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February 22    Scripture

People - Ancient Egypt: Amenhotep I (Djeserkare)
NEW KINGDOM 18th Dynasty (1514-1493) Extreme prosperity and renaissance in art and building projects mark the beginning of this period. Towards the end of the 19th Dynasty the increasing power of the priesthood corrupts the central government. During the 20th Dynasty tomb robbing is done by officials. The priesthood becomes hereditary and begins to assume secular power. The government breaks down.

Amenhotep I (Djeserkare) in Tour Egypt AMENHOTEP I, THE SECOND KING OF EGYPT'S 18TH DYNASTY by Jimmy Dunn. The son of Ahmose and Queen Ahmose Nefretiri, Amenhotep I was the second king of the 18th Dynasty. He may have ascended to the throne at a relatively young age, for an elder brother had been designated as heir only about five years earlier. He may have even served a brief co-regency with his father, however. He evidently carried on many of the practices of his father, and his mother certainly played an important part in his reign, acting as God's Wife of Amun.. Amenhotep I may have been married to his sister, (Ahmose-) Merytamun, who was a God's Wife of Amun, though there is apparently little documentation to substantiate this relationship. Better known is this king's daughter, Satamun, who is known both from her coffin found in one of the royal mummy caches, and from two statues at central and southern Karnak. Because of chronology problems, the king's rule is uncertain. We believe that a heliacal rising of Sirius was seen during his reign, as recorded by the Papyrus Ebers1, which states: "Ninth year of the reign of his majesty the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Djeserkare - may he live forever! Festival of the New Year: third month of summer, ninth day - rising of Sirius" Urk. Iv 44, 5-6 Hence, Nicoloas Grimal tells us in A History of Ancient Egypt: "If this is evidence for a heliacl rising of Sirius, the astronomical calculation gives the date 1537 BC for the rising, and therefore 1546 BC for the beginning of Amenophis' reign, but only if the astronomical observation was made at Memphis. If, however, the observation was made at Thebes - which would logically have been the reference point if it was the capital - twenty years have to be deducted from the figure, giving the date of 1517 BC for the astronomical event and 1526 BC for the coronation of Amenophis I" Most Egyptologists assign Amenhotep I a reign of 25 or fewer years. However, it should be mentioned that on a number of his monuments at the Temple of Karnak are found various Jubilee (Sed-festival) scenes. The Sed-festival was normally celebrated after 30 years of the king's rule, but in this case the structure may have been built in anticipation of the festival. Amenhotep was this kings birth name, which means "Amun is Pleased". He is also known as Amenhotpe I, and Amenophis I by the early Greeks. His throne name was Djeser-ka-re, or "Holy is the Soul of Re". His Horus name was Ka-Waf-Taw (Bull who conquers the land) and his "Two Ladies" name was Aa-nerw (He who inspires great terror). Regardless of the ferocity of his "Two Ladies" name, Amenhotep I seems to have had a fairly peaceful reign. He may have faced a Libyan uprising his first year as king, but if he did, Amenhotep I successfully overcame the ancient enemies preventing an invasion in the Delta area. We learn from inscriptions provided by Ahmose son of Ebana, with verification from Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet, that Amenhotep I also led a military expedition into Kush (Nubia) in about year eight of his reign past the second cataract of the Nile, and apparently after his victory, brought captives back to Thebes. However, this appears to have been little more than a skirmish. He appointed a man named Turi as Viceroay of Kush, and established a temple marking Egypt's southern boundary at the Nubian down of Sai. Because of perhaps a dozen years of peaceful rule during Amenhotep I's reign, his accomplishments included elaborate building work. Amenhotep I repaired and restored many ancient temples along the Nile. We find evidence of his work in Upper Egyptian sites such as Elephantine, Kom Ombo, Abydos and the temple of Nekhbet, but he seems to have done little building work in Lower Egypt. Many of the sites where Amenhotep I built had also seen activity by his father, and at Abydos, for example, he erected a chapel commemorating Ahmose. But the building projects Amenhotep I is best known for were at the Temple of Karnak in Thebes where he utilized different types of stone including alabaster from Hatnub (and Bosra) and sandstone from the quarries of Gebel el-Silsila. Amenhotep I was responsible for a large, limestone gateway at Karnak that has now been reconstructed. It was decorated with Jubilee festival decorations. The gate may have at one time been the main south entrance that was later replaced by the Seventh Pylon. He also had a bark shrine built for the god Amun that was probably erected in the west front court of the temple. Later, Amenohotep III would use some of his predecessor's work at Karnak as fill for his Third Pylon, including a sacred bark chapel of the finest alabaster and a limestone copy of the White Chapel of Senusret I. Interestingly, many of Amenhotep I's relief carvings on the limestone monuments at Karnak are so much of a conscious emulation of Senusret I's artists that it has been difficult for archaeologists to determine to whom they should be assigned. Apparently, his building works were caused him to also restore the mines at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai where he also expanded the Middle Kingdom temple of Hathor. It would seem that by the end of Amenhotep I's reign, the main characteristics of the 18th Dynasty had been established, including a clear devotion to the cult of Amun at Karnak, its successive military conquests in Nubia and its closed royal family with a developing administrative organization drawn from powerful families and collateral relatives. Amenhotep I was given the rare honor of being declared a titular god upon his death by the priests. He was regarded as the patron god of the Theban necropolis, alongside his mother, Ahmose Nefretiri, who's posthumous renown probably exceeded that of her son. In fact, her name appears in the litany of Amenhotep I's own cult. Amenhotep I and his mother were especially worshipped at Deir el-Medina on the west bank at Thebes, where the craftsmen and who build and decorated the royal tombs lived. In fact, this community was probably either established in his or his father's reign. Peret, the third month in ancient Egypt, was devoted to and named after Amenhotep I, and several rituals dramatizing his death, burial and resurrection took place at Deir el-Medina during the month of Peret. However, Amenhotep I became a fairly major deity with a number of festivals throughout the year. The king and his mother's cult remained strong, particularly at Deir el-Medina, throughout the New Kingdom. However, most houses during the Ramessid era contained, in their front rooms, a scene honoring the two. They were usually depicted with black or blue skin, the colors of resurrection, and so were associated with that religious element. He was probably the first pharaoh to build his tomb some distance from his mortuary temple, a practice that would be emulated by his successors. While the mortuary temple itself has been located, his tomb remains a mystery. Some Egyptologists believe it to be an uninscribed tomb at Dra Abu el- Naga, outside of the Valley of the Kings, while others believe it might be KV 39 within the Valley proper. While we have not established its location, and inspection report on the tomb in year 16 of Ramesses IX's rule reported the tomb to be intact at that time. His mummy, along with his father's and a number of others, was found in excellent condition in the royal mummy cache of 1881. Some information appears to indicate that Amenhotep I's son died in infancy, while other resources tell us he died childless. At any rate, his military commander, Tuthmoses (I), who was married to the king’s sister, princess Ahmose, assumed the throne upon Amenhotep I's death. There is even a possibility that Tuthmosis I was a grandson of Ahmose, the father of Amenhotep I. He may have even served as a co-regent prior to Amenhotep I's death. 1. It should be noted that Papyrus Ebers, which dates from Amenhotep I's rule and is now in the Leipzig Museum, is one of our main sources of evidence on ancient Egyptian medicine. Also, the existence of a festival calendar recorded on this papyrus, along with other evidence suggesting an increased interest in astronomical observations, suggest that Amenhotep I may possibly have wished to rework earlier calendars.

Amenhotep I in Wikipedia Amenhotep I (sometimes read as Amenophis I and meaning "Amun is satisfied") was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His reign is generally dated from 1526 to 1506 BC. He was born to Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari, but had at least two elder brothers, Ahmose-ankh and Ahmose Sapair, and was not expected to inherit the throne. However, sometime in the eight years between Ahmose I's 17th regnal year and his death, his heir apparent died and Amenhotep became crown prince.[3] He then acceded to the throne and ruled for about 21 years.[1] Although his reign is poorly documented, it is possible to piece together a basic history from available evidence. He inherited the kingdom formed by his father's military conquests and maintained dominance over Nubia and the Nile Delta, but probably did not attempt to keep power in Syrio-Palestine. He continued to rebuild temples in Upper Egypt, and revolutionized mortuary complex design by separating his tomb from his mortuary temple, setting a trend which would persist throughout the New Kingdom. After his death, he was deified into the patron god of Deir el-Medina.[4] Family Amenhotep I was the son of Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari. His elder brothers, the crown prince Ahmose Sapair and Ahmose-ankh, died before him, thus clearing the way for his ascension to the throne.[5] Amenhotep probably came to power while he was still young himself, and his mother, Ahmose-Nefertari, appears to have been regent for him for at least a short time.[6] This is evidenced because both he and his mother are credited with opening a worker village at the site of Deir el-Medina.[6] Amenhotep took his sister Ahmose-Meritamon as his Great Royal Wife.[7] Another wife's name, Sitkamose, is attested on a nineteenth dynasty stele.[8] Beyond this, his relation to all other possible family members has been questioned. Ahhotep II is usually called his wife and sister,[7] despite an alternate theory that she was his grandmother.[8] He is thought to have had one son by Ahhotep II, Amenemhat, who died while still very young.[7] This remains the consensus, although there are arguments against that relationship as well.[8] With no living heirs, Amenhotep was succeeded by Thutmose I, whom he married to his sister, Aahmes,[7] although once again there is no definite proof that the two were related. Since Aahmes is never called "King's Daughter" in any inscription, some scholars doubt this relation as well.[8] Dates and length of reign In the ninth year of Amenhotep I, a heliacal rise of Sothis was observed on the ninth day of the third month of summer.[9] Modern astronomers have calculated that, if the observation was made from Memphis or Heliopolis, such an observation could only have been made on that day in 1537 BC. If the observation was made in Thebes, however, it could only have taken place in 1517.[10] The latter choice is usually accepted as correct since Thebes was the capital of early 18th dynasty Egypt; hence, Amenhotep I is given an accession date in 1526 BC,[9] although the possibility of 1546 BC is not entirely dismissed. Manetho's Epitome states that Amenhotep I ruled Egypt for 20 Years and 7 Months or 21 Years, depending on the source.[11] While Amenhotep I's highest attested official date is only his Year 10, Manetho's data is confirmed by information from a passage in the tomb autobiography of a Magician named Amenemhet. This individual explicitly states that he served under Amenhotep I for 21 Years.[12] Thus, in the high chronology, Amenhotep I is given a reign from around 1546 to 1526 BC and, in the low chronology, from around 1526 to 1506 BC or 1525 to 1504 BC,[13] though individual scholars may vary by a few years. Foreign policy Amenhotep I's Horus and Two Ladies names, "Bull who conquers the lands" and "He who inspires great terror," are generally interpreted to mean that Amenhotep I intended upon dominating the surrounding nations.[9] Two tomb texts indicate that he led campaigns into Nubia. According to the tomb texts of Ahmose, son of Ebana, Amenhotep later sought to expand Egypt's border southward into Nubia and he led an invasion force which defeated the Nubian army.[14] The tomb biography of Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet says he also fought in a campaign in Kush,[15] however it is quite possible that it refers to the same campaign as Ahmose, son of Ebana.[9] Amenhotep built a temple at Saï, showing that he had established Egyptian settlements almost as far as the third cataract.[6] A single reference in the tomb of Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet indicates another campaign in Iamu in the land of Kehek.[16] Unfortunately, the location of Kehek is unknown. It was long believed that Kehek was a reference to the Libyan tribe, Qeheq, and thus it was postulated that invaders from Libya took advantage of the death of Ahmose to move into the western Nile Delta.[17] Unfortunately for this theory, the Qeheq people only appeared in later times, and Kehek's identity remains unknown. Nubia is a possibility, since Amenhotep did campaign there, and the western desert and the oases have also been suggested, since these seem to have fallen under Egyptian control once again.[16] Egypt had lost the western desert and the oases during the second intermediate period, and during the revolt against the Hyksos, Kamose thought it necessary to garrison them.[18] It is uncertain when they were fully retaken, but on one stele, the title "Prince-Governor of the oases" was used,[19] which means that Amenhotep's reign forms the terminus ante quem for the return of Egyptian rule.[18] There are no recorded campaigns in Syro-Palestine during Amenhotep I's reign. However, according to the Tombos Stela of his successor, Thutmose I, when Thutmose led a campaign into Asia all the way to the Euphrates, he found no one who fought against him.[20] If Thutmose did not lead a campaign which has not been recorded into Asia before this recorded one, it would mean that the preceding pharaoh would have had to pacify Syria instead,[21] which would indicate a possible Asiatic campaign of Amenhotep I. Two references to the Levant potentially written during his reign might be contemporary witnesses to such a campaign. One of the candidates for Amenhotep's tomb contains a reference to Qedmi, which is somewhere in Canaan or the Transjordan, and Amenemhet's tomb contains a hostile reference to Mitanni.[22] However, neither of these references necessarily refer to campaigning, nor do they even necessarily date to Amenhotep's reign. The location of Amenhotep's tomb is not certain, and Amenemhet lived to serve under multiple kings who are known to have attacked Mitanni.[22] Records from Amenhotep's reign are simply altogether too scant and too vague to reach a conclusion about any Syrian campaign...

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