmosis IV\'s Dream Stele In part, the stele reads: "Now the statue of the very great Khepri (the Great Sphix) restin in this place, great of fame, sacred of respect, the shade of Ra resting on him. Memphis and every city on its two sides came to him, their arms in adoration to his face, bearing great offerings for his ka. One of these days it happened that price Tuthmosis came travelling at the time of midday. He rested in the shadow of the great god. (Sleep and) dream (took possession of me) at the moment the sun was at zenith. Then he found the majesty of this noble god speaking from his own mouth like a father speaks to his son, and saying, \'Look at me, observe me, my son Tuthmosis. I am your father, Horemakhet-Khepri-Ra-Atum. I shall give to you the kingship (upon the land before the living)...(Behold, my condition is like one in illness), all (my limbs being ruined). The sand of the desert, upon which I used to be, (now) confronts me; and it is in order to cause that you do what is in my heart that I have waited." Obviously, the prince carried out these instructions, and thus became the eighth ruler of the 18th Dynasty. His throne name was Men-kheperu-re, meaning "Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re". We can also find references to him under the names of Thuthmose IV, Thutmosis IV, and Djehutymes IV. He ruled Egypt between 1419 and 1386 BC. He was apparently the son of Amenhotep II by his wife, Tiaa, but Egyptologists speculate whether, because of the wording of the "Dream Stele", his claim on the Egyptian throne was legitimate. In fact, other evidence supports this contention. His father, Amenhotep II, never recognized Tuthmosis as a co-regent, or announced any intent for Thutmosis to succeed him. We know that Tuthmosis IV was probably married to Mutemwiya, who produced his heir to the throne, Amenhotep III, though he never acknowledged her as either a major or minor queen. It is possible, though now doubted by some, that she was the daughter of he Mitannian king, Artatama, who sent his daughter to the Egyptian court as part of a diplomatic exchange. Other of his wives included Merytra, who we believe later changed her name to Tiaa (same as his mother\'s name) and a non-royal wife, Nefertiry. He probably also married one of his sisters named Iaret. Tuthmosis IV is not the best documented of Egyptian pharaohs. We actually know very little about him in comparison to others of this dynasty. Little military action appears to have occurred during his reign, although our knowledge may be marred by the lack of texts. We do know that there was a Nubian campaign in Year 8 of his rule, and that apparently there were also campaigns in Syria. However, even though the king is referred to twice as the "conqueror of Syria", these may have actually been little more then policing actions, rather than full scale battles. Little is also known of his building work. Tuthmosis IV did finish a giant obelisk that was originally quarried at Aswan under Tuthmosis III, his grandfather. At 32 meters (105 feet) it was the tallest Egyptian obelisk that we know of, and was uniquely intended to stand as a single obelisk at the Temple of Karnak. Most of the obelisks were usually erected in pairs. However, Tuthmosis III originally intended for there to be a pair of these Obelisks. Its counterpart developed a fault during the quarry process, and remains today joined to the bed-rock at Aswan. Today, the finished obelisk stands outside St. John Leteran in Rome, rather then in Egypt. He also began work work at most of Egypt\'s major temple sites and four sites in Nubia, but almost all of this was simply adding to existing monuments. Most of his work was adding to the temples of his father and grandfather, and perhaps suggesting new sites and monuments to his son. We know of his minor building projects in the following locations: The Delta at Alexandria Seriakus Heliopolis (possibly) Giza Abusir Saqqara Memphis Crocodilopos in the Fayoum Hermopolis Amarna Abydos (a chapel) Dendera Medamud Karnak Luxor The West Bank at Luxor (his tomb and mortuary temple) Armant Tod Elkab Edfu Elephantine Konosso In Nubia at the following locations: Faras Buhen Amada (where he decorated the peristyle court) Tabo Gebel Barkal (a foundation deposit) He also provided some decorations in the Hathor temple at the Serabit el-Khadim turquoise mines in the Sinai. His best attested building project we have available today is his own tomb, KV 43, located in the Valley of the Kings and discovered by Howard Carter. However, his mummy was missing from his tomb, having been found five years earlier in a cache of mummies located in the tomb of Amenhotep II. Perhaps better known are the fine private tombs built by his nobles on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes) in an area commonly referred to as the Tombs of the Nobles. These include such notable tombs as that of Nakht (TT 52) and Menna (TT 69).

Thutmose IV in Wikipedia Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV and meaning Thoth is Born) was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC. His prenomen or royal name, Menkheperure, means "Established in forms is Re."[1] Dates and length of reign Dating the beginning of the reign of Thutmose IV is difficult to do with certainty because he is several generations removed from the astronomical dates which are usually used to calculate Egyptian chronologies, and the debate over the proper interpretation of these observances has not been settled. Thutmose's grandfather Thutmose III almost certainly acceded the throne in either 1504 or 1479, based upon two lunar observances during his reign.[2] After ruling for nearly 54 years,[3] Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV's father, took the throne and ruled for at least 26 years,[4] but has been assigned up to 35 years in some chronological reconstructions.[5] The currently preferred reconstruction, after analyzing all this evidence, usually comes to an accession date around 1401 BC[6] or 1400 BC[7] for the beginning of Thutmose IV's reign. The length of his reign is not as clear as one would wish. He is usually given about nine or ten years of reign. Manetho credits him a reign of 9 years and 8 months.[8] However, Manetho's other figures for the 18th dynasty are frequently assigned to the wrong kings or simply incorrect, so monumental evidence is also used to determine his reign length.[9] Of all of Thutmose IV's dated monuments, three date to his first regnal year, one to his fourth, possibly one to his fifth, one to his sixth, two to his seventh, and one to his eighth.[10] Two possible other dated objects, one dated to a Year 19 and another year 20, have been suggested as belonging to him, but neither have been accepted as dating to his reign.[10] The reading of the king in these dates are today accepted as referring to the prenomen of Thutmose III--Menkheperre—and not Menkhepe[ru]re Thutmose IV himself. Due to the absence of higher dates for Thutmose IV after his Year 8 Konosso stela,[11] Manetho's figures here are usually accepted.[8] There were once chronological reconstructions which gave him a reign as long as 34–35 years.[8][12] Today, however, most scholars ascribe give him a 10 year reign from 1401 to 1391 BC, within a small margin of error. Life Thutmose IV was born to Amenhotep II and Tiaa but was not actually the crown prince and Amenhotep II's chosen successor to the throne. Some scholars speculate that Thutmose ousted his older brother in order to usurp power and then commissioned the Dream Stele in order to justify his unexpected kingship. Thutmose's most celebrated accomplishment was the restoration of the Sphinx at Giza and subsequent commission of the Dream Stele. According to Thutmose's account on the Dream Stele, while the young prince was out on a hunting trip, he stopped to rest under the head of the Sphinx, which was buried up to the neck in sand. He soon fell asleep and had a dream in which the Sphinx told him that if he cleared away the sand and restored it he would become the next Pharaoh. After completing the restoration of the Sphinx, he placed a carved stone tablet, now known as the Dream Stele, between the two paws of the Sphinx.The restoration of the Sphinx and the text of the Dream Stele would then be a piece of propaganda on Thutmose's part, meant to bestow legitimacy upon his unexpected kingship.[13]. Little is known about his brief ten-year rule. He suppressed a minor uprising in Nubia in his 8th year (attested in his Konosso stela) around 1393 BC and was referred to in a stela as the Conqueror of Syria,[14] but little else has been pieced together about his military exploits. Betsy Bryan who penned a biography of Thutmose IV stresses that Thutmose IV's Konosso stela appears to refer to a minor desert patrol action on the part of the king's forces to protect certain gold-mine routes in Egypt's Eastern Desert from occasional attacks by the Nubians.[15] Thutmose IV's rule is significant because he was the New Kingdom pharaoh who established peaceful relations with Mitanni and married a Mitannian princess to seal this new alliance. Thutmose IV's role in initiating contact with Egypt's former rival, Mitanni, is documented by Amarna letter EA 29 composed decades later by Tushratta, a Mittanian king who ruled during the reign of Akhenaten, Thutmose IV's grandson. Tushratta states to Akhenaten that: “ When [Menkheperure], the father of Nimmureya (ie. Amenhotep III) wrote to Artatama, my grandfather, he asked for the daughter of my grandfather, the sister of my father. He wrote 5, 6 times, but he did not give her. When he wrote my grandfather 7 times, then only under such pressure, did he give her. (EA 29)[16] Monuments Like most of the Thutmoside kings, he built on a grand scale. Thutmose IV completed the eastern obelisk first started by Thutmose III, which, at 32 m (105 ft), was the tallest obelisk ever erected in Egypt, at the Temple of Karnak.[14] Thutmose IV called it the tekhen waty or 'unique obelisk.' It was transported to the grounds of the Circus Maximus in Rome by Emperor Constantius II in 357 AD and, later, "re-erected by Pope Sixtus V in 1588 at the Piazza San Giovanni" in the Vatican where it is today known as the 'Lateran Obelisk."[17] Thutmose IV also built a unique chapel and peristyle hall against the back or eastern walls of the main Karnak temple building.[18] The chapel was intended "for people "who had no right of access to the main [Karnak] temple. It was a 'place of the ear' for the god Amun where the god could hear the prayers of the townspeople."[19] This small alabaster chapel of Thutmose IV has today been carefully restored by French scholars from the Centre Franco-Egyptien D'Étude des Temple de Karnak (CFEETK) mission in Karnak.[20] Burial Thutmose IV was buried in the Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV43, but his body was later moved to the mummy cache in KV35, where it was discovered by Victor Loret in 1898. An examination of his body shows that he was very ill and had been wasting away for the final months of his life prior to his death. He was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep III.

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